2 Group: Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influenceone another and perceive one another as “us”.I. Social Facilitation versus Social HindranceA. Social Facilitation: an individual’s tendency to performbetter on an easy task or well learned task when in thepresence of other people than when performing that task alone.B. Social Hindrance: an individual’s tendency to perform worseon a difficult task or a task that is not well learned when in thepresence of other people than when performing that task alone.
3 1) Zajonc… arousal and the task at hand. Social FacilitationSocial HindrancePlaying PoolCockroaches too?!Offices versus Cubicles
4 II. CrowdsA. Human Territoriality: when a specific space is marked outand defended against intrusion from others.1) Primary territories are places over which the occupanthas exclusive control.2) Secondary territories are areas shared with others butover which regular users have considerable control.3) Public territories are uncontrolled areas that are usedby whoever is the first to arrive.Home Court Advantage
5 III. Social Loafing: the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their effortstoward a common goal than when they areindividually accountable.Cheering foryour teamTug-of-war
6 So what is the typical rate of decline in terms of individual effort matched with group size?Cultural and Sex DifferencesSocial Loafing by the Beatles
7 B. Social loafing can be reduced. A. Why do we loaf?The Collective Effort Model: people get lazy if they don’t expect their efforts to lead to personally valued outcomes or if they don’t think their efforts will be instrumental in obtaining those outcomes.2) The Free Ride Effect: when they can get away with it, people try to benefit from the efforts of others.3) The Sucker Effect: when people believe that they are getting taken advantage of, they exert less effort because they suspect others may be taking a free ride.B. Social loafing can be reduced.1) Cohesion: “we feeling”; the extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as through identification.2) Evaluation: when people believe they’ll be individually evaluated on their performance, they’ll work harder than they will if they were not being evaluated.
8 C. Social Compensation: when cohesion and evaluation are absent, a person who cares about the quality of the groupproduct will expend greater effort to compensate for others inthe group who are performing inadequately.
9 IV. Deindividuation: the feeling of anonymity and reduced sense of ourselves as individualsthat can occur when people are in groupsand/or anonymous; it leads to a loosening ofnormal constraints on behavior and an increasein impulsive and deviant acts.A. Group Size: the larger the group the more its members loseself-awareness and become willing to commit atrocities.B. Physical Anonymity: being anonymous makes one lessself-conscious, more group-conscious, and more responsiveto cues present in the situation, whether negative or positive.
10 Trick or Treat!Role-PlayingDeindividuation and Intimacy
11 V. Group Polarization: Group-produced enhancement of members’ preexistingtendencies (typically via discussion); astrengthening of the members’ averagetendency, not a split within the group.So group polarization is NOT what’s referred to as a…A. Schism: the splintering of a group into distinct factionsfollowing an ideological rift among members.
12 B. Why does group polarization happen? 1) Social Comparison Theory: group polarization occursbecause we want our position to be consistent with thegroup we compare ourselves to.2) Persuasive Arguments Theory: the position that has thelargest number of arguments supporting it will pull groupmembers further along in the direction of those arguments.3) Repeated Expressions Theory: having people in a groupindividually ruminate or state their positions over and overagain will also move the group towards greater polarization.
13 VI. Groupthink: mode of thinking that people engage in when agreement-seeking becomesso dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tendsto override a realistic appraisal of alternativecourses of action.A. Key Characteristics of Groupthink1) An illusion of invulnerability2) Unquestioned belief in the group’s morality3) Closed-mindedness4) Self-censorship and conformity pressure
14 B. Black Sheep Effect: the tendency of an in-group to treat or evaluate a nonconforming member of its own more harshlythan a similarly nonconforming out-group member.C. Why does groupthink happen?1) Group Locomotion Hypothesis: if you feel that goingalong with your group will help it to achieve its goals,you conform.2) Consistency Theory: cognitive dissonance arises if youdisagree with a group you like. So, you conform to reducedissonance.3) Hedonistic Hypothesis: you conform to either decreasepain or increase pleasure.
15 VII. Group Problem Solving A. Brainstorming in groups, especially large groups, canlead to a number of problems…1) Social Loafing2) Conformity due to normative influence3) Production Blocking: losing one’s ideas while waitingfor one’s turn to speak.
16 B. Most productive sequence for group problem solving… 1) Have a brief group brainstorming session to primeideas and the creative process.2) Have all group members then separate and workalone to generate ideas for solving the problem at hand.3) Reconvene allowing each member to share the ideashe or she privately generated.4) Discuss, weigh options, and eventually choose acourse of action.
17 VIII. Minority Influence: The Antithesis of Groupthink Minority Influence: those who hold an unpopular opinioneventually change the attitudes of those who hold the majorityopinion.B. What facilitates the influence of minorities?1) Self-Confidence2) Defections from the Majority: a minority person whodefects from the majority is more persuasive than aconsistent minority voice.
18 C. Is Leadership Minority Influence? 1) Task leadership: organizes work, sets standards, andfocuses on goals.2) Social leadership: builds teamwork, mediates conflict,and offers support.3) Transformational leadership: leadership that, enabled bya leader’s vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.
19 IX. Cults Cult: a group typically characterized by distinctive rituals and beliefs related to itsdevotion to a god or a person (2) isolation fromthe surrounding “evil” culture (3) a charismatic leader.A. Four Stages of Indoctrination1) Softening-up Stage: the victim is showered with affection and praise during moments of weakness.2) Compliance: the victim starts testing the waters of the cult’s practices.3) Internalization: the victim starts to really believe the ideas of the cult.4) Consolidation: the victim demonstrates unconditional allegiance to the cult.
20 What facilitates the movement from stage 1 all the way to stage 4? Key Factors…B. People who are lost in life, looking for meaning, suffereda major loss, etc., are easy targets for cults.C. Individuals are more likely to conform to a cult whentheir indoctrination into the cult is difficult or intense.D. Using the Foot-in-the-Door tactic: Gradual Induction
21 E. Cult leader’s credibility and attractiveness are established.F. Sending members out to proselytize the unredeemed.G. Distracting members from thinking “undesirable”thoughts… counter-arguments.H. Fixating members’ vision on a phantom.