4-2 Power and Influence “The true leader must submerge himself in the fountain of the people.” ~V.I. Lenin Chapter 44
4-3 Some important distinctions Power has been defined as the capacity to produce effects on others, or the potential to influence others. Followers or situational characteristics may diminish or enhance a leader’s potential to influence followers. Power does not need to be exercised in order to have its effect. Power is attributed to others on the basis and frequency of influence tactics they use and on their outcomes.
4-4 Power, Influence and Influence Tactics Influence: Defined as the change in a target agent’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors as the result of influence tactics. Influence tactics: Refer to one person’s actual behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors. Followers can wield power and influence over leaders as well as over each other.
4-5 Measuring Power and Influence Influence can be measured by the behaviors or attitudes manifested by followers as a result of leader’s influence tactics. Leaders can cause fairly substantial changes in subordinates’ attitudes and behaviors. The amount of power followers have in work situations can also vary dramatically. –Sometimes, particular followers may exert relatively more influence than the leader does.
4-6 Measuring Power and Influence (continued) Individuals with a relatively large amount of power may successfully employ a wider variety of influence tactics. Followers often can use a wider variety of influence tactics than the leader. –This is because the formal leader is not always the person who possesses the most power in a leadership situation.
4-7 Symbols of Leader Power Furniture, office arrangements and type of office Prominently displayed symbols Appearances of title and authority Choice of clothing Presence or absence of crisis
4-8 Sources of Leader Power in the Leader- Follower-Situation Framework
4-9 Expert Power Expert power: Power of knowledge. Some people are able to influence others through their relative expertise in particular areas. If different followers have considerably greater amounts of expert power, the leader may be unable to influence them using expert power alone.
4-10 Referent Power Referent power: Refers to the potential influence one has due to the strength of the relationship between the leader and the followers. Referent power often takes time to develop. The stronger the relationship, the more influence leaders and followers exert over each other. Followers with relatively more referent power than their peers are often spokespersons for their units. –They generally have more latitude to deviate from work-unit norms.
4-11 Legitimate Power Legitimate power: Depends on a person’s organizational role. Legitimate power allows exertion of influence through requests or demands deemed appropriate by virtue of role and position. –Holding a position and being a leader are not synonymous. Effective leaders often intuitively realize they need more than legitimate power to be successful. It is also possible for followers to use their legitimate power to influence leaders.
4-12 Reward Power Reward power: Involves the potential to influence others due to one’s control over desired resources. The potential to influence others through reward power is a joint function of the leader, the followers, and the situation. An overemphasis on rewards for performance can lead to resentment and feelings by workers of being manipulated. Extrinsic rewards may not have the same effects on behavior as intrinsic rewards.
4-13 Cautions About Reward Power Leaders can enhance their ability to influence others based on reward power if they: –Determine what rewards are available. –Determine what rewards are valued by their subordinates. –Establish clear policies for the equitable and consistent administration of rewards for good performance. Followers may exercise reward power over leaders by: –Controlling administration of scarce resources. –Modifying their level of effort.
4-14 Coercive Power Coercive power: the potential to influence others through the administration of negative sanctions or the removal of positive events. Reliance on this power has inherent limitations and drawbacks. One of the most common forms of coercion is a superior’s temperamental outbursts. Followers can also use this power to influence their leader’s behavior. –More likely to use this power when a relatively high amount of referent power exists among co- workers.
4-15 Concluding thoughts about French and Raven’s Power Taxonomy Leaders can usually exert more power during a crisis than during periods of relative calm. –During a crisis, followers may be more eager to receive direction and control from leaders. Research indicates that reliance on referent and expert power led to employees who were: –More motivated –More satisfied –Were absent less –Performed better
4-16 Four Generalizations About Power and Influence Effective leaders typically take advantage of all their sources of power. Leaders in well-functioning organizations are open to being influenced by their subordinates. Leaders vary in the extent to which they share power with subordinates. Effective leaders generally work to increase their various power bases or become more willing to use their coercive power.
4-17 Leader Motives People vary in their motivation to influence or control others. Two different ways of expressing the need for power: –Personalized power –Socialized power Thematic Apperception Tests have been used to assess the need for power. –It is a projective personality test. Need for power is found to be positively related to various leadership effectiveness criteria.
4-18 Leader Motives (continued) Leaders who are relatively uninhibited in their need for power will use power impulsively. Leaders with a high need for power but low activity inhibition may be successful in the short term, but create hazards for the long-term. Some followers have a high need for power too.
4-19 Motivation to Manage Individuals vary in their motivation to manage in terms of six composites: –Maintaining good relationships with authority figures. –Wanting to compete for recognition and advancement. –Being active and assertive. –Wanting to exercise influence over subordinates. –Being visibly different from followers. –Being willing to do routine administrative tasks.
4-20 Miner’s Sentence Completion Scale Findings concerning both the need for power and the motivation to manage have several implications: –Not all individuals like being leaders. –A high need for power or motivation to manage does not guarantee leadership success. –In order to be successful in the long term, leaders may have to have both: A high need for socialized power. A high level of activity inhibition.
4-22 Influence Tactics and Power A strong relationship exists between relative power and types of influence tactics used. Hard tactics are typically used when: –An influencer has the upper hand. –Resistance is anticipated. –When a person’s behavior violates important norms. Soft tactics are typically used when: –They are at a disadvantage. –They expect resistance. –They will personally benefit if the attempt is successful.
4-23 Influence Tactics and Power (continued) Rational tactics are typically used when: –Parties are relatively equal in power. –Resistance is not anticipated. –Benefits are organizational as well as personal. Leaders with high referent power generally do not use legitimizing or pressure tactics. Leaders with only coercive or legitimate power may use only coalition, legitimizing, or pressure tactics. Using influence tactics can be thought of as a social skill.
4-24 A Concluding Thought about Influence Tactics Research indicates that though hard tactics are effective, it also changes the way we see others. An implicit lesson for leaders is of being conscious of the type of influence tactic to use and its effects. –It is suggested that leaders pay attention to why they believe particular influence tactics are called for. Influence efforts intended to build others up more frequently lead to positive outcomes rather than vice versa.
4-25 Summary By reflecting on their different bases of power, leaders may better understand how they can affect followers and even expand their power. Leaders can improve their effectiveness by finding ways to enhance their idiosyncratic credit. Leaders should discourage in-group and out- group rivalries to develop in the work unit. The exercise of power occurs primarily through the influence tactics leaders and followers use. Leadership practitioners should always consider why they are using a particular influence attempt before they actually use it.