Presentation on theme: "Atmospheric Pressure and Wind"— Presentation transcript:
1Atmospheric Pressure and Wind Chapter 4Atmospheric Pressure and Wind
2The atmosphere contains a tremendous number of gas molecules being pulled toward Earth by the force of gravity.These molecules exert a force on all surfaces with whichthey are in contact, and the amount of that force exertedper unit of surface area is pressure.
3The standard unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). Meteorologists in the U.S. use the millibar (mb),which equals 100 Pa.Canadian meteorologists use the kilopascal (kPa),equal to 1000 Pa, or 10 mb.Air pressure at sea level is roughly 1000 mb (100 kPa)or more precisely, mb.
4increasing the temperature (c). The enclosed air molecules move about continually and exert a pressure on the interior walls of the container (a). Pressure can increase by increasing the density of the molecules (b) orincreasing the temperature (c).If the air in the container is a mixture of gases, each gas exerts its own specific amount of pressure, referred to as its partial pressure. The total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures. This relationship is known as Dalton’s law.
5Surface pressure is the pressure actually observed at a particular location, whereas sea level pressureis the pressure that would exist if the observation pointwere at sea level. Sea level pressure allows us tocompare pressure at different locations takinginto account differences in elevation.To correct for elevation, add 1 mb per 10 meters.For high-elevation sites, this method is unreliable becausewe must account for compressibility of the atmosphere.
6Pressure does not decrease at a constant rate. It decreases most rapidly at low elevations and at greater heights. Pressure decreases with altitude by about halffor each 5.5 km.
7The Equation of State (Ideal Gas Law) p = ρRTwhere p is pressure expressed in pascals,ρ (rho) is density in kilograms,R is a constant equal to 287 joules per kilogram per kelvin,T is temperature in kelvins.The equation tells us if the air densityincreases while temperature is held constant,the pressure will increase, and at constant density,an increase in temperature leads to an increase in pressure.
8The standard instrument for the measurement of pressure is the mercury barometerinvented by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643.Barometric pressure is often expressed as the heightof the column of mercury in a barometer,which at sea level averages 76 cm (29.92 in).To convert barometric heights to millibars:1 cm = mb1 inch = mb
9An alternative instrument for the observation of pressure is the aneroid (“without liquid”) barometer which contains a collapsible chamber from which some of the air has been removed. The weight of the atmosphere presses on the chamber and compresses it by an amount proportional to the air pressure. Aneroid devices that plot continuous values of pressure over extended periods are called barographs.
10An isobar is a line that connects points having exactly the same sea level pressure drawn at intervalsof 4 mb on surface weather maps. The spacing of theisobars indicates the strength of the pressure gradient,or rate of change in pressure. A dense clustering ofisobars indicates a steep pressure gradient(a rapid change in pressure with distance), whilewidely spaced isobars indicate a weak gradient.
11A weather map showing the distribution of sea level air pressure. The pressure is relatively low over the northeastern U.S. andeastern Canada, and the highest and lowest pressure on the mapare only within about 4 percent of each other.
12If the air over one region exerts a greater pressure than the air over an adjacent area, the higher-pressure air willspread out toward the zone of lower pressure as wind.The pressure gradient gives rise to thepressure gradient force, which sets the air in motion.For pressure gradients measured at constant altitude,we use the term horizontal pressure gradient force.Everything else being equal, the greater thepressure gradient force, the greater the wind speed.
13The vertical pressure gradient force and the force of gravity are normally of nearly equal value and operate in oppositedirections, a situation called hydrostatic equilibrium.The Hydrostatic EquationΔpΔz= -ρ gwhereΔp refers to a change in pressure,Δz refers to a change in altitude, and-ρ g refers to density and the acceleration of gravity.
14column on the right (b) causes it to expand upward. It still Two columns of air with equal temperatures, pressures, and densities (a). Heating thecolumn on the right (b) causesit to expand upward. It stillcontains the same amount ofmass, but it has a lower density to compensate for its greater height. Because the pressure difference between the base and top is still 500 mb, the vertical pressure gradient is smaller.
15they would be drawn on a 500 mb weather map. The gradual poleward decrease in mean temperature results in denser airoccurring at high latitudes. As indicated by the hydrostatic equation, pressuredrops more rapidly with height at high latitudes and lowers the height of the500 mb level. The dashed lines depict the height of the 500 mb level asthey would be drawn on a 500 mb weather map.
16A 500 mb map with height contours labeled in decameters ranging from 5880 m in the south to 5220 m inthe extreme northwest. Contoursfor 500 mb maps are drawn at60 m intervals. These maps depictthe varying heights of pressure levels.Where height contours are close,the pressure gradient force is large.
17The rotation of Earth gives rise to the Coriolis force which causes an apparent deflection (turning)of the wind to the right in the Northern Hemisphereand to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.The Coriolis force is zero at the equator andincreases to a maximum at the poles.The Coriolis force acting on any moving objectincreases with the object’s speed.However, the force changes only the directionof a moving object, never its speed.
18The other factor that influences the movement of air is friction. Air in contact with the surface experiencesfrictional drag, which decreases wind speed.Friction is important within the lowest 1.5 kmof the atmosphere (planetary boundary layer).Air in the free atmosphere, above 1.5 km,experiences negligible friction.
19Fp stands for pressure gradient, The Equation of MotionΔv / Δt = Fp + Fc + FfwhereFp stands for pressure gradient,Fc stands for the Coriolis effect, andFf stands for friction.The equation of motion says the accelerationof a mass of air is the sum of the accelerationsof these three forces.
20The wind speed increases the A stationary parcel of air in the upper atmosphere subjected to a south-to-north pressure gradient force (a). If the parcel is tethered to an imaginary pole, no movement of the parcel can take place. Once the imaginary cord is cut, the horizontal pressure gradient accelerates the parcel northward (b). Initially, when the wind speed is low, the Coriolis force is small. As the parcel speeds up, the strength of theCoriolis force increases and causes greater displacement to the right (c).The wind speed increases theCoriolis force sufficiently to cause the air to flow perpendicular to the pressure gradient force. The air flow becomesunaccelerated, with unchanging speed and direction known as geostrophic flow (or geostrophic wind).
21In common pressure distributions the height contours curve and assume varying distances from one another. In the absence of friction, the air flowsparallel to the contours constantly changing direction and thereforeundergoing an acceleration. In order for the air to follow the contours,there must be a continual mismatch between the pressure gradient andCoriolis forces. This movement is known as gradient flow (or gradient wind).
22Observe the changing direction of the four solid arrows 1 through 4. Supergeostropic flow (a) occurs in the upper atmosphere around high-pressure systems. As the air flows, it is constantly turning to its right. This turning motion occurs because the Coriolis force has agreater magnitude than the pressure gradient force (as represented by the length of the dashed arrows).Observe the changing direction of the four solid arrows 1 through 4.Subgeostrophic flow (b) occurs inthe upper atmosphere around low-pressure systems. The pressure gradient force is greater than theCoriolis force and the air turns to itsleft in the Northern Hemisphere.
23Geostrophic flow cannot exist near the surface. Friction slows the wind, so that the Coriolis force is less than the pressure gradient force. The air flows at an angle to the right of the pressure gradient force in the Northern Hemisphere (a) and to the left inthe Southern Hemisphere (b).
24the air spirals out of anticyclones (a), Enclosed areas of high pressure marked by roughly circular isobars or height contours are called anticyclones.The wind rotates clockwise around anticyclones in the Northern Hemisphere, as the Coriolis forcedeflects the air to the right and the pressure gradient force directs it outward. In the boundary layer,the air spirals out of anticyclones (a),while in the upper atmosphere it flows parallel to the height contours (b). In the Southern Hemisphere, the flow is counterclockwise (c) and (d).
25Closed low-pressure systems are called cyclones Closed low-pressure systems are called cyclones. Air spirals counterclockwise into surfacecyclones in the Northern Hemisphere (a) and rotates counterclockwise around an upper-level low (b). The flow is reversed in the Southern Hemisphere (c) and (d).
26Elongated zones of high and low pressure are called ridges (a) and troughs (b), respectively.
27Direction is always given as that from which the wind blows, so that a “westerly” wind is one from the west.It is often expressed by its azimuth, the degree of angle from due north, moving clockwise. A simple device for observing wind direction is thewind vane. Wind speeds are measured with anemometers that have rotating cups mounted on a moving shaft. Looking like an airplane without wings (right), an aerovane indicates both wind direction and speed.