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**Gravity, Friction, and Pressure**

CHAPTER NEW CHAPTER Gravity, Friction, and Pressure the BIG idea Newton's laws apply to all forces. Gravity, Friction, and Pressure 3.1 Gravity is a force exerted by masses. 3.2 Friction is a force that opposes motion. 3.3 Pressure depends on force and area. 3.4 Fluids can exert a force on objects. CHAPTER OUTLINE

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**3.1 Gravity is a force exerted by masses.**

weight Greater mass results in greater force. orbit Greater distance results in smaller force. SECTION OUTLINE

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**3.1 gravity Gravity is a force exerted by masses.**

weight The force that objects exert on each other because of their mass. orbit KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.1 weight Gravity is a force exerted by masses.**

The force of gravity on an object. orbit KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.1 orbit Gravity is a force exerted by masses.**

weight The elliptical path one celestial body follows around another celestial body; an object in orbit has a centripetal force acting on it that keeps the object moving in a circle or other ellipse. orbit KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

3.2 Friction is a force that opposes motion. Frictional force depends on– friction • types of surfaces fluid • motion of surfaces air resistance • force pressing surfaces together friction SECTION OUTLINE

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**Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

3.2 Friction is a force that opposes motion. Air resistance is a type of friction. friction air resistance gravity fluid air resistance SECTION OUTLINE

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**3.2 friction Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

fluid A force that resists the motion between two surfaces in contact. air resistance KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.2 fluid Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

A substance that can flow easily, such as a gas or a liquid. air resistance KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.2 air resistance Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

fluid The fluid friction due to air. air resistance KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Pressure depends on force and area.**

3.3 Pressure depends on force and area. Pressure = Force Area pressure Pressure in a fluid acts in all directions. pascal SECTION OUTLINE

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**3.3 pressure Pressure depends on force and area.**

pascal A measure of how much force is acting on a certain area; how concentrated a force is. KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.3 pascal Pressure depends on force and area.**

The unit used to measure pressure; one pascal is the pressure exerted by one newton of force on an area of one square meter, or one N/m2. KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Fluids can exert a force on objects.**

3.4 Fluids can exert a force on objects. • Buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. buoyant force Bernoulli's principle Pascal’s principle • A faster-moving fluid produces less pressure than a slower-moving one. SECTION OUTLINE • Pressure is transmitted through fluids.

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**3.4 buoyant force Fluids can exert a force on objects.**

Bernoulli's principle The upward force on objects in a fluid; often called buoyancy. Pascal’s principle KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.4 Bernoulli's principle Fluids can exert a force on objects.**

buoyant force Bernoulli's principle Bernoulli's principle A statement that describes the effects of movement on fluid pressure; according to this principle, an increase in the speed of the motion of a fluid decreases the pressure within the fluid. Pascal’s principle KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.4 Pascal’s principle Fluids can exert a force on objects.**

buoyant force Pascal’s principle Bernoulli's principle A statement that says when an outside pressure is applied at any point to a fluid in a container, that pressure is transmitted throughout the fluid with equal strength. Pascal’s principle KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**3.1 Gravity is a force exerted by masses.**

I. Gravity is a force exerted by masses. gravity A. Masses attract each other. weight 1. The Force of Gravity orbit 2. Gravity on Earth 3. Weight and Mass B. Gravity keeps objects in orbit. 1. Spacecraft in Orbit 2. People in Orbit KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Friction is a force that opposes motion.**

3.2 Friction is a force that opposes motion. II. Friction is a force that opposes motion. friction A. Friction occurs when surfaces slide against each other. fluid air resistance 1. Forces and Surfaces 2. Friction and Heat B. Motion through fluids produces friction. KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Pressure depends on force and area.**

3.3 Pressure depends on force and area. III. Pressure depends on force and area. pressure A. Pressure describes how a force is spread over an area. pascal B. Pressure acts in all directions in fluids. C. Pressure in fluids depends on depth. 1. Pressure in Air 2. Pressure in Water KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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**Fluids can exert a force on objects.**

3.4 Fluids can exert a force on objects. IV. Fluids can exert a force on objects. buoyant force A. Fluids can exert an upward force on objects. Bernoulli's principle 1. Buoyancy Pascal’s principle 2. Density and Buoyancy B. The motion of a fluid affects its pressure. 1. Bernoulli’s Principle 2. Applying Bernoulli’s Principle C. Forces can be transmitted through fluids. 1. Pascal’s Principle 2. Hydraulics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

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