Presentation on theme: "TOMATO CONCENTRATE PRODUCTION - USING MINIMALLY PROCESSED APPROACH AND A SIMPLE DESIGN SEPARATION DEVICE OKON, ANIEBIET WILLIAMS By 05/EG/FE/091."— Presentation transcript:
TOMATO CONCENTRATE PRODUCTION - USING MINIMALLY PROCESSED APPROACH AND A SIMPLE DESIGN SEPARATION DEVICE OKON, ANIEBIET WILLIAMS By 05/EG/FE/091
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a popular fruit consumed in most part of the world originating in South America, and its many varieties are now widely grown. The tomato fruit is consumed in diverse ways, they are consumed as fresh product as well as processed product such as canned whole tomato, tomato juice, tomato paste, ketchup and chill sauce. The tomato fruits are red or yellowish berry which vary in diameter and shape. While it is botanically a fruit, it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes. INTRODUCTION
Tomato has great nutritional values, the tomato juice is known to contain vitamin C, sugar, and mineral (Broody, 1997). The fruit is rich in lycopene which has beneficial health effects. INTRODUCTION
As soon as any food is harvested, the spoilage process begins, this deterioration may be very slow, as in the case of nuts, but much faster as in the case of fruits and vegetables, it may be so rapid that the food becomes inedible within a matter of days. In the case of tomatoes, spoilage begins as soon as it is harvested; the application of heat during processing to preserve it destroys most of its natural ingredient and freshness. Therefore, there is structure for an attempt for its preservation without heat application. INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem
The objective of this study is to use minimally processed methods in the extraction and preservation of tomato concentrate using a simple fabricated filter device and water activity reduction procedures to stabilize the product. Objective of Study INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS Ripe tomato fruits An electric blender A weighing balance Filtering device Measuring cylinder pH meter Colour comparator Bowls Knives Burette Pipette Transparent glass containers Common Salt Vegetable oil Materials
Weight Determination Size reduction Moisture Content Determination pH Determination Determination of Flux Colour Determination Packaging MATERIALS AND METHODS Procedures
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION pH Level Plot of pH against period of preservation Sample B Sample A
Results obtained from the analysis indicate that the more the concentration of salt in the tomato concentrate, the more acidic it becomes. For sample A with the pH of 3.46 at eight weeks of preservation, due to the tomato paste becoming more acidic, it is difficult for bacteria to attack, therefore no spoilage has occurred. Sample B indicates a high level of change in the pH at 6.46; it is heading towards neutral which indicates the tomato paste is no longer good for consumption. According to CODEX Alimentarius (1987) standard for processed tomato concentrate, the processed tomato pH must be below 4.6 to achieve an extended shelf without refrigeration. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Colour Content Fig. 4: Change in Colour against Period of Preservation The tomato colour was determined using a color comparator. The result obtained from the fresh tomato was 500 Hazen units; there was no change in colour after three weeks of preservation. The tomato colour after eight weeks of preservation was still reddish and fresh physically with only a slight change when examine using a colour comparator. This colour maintenance is as a result of the vegetable oil and salt keeping the lycopene in the tomato concentrate intact.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion In conclusion, Keeping tomato fresh yet supplying it in a convenient form without loss of nutritional quality can be achieved through minimal processing, by processing it into paste with only salt and vegetable oil as preservatives, taking into consideration the type of tomato fruit used, the concentration of salt and the water activity of the tomato paste as the major factors that affects the safety of the product. Therefore, having the rural areas with no electricity in mind, it can be concluded that producing and preserving tomato concentrate without heat application or refrigeration is very effective, healthy and safe.
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION Recommendation To ensure a better and long lasting product, freshly harvested tomato fruits should be used. To avoid the rapid change in colour, thereby the nutritional value, tomatoes with rich colours should be selected. Determining the water activity of the tomato was a challenge as there is no equipment for measuring it in the food engineering laboratory. For a more accurate result, using a water activity measuring instrument is recommended.
Thank You ENGR. E. EKPENYONG MR. N. E. ETUKCOLLEGUESPROF. (MRS) K. A. TAIWODR. A. F. ALONGEMY LECTURERS I Appreciate You