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Team 8 ME Senior Design Danfoss Turbocor: Stator Insertion Gregory Boler Jr. Matt Desautel Ivan Dudyak Kevin Lohman Figure 1: Compressor Housing 1

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Overview Danfoss Turbocor Background/Introduction Product Specification Design Approach Initial Expansion Calculations Experiment 1: Verifying Linear Expansion Heat Transfer Calculations Design Concept Design Details Cost Analysis Conclusion Future Work 2

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Cutting Edge Compressors 3 Outstanding Efficiency Totally oil-free operation Extended life with minimal scheduled maintenance Onboard digital controls and electronics Exceptionally quiet operation Compact Environmentally responsive Figure 2: Turbocor Compressor

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Introduction Background – Heating of an aluminum housing to allow thermal expansion of the material – Once expanded a stator is inserted into the housing – The housing cools in ambient conditions locking the stator in place through an interference fit 4

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Product Specification Current method – Large oven requiring extensive floor space – Lengthy heating time ~ 45 minutes – High final temperature ~ 300°F – Four units per cycle – Long cooling time before the technicians can continue assembly ~ 30 minutes 5 Figure 3: Current Oven

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6 Product Specification Current method – Stator inserted at a secondary station after heating cycle – Precise position required for pneumatic actuator – Additional floor space required for the secondary station Figure 4: Stator Insertion Station

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Product Specification Engineering Requirements – Reduced heating time, < 8 min. – Lower final temperature – Smaller size – Thermal expansion must allow for 60 microns clearance at maximum material conditions 7

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Design Approach 8 Problem Specification Preliminary thermal expansion calculations to determine the housing temperature to reach the desired clearance Experimental measurements of housing expansion in a thermal chamber Calculation of heat input needed to achieve the desired temperature using hot air Final design and prototype of heating unit Construction of heating unit proof of concept Experimental testing and design adjustment Final Product Evaluation Spring Events Design concept and component selection based on analysis

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Initial Expansion Calculations Sliding fit at maximum material condition 60 microns clearance Linear Expansion Equation Figure 5: Linear Expansion Relationship 60 μm °C 60 μm °C 9

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Experiment 1: Verifying Linear Expansion Steps: 1.Heat housing 2.Take diameter measurements at various temperatures 3.Plot experimental data versus theoretical data 4.Data analysis Figure 6: Bore Gauge (http://www.fvfowler.com) 10

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Where to measure? Figure 7: Compressor Housing Cross-Section Linear expansion equation Dimensionless linear expansion 11

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Figure 8: Experiment 1 Data Analysis 12

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Initial Heat Calculations How much heat input to reach 85 °C? Closed system with no work output Figure 9: Change in Temp w/ Heat Input kJ °C kJ °C 13

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W W Q loss Q loss Q21 Heat Transfer Analysis W Heat input to system 2 from heater Q21 Heat transferred from system 2 to system 1 Q loss Heat lost from system 2 to outside environment Figure 10: Heat Transfer System

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15 1 Q21 System 1 System 2 2 W W Q loss Q loss First Law System 1 First Law System 2 Figure 11: Heat Transfer Systems

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Coupled System of Ordinary Differential Equations Initial Conditions MATLAB Figure 12: System Temperature vs. Time °C 7.56 min 84.6 °C 7.56 min

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The Design Concept Re-circulating air over a heater coil within an insulated unit to heat housing Cooling cycle opens lid to hood and activates a blower to circulate ambient air around outside of housing Figure 13: Convection Concept Sketch 17

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The Design Concept Consists of: – An insulated table and hood – Re-circulating fan – Heater – Cooling fan Figure 14: Provisional Design 18

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Table Selection Requirements: – Heating unit – Hot air recirculation – Housing locator – Temperature sensors Design chosen: – Utilizes an exterior blower – Has built in return ducts for hot air recirculation Figure 15: Lower Design Section 19

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Heater Selection Heater chosen: – MSC 5600 watt electric portable heater Figure 16: Electric Heater (http://www.mscdirect.com) Figure 4: Housing Temperature vs. Time °C 7.56 min 84.6 °C 7.56 min

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Hood Selection Requirements: – To retain heat within unit (insulated) – To allow easy insertion and removal of the part in and out of the machine – An opening lid to allow for a cooling cycle Design chosen: – Has two doors, one inlet and one exit – Contains a cooling fan Figure 17: Interim hood Design 21

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Nozzle Selection Various nozzles are to be tested on their performance of these goals – Even heat distribution – Turbulent flow – High heat transfer Testing method – Smoke generator is used to blow smoke through each nozzle into a clear cylinder for observation – Testing will start next week Figure 20: Nozzle C Figure 19: Nozzle B Figure 18: Nozzle A 22

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Cost Analysis Table 1: Convection Heater Cost Analysis PartDescriptionSupplierUnit Price ($)QTYTotal Price ($) Electric Heater5600W 100 CFMMSC Flange Mount Blower250 CFMMSC Polycarbonate96" x 48" x 3/8"MSC Expanded Sheet Metal1/2" x 12" x 24" 18 GaugeLowes Ultra Flex Hose5' Length 4" IDMSC /20 Extrusion 25 Series Mono Slot Bar 6mTBD /20 HardwareMisc. HardwareTBD Total

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Conclusion Exploded View 1Housing 2Heater 3Hood 4Exhaust Fan 5Table 6Heater Fan 7Shroud 8Nozzle Figure 21: Concept Exploded View 24 7

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Planned Future Work Build and test nozzle designs Proof of concept testing (Fall Semester) Begin building prototype (Spring Semester) Figure 22: Electric Heater w/ Shield removed 25

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Acknowledgements 26 Turbocor Rob Parsons Dr. Lin Sun Kevin Gehrke Famu/FSU College of Engineering Dr. Juan C. Ordóñez Dr. Kareem Ahmed Dr. Rob Hovsapian Dr. Srinivas Kosaraju

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27 Questions?

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References "Aluminum A356 T6 Properties." N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov "Linear Expansion." N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov Engineering Tool Box. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov Cengel, Turner, Cimbala. Thermal Fluid Sciences. New York: McGraw Hill,

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