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Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

3 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 The intent of this presentation is to present enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge of drawings and blueprints used within Michelin and to better understand basic system and equipment operations.

4 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Views 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

5 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Orthographic viewing In our everyday experience or of, looking at objects, we rarely see their true shape. A rectangular table appears as a parallelogram when we stand at one of its corners to look at it. Circular holes often appear to be oval. The reason for this is that unless we look directly at right angles to a surface, some of the lengths become fore­shortened. In the case of the table, one of the diagonals appears to be shorter, and with the circles, one of the diameters. If we are to produce a drawing in its true shape, we must view an object perpendicularly to its surfaces. This is the principle of orthogonal viewing. The word orthogonal means right angled. Let us consider the orthogonal views of the item shown below. 09 Drawing and Blueprint Reading

6 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 The oblique view shows a cylinder mounted on a square base. First, looking in direction A, we see a circle for the end of the cylinder. We cannot see any of the curved surface because this is in a line with our sight and is therefore "lost". Next, we see a square of the base, but again the thickness has disappeared. Looking in direction B, we can see a rectangle for the side of the cylinder. No curvature is seen because all distances from the eye are lost and the ends become straight lines equal in length to the diameter, thus only a rectangle is seen. It is this type of viewing which we use in making mechanical drawings. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

7 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D From the drawing, choose the numbered orthographic view that matches the arrows of the pictoral view.

8 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Arrangement of the views and their designation The name given to each view depends upon: The position of the front view - chosen as the most explanatory or descriptive view. Then giving names to each position according to where the observer must be to look at the corresponding view The arrangement of these views can fall into one of either two major categories: FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION ( OR EUROPEAN PROJECTION) THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION (OR AMERICAN-US PROJECTION) 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

9 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

10 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

11 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

12 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

13 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 On the following two exercises match the numbered surfaces of the orthographic views to the lettered surfaces of the pictorial view. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

14 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

15 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Number of views necessary to define an object: In most cases, two views, if chosen judiciously, are enough to represent a single part. (Always choose the views with the least hidden lines). Let’s take, for example, the following part: 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

16 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 To define it entirely, the five dimensions indicated on the above pictorial are necessary. On the drawing in orthographic projection below, the same dimensions should also be indicated. The views are shown in European projection. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Those dimensions appear on the front and right side views above

17 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 The dimensions are well indicated, but the part is not well defined in shape. From the preceding two views, we can imagine the cut-away in the corner of the part being of several different shapes, as shown below, but still corresponding to the same projections. If the top (or plan) view is used with the front view as indicated, any possible doubt is cleared up. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

18 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Spatial viewing exercises INSTRUCTIONS: To the right is an isometric view of a machined part with 6 dots placed at various locations. The object is to determine the linear measurement of the thickness of the material behind each dot. In the event a slot or other air space is directly behind the dot, simply deduct the amount of air space as was done on point 3 of the example. 1) 70 (100-30) 2) 100 3) 13 (35-22) 4) 27 (35-8) 5 ) 8 6) 30 (50-20)

19 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

20 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

21 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

22 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

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24 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

25 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

26 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

27 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

28 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

29 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

30 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

31 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

32 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

33 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

34 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

35 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

36 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

37 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

38 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

39 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Sketching 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

40 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Interpretation of the graphics language as shown on mechanical blueprints Since time immemorial, man has always tried to transmit his thoughts and to express them through drawings to ensure their endurance. The first writing techniques, such as the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, were drawings or graphs. Thus, a graph is the expression of a concept through the use of lines made on a surface. This definition fits perfectly the representation of an object via a drawing. Finally, this language, which will be understood by people speaking different languages, is used universally to communicate ideas and feelings. Drawing has greatly evolved over the centuries and, today, falls under two broad categories, each having its own purpose: artistic drawing, which expresses figurative or non-figurative ideas for cultural or commercial ends; industrial drawing which, whatever the industrial sector, transmits technical or practical ideas. Many people have to read blueprints. Even in everyday life, a grasp of mechanical drawing will prove very useful to understand the plans of a house, the assembly, maintenance and instructions pertaining to the operation of many manufactured products, as well as assembly and operation plans and instructions of various appliances. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

41 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 What is mechanical drawing? On many occasions in our everyday life, we find it necessary to exchange information in some sort of graphical form. If we can express complex ideas through simple drawings, then our drawings will allow a much easier transmission and reception of the information that we want to communicate. This is why we use, for example, a road map to find our way in an unknown area. Different types of communication aids, characterized by their use of graphics, are used in many different areas. Mechanical drawing or technical drawing sometimes even called industrial drawing, is one type of communication aid. It is a real language which is used as an important means of communication in industrial life. As a matter of fact, it is the communication tool most used by the craftsmen in industry. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

42 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Role of Mechanical Drawing—Everyday Life The usefulness of mechanical drawing is very obvious. A knowledge of drawing, or blueprint reading, makes it easier for us to understand other types of representations: Map reading, diagrams, schematics, etc. To make simple sketches (accident reports, where to install a piece of furniture). Allows us to better understand the drawings and schematics which we see in current magazines. But beyond these practical uses, making drawings and blueprints also has an educational value. It develops an artistic sense, improves our sense of observation, and develops precision use of language. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

43 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Role of Mechanical Drawing—Industrial Life Mechanical drawing is an intermediary between man and: the item to be made (to go from an idea to a real thing) his work (a means of achieving the work he does) those who participate in his work (a means of communicating between all the people on the work team). For example, mechanical drawing: Allows us to know the function, the overall dimensions, and the way to install a machine. Shows us the correct position of the different parts and how to place them. Gives precise information to the machinists in order for the parts to be made. Helps the designer to preview his design. These are the reasons why you have to know how to read and interpret mechanical drawings, or blueprints, if you work in industry. The drawing office personnel draftsmen, designers, etc.) must know even more technical information to prepare the documents. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

44 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Different Kinds of Drawings Because it is an intermediary between the persons who create a machine and the persons who make it, a drawing can take different forms according to its role and the people who will use it. Drawings for fabrication with standardized symbols--for mechanical, welding, buildings, electrical construction, etc. Sketches illustrating an idea, technical principle, description. Schematic explaining the operation of machines. Electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic circuits. Curves, calculations of graphical statistics. Control instrument diagrams. Pictorial drawings for better visualization. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

45 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

46 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

47 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

48 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 In the early years of manufacturing, drawings were scaled by the workman to obtain sizes. It was up to the workman to make the parts fit together, and work properly, by trying the mating parts together as he made them. The need for interchangeability of parts requires exact methods of size description. Today, drawings must be dimensioned so that parts made in different plants will fit together properly. The drawing must contain all the necessary information to make the part without having to refer to any of the mating parts. The workman should not have to scale or assume any dimension to make the part. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

49 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Lines An extension line is a fine (0.18mm) line that extends from a point on a drawing. A dimension line is a fine (0. 18mm) line that meets the extension line, is parallel to the dimensioned part, and has an arrowhead at each end, in most cases. 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

50 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

51 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

52 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

53 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

54 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

55 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

56 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

57 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

58 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

59 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

60 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

61 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

62 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading

63 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D

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68 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

69 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 On a clean sheet of 8.5”x 11” paper, draw a front, top, and right side view of the above object using the miter line technique of view projection.

70 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D Choose the correct view to match the lettered arrows

71 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D Choose the correct view to match the lettered arrows

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81 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

82 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Sectional Views

83 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Introduction It often happens that a component is so shaped that normal external views do not give sufficient information about the part for complete description. This is particularly true of components which need machining internally, for complicated castings, or on assembly drawings. By the use of orthogonal views, the only way in which we can show internal details is by broken lines which we call hidden lines.

84 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading If the component was more complex than that shown above, then there might be a mass of hidden detail which might be confusing to the reader of the drawing. In order that a draftsman can show the inside of a component on a drawing, he draws what is known as a sectional view. Sectional views Let us imagine that the component shown on the previous page is to be manufactured. To do this, we need to know what it looks like inside. If we take a vertical cut along the cutting plane line A-A (Fig. 1) and remove part of the component then what would be left would be that shown in Fig. 2.

85 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading To define a sectional view, we can say: A sectional view represents that part of an object which remains after a portion is assumed to have been cut or broken away and removed. Fig. 3 below shows how this part would appear on a detail drawing.

86 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Cutting Plane Lines To show most sections it is necessary to show two views. One is required to show the theoretical cutting plane and the second view, being the sectioned view, necessary to show interior detail. The cutting plane line is used for most sections to identify where the theoretical cutting of the part takes place. Notice the arrows on the cutting plane line show the direction the sectional view is seen from.

87 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading The cutting plane line is a mixed thin line with heavy ends and is identified with the use of arrows and letters. If more than one section is necessary, different letters must be used for identification. The letters should be placed slightly above the heavy leader line. The same letters must be used to identify the section.

88 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading The cutting plane line representing more than one plane is identified with the same lettering system, but must be heavy where the planes change.

89 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Vertical Arrow Letters may be placed either to the right or left of the arrow. It is preferred that they be shown on the outside of the arrows in relation to the view. Vertical Arrow Letters may be placed either to the right or left of the arrow. It is preferred that they be shown on the outside of the arrows in relation to the view. Just above the leader as stated earlier.

90 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Letters should be shown horizontally.

91 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Cross hatch lines We use hatching to graphically represent the theoretically cut surface of a part. The thickness of crosshatch lines are Theoretically, they should be drawn as thin as possible and maintain good quality for reproduction (Blueprints, etc.) Cross hatch lines should be uniformly spaced, approximately 1.5 mm for small parts with the space getting larger as the drawing size increases. (Clarity and quality should dictate the size of the spacing.) The cross hatch lines are normally drawn at 30°, 45°, and 60° with the horizontal reference plane of the drawing or part, with 45° recommended for most detail drawings.

92 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Adjust the angle of cross hatching to the shape of the part. Cross hatching for exceptional cases

93 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Assembly drawings are generally shown in section to clarify the function of the machine, and to aid in locating parts and fasteners. Each part may have a different hatching pattern and when adjacent, should change direction.

94 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading When parts sectioned are too thin for section lining, they may be shown as a thick solid line. This method is used for sheet metal, gaskets, packing, joints, etc. When thin adjacent parts are shown, a space should be left between them for clarity.

95 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

96 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

97 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Types of Sections Full Section The sectional view obtained by passing a cutting plane fully through an object is called a full section. The internal parts which would normally show hidden become object lines in the full section. The cutting plane line shows where the imaginary cut has been made. The sectional view always requires a label above it. Notice the example and pictorial below. 1st angle projection Note: On sectional views the hidden lines behind the cutting plane are not shown unless they add to the clarification.

98 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Half Section Symmetrical objects can be shown having one side or center in section and the other as an exterior view. We call this type of view a half section because the object is cut half way across. Notice the cutting plane line is identical to that of a full section. When showing a half section it must be labeled “Half Section” above the sectional view. Note the example and pictorial below.

99 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Offset Section When sectioning through irregular objects it is often desirable to show features which do not lie in a straight line, by “offsetting” the cutting plane line. This type of section is called an offset section. In these section views the offsets or bends in the cutting plane are at 90° and are never represented in the sectional view. Each feature shown in the “offsets” is hypothetically moved to a single cutting plane for the sectional view.

100 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Web and Rib Section Webs and ribs are not cross hatched when the cutting plane passes through them. If a true full section view is shown of a ribbed or webbed part, it can be misleading. The part if shown in full section appears to be solid rather than having webs or ribs. It is for this reason that Webs, Ribs, and Spokes on a wheel are not cross hatched. Note the example below. 1st angle projection

101 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Aligned Section In objects having angled elements to be shown it is necessary to bend the cutting plane line to include these elements. The type of view obtained is called an aligned section. In an aligned section the cutting plane and feature are imagined to be revolved or aligned to a flat plane. Note the examples below. SECTION X-X shows the object if a full section were taken. SECTION A-A shows the preferred method in this case - an aligned section. 1st angle projection

102 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading In aligned sections the cutting plane should leave the majority of the part. Cutting plane A-A is preferred. At times features may be aligned using a full section cutting plane line or no cutting plane line at all. Drawings will be found with no cutting plane shown but the features are understood to be aligned. Note examples at right.

103 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Revolved sections Revolved sections are used to describe objects that cannot be adequately shown in a normal view. Revolved sections show a cross section with a minimum of drawing required. The cutting plane is passed through the object and turned 90. A centerline is used to show the axis of rotation and the cross section is shown with a thin line (0.18) rather than thick. A cutting plane line and section labels are not necessary. Note the examples below

104 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Removed Section A Removed Section is simply a revolved section which is shown removed from the corresponding view. It may be directly below and in line with the view or anywhere in the drawing area. The cross section is shown with a thick line and shows the axis of rotation. If the removed section is not shown in line, the cutting plane line and removed section would be labeled. If the removed section is in line, it is not necessary to label. Note the examples and pictorial below.

105 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Partial Section It is sometimes desirable to show a small amount of internal detail on a part. In this situation a partial section is used. A partial section is sometimes also called a broken or local section. The broken area is separated with a thin wavy line. No cutting plane or labels are necessary on a partial section. Note the examples and pictorial.

106 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Assembly Section In assembly sections it is necessary not only to show the cut surfaces but distinguish between the adjacent parts. This is done by drawing cross hatch lines in opposing directions. Different cross hatch patterns are used to show different materials. Depending on the situation assembly sections may or may not be labeled and cutting planes may or may not be designated on another view. Hidden lines may be used if they add clarity. In assembly sections parts such as shafts, bolts, nuts, rods, rivets, keys, and pins are not sectioned when the cutting plane passes through longitudinally.

107 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

108 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

109 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

110 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

111 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Title Blocks

112 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

113 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading On the previous page, which is a Bill of Materials, the title block is considered to be the whole lower half of the drawing. Other types of drawings usually will not have this much information.

114 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading The above drawing title block is generated by AutoCAD and can be designed to meet company specifications. It has additional information not included on the previous example. Projection symbol Welding spec’s Surface finish spec’s Shop tolerance spec’s Note the proprietary spec’s On this title block try to locate items 1 through 21 from the previous chart.

115 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Common Components

116 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading Recognizing drawing components Recognition of common components is the key to being able to interpret mechanical drawings quickly and accurately. Sometimes the components are elaborately drawn and easily recognizable. But more often, the components are represented in a more simple manor that is quicker and easier to draw. These shortcuts are standardized so that they will be universally recognizable. Included in this chapter are simplified versions of mechanical components such as hardware items and drive components. Also included are drafting shortcuts that may be found on drawings such as foreshortening and repeated parts and features.

117 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Drafting Conventions (shortcuts) Symmetry

118 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Repeated features and parts Repeated illustrations of identical features and parts are avoided by producing a drawing of one feature or item and indicating the position of the others by their center line.

119 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Flats The standard representation for flats is thin diagonal lines drawn across the flat surface or surfaces. See examples shown here.

120 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Foreshortened Parts When a component of long length is to be drawn, it can be foreshortened as shown here.

121 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading The first example above is the accepted standard. However, from time to tine the second example may be encountered.

122 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 Threads

123 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3

124 Presentation : IMS – Tech Managers ConferenceAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 08 March 2012Classification : D3Conservation :Page : ‹#› 09 – Drawing and Blueprint ReadingAuthor : IMS StaffCreation date : 31 Dec 2012Classification : D3 09 – Drawing and Blueprint Reading End of Chapter Nine Exit


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