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© Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry.

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1 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry

2 Lessons Learned: Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Nanoscience Curriculum: Penn State Partners Meeting Deb Newberry: Program PI, Professor and Consultant Work Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation

3 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Overview and Outline 3 year NSF grant awarded 1 June 2004 First class of 13 students graduated May 2006 Approximately 30 students currently in program Tailored after Penn State 2 year program Outline –Our approach/goals –Philosophy –Considerations –Results –*** Lessons learned included throughout discussion***

4 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Our Approach Minnesota Industry Strengths Three Focused Nanoscience Areas Nano science tools Micro/nano manufacturing methodology “Soft” skills Nanoscale concepts Common Education Principles Nanoelectronics Nanobiotech/agri. Nanomaterials

5 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Ref: MHTA

6 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Interface with Industry Focus groups – 1.5 years prior to first class start Employee requirements Curricula development and modification input Advisory Committee Guest speakers (students get exposure to application of course content) Equipment Tours Internships Personal contacts, University researchers Use local chapters of professional organizations (IEEE, ACS, APS, ASME etc.) as path to industry contacts Be prepared to devote significant time to industry interfaces

7 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Computing Technology

8 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Computing Technology Internet

9 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Computing Technology Internet Electronic Technology

10 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Massive Databases Global Access Lectures, Proofs, Equations Science, Math, Engineering Computer Simulation, 3D Modeling Virtual Reality Electronic Technology

11 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry More Computing Power and Information Than We Know How to Handle Massive Databases Global Access Lectures, Proofs, Equations Science, Math, Engineering Computer Simulation, 3D Modeling Virtual Reality Electronic Technology

12 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry SPM, AFM,SEM Lithography Vacuum Tech.

13 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry SPM, AFM,SEM Lithography Vacuum Tech. Engineering Medicine Physics ChemistryBiology

14 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Engineering Medicine Physics ChemistryBiology SPM, AFM,SEM Lithography Vacuum Tech.

15 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Engineering Medicine Physics ChemistryBiology SPM, AFM,SEM Lithography Vacuum Tech. Nanoscience NanoTechnology

16 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Engineering Medicine Physics Chemistry Biology SPM, AFM,SEM Lithography Vacuum Tech.

17 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Multi-disciplinary Multi-market Conceptual Global

18 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Multi-disciplinary Multi-market Conceptual Global Has the potential to change every aspect of life for every human on earth

19 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Multi-disciplinary Multi-market Conceptual Global Has the potential to change every aspect of life for every human on earth Massive Databases Global Access Lectures, Proofs, Equations Science, Math, Engineering Computer Simulation, 3D Modeling Virtual Reality Electronic Technology More Computing Power and Information Than We Know How to Handle

20 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Electronic Technology

21 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience NanoTechnology Electronic Technology Opportunity For Revolution in Education

22 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Opportunity For Revolution in Education Encompassing, conceptual learning Application driven Simulation used to correct, verify, enhance understanding “Access to” - not “memorization of” data, formulas, definitions

23 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Result of this Philosophy 1 credit Computer Simulation Class Use of software tools throughout program Graphics and animation to enhance concept understanding Significant Internet use MIT ocw, nanohub.org, Harvard, Penn State, U of Wi, NCLT Mathematical rigor is low – no calculus –In 2006 – more alg/trig/geom practice –In 2006 addition of log and natural log math

24 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Multi-disciplinary Aspect of Nanotechnology Cannot separate traditional disciplines Requires broad coverage One multi-disciplinary lab in 3 rd semester Strong correlation within nano courses and traditional/semester

25 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Physics Math Chemistry Engineering Biotech Medical Diagnostics Clothing Hospitality Transportation Medical Communication Electronics Agriculture Construction Materials Nano Science And Technology

26 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Physics Math Chemistry Engineering Biotech Medical Nano Science And Technology What does this mean for education? Provide a broad based education Pull in modeling Help students start thinking at the nano scale Emphasis on team work What does this mean for corporate training? Increase access to various journals Encourage/allow attendance at various conferences Invited speakers from diverse disciplines Concepts in addition to hands on

27 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry What does this mean for education? Diagnostics Clothing Hospitality Transportation Medical Communication Electronics Agriculture Construction Materials Nano Science And Technology Good relationships with industry Career planning Remove stovepipes Teach market relationships What does this mean for corporations? Unexpected competition M and A variations Expanded horizons

28 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry CNI

29 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry CNT Material Understanding Physical Assessment Reproduce results High Volume MATERIALS Applications – Composite materials © Deb Newberry

30 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry CNT Material Understanding Physical Assessment Reproduce results High Volume MATERIALS ELECTRONICS Applications – Composite materials Definition of Electrical properties Nanowires Doped CNTS © Deb Newberry

31 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry CNT Material Understanding Physical Assessment Reproduce results High Volume MATERIALS ELECTRONICS BIO-MEDICAL ENERGY ENVIRONMENT Applications – Composite materials Computer simulation Definition of Electrical properties Integration into Existing assembly processes Interaction With fluids Nanowires Doped CNTS Lab experiments © Deb Newberry

32 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Article, Picture, Research What do I know that helps me understand?: Semiconductors, Proteins Scale…. What are the basic Concepts? Exponents Volume/surface area Friction Ionic bonding Take this idea and keep asking yourself and students WHY? Market Applications: Materials Construction Energy Environment Medical Diagnostic Electronics

33 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Water in Nanotube Source: Yury GogotsiYury Gogotsi References: Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Water in Carbon Nanopipes M. Pía Rossi, Haihui Ye, Yury Gogotsi, Sundar Babu, Patrick Ndungu, and Jean-Claude Bradley Nano Lett.; 2004; ASAP Web Release Date: 15- Apr-2004; (Letter) DOI: /nl049688u Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Water in Carbon Nanopipes M. Pía Rossi, Haihui Ye, Yury Gogotsi, Sundar Babu, Patrick Ndungu, and Jean-Claude Bradley Nano Lett.; 2004; ASAP Web Release Date: 15- Apr-2004; (Letter) DOI: /nl049688u Description: The ability of the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to condense and evaporate liquids has enabled the in situ dynamic study of condensation, evaporation and transport of water inside carbon nanotubes. It has been possible to see liquid menisci inside straight, CVD-fabricated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having disordered walls. From the measured contact angles, it is clear that these CNTs are hydrophilic. Complex meniscus shapes and slow liquid dynamics due to water confinement and strong interaction with tube walls have been observed. The above ESEM images show the dynamic behavior of a water plug close to the open end of a nanotube. The meniscus shape changes when, at a constant stage temperature, the vapor pressure of water in the chamber is changed (a) 5.5 Torr, (b) 5.8 Torr, (c) 6.0 Torr, (d) 5.8 Torr and (e) 5.7 Torr, where the meniscus returns to the shape seen in (a). The asymmetrical shape of the meniscus, especially the complex shape of the meniscus on the right side in (a, e), is a result of the difference in the vapor pressure caused by the open left end and closed right end of the tube. (f) TEM image showing a similar plug shape in a closed CNT under pressure.

34 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry IEEE Spectrum May 2004

35 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Silicon Wafer Photoresist Lens  Liquid  Photoresist Silicon Wafer Lens What? - Resolution Improvement by Liquid Immersion BENEFITS  Resolution enhancement oAllows NA > 1 oEnhanced feature size reduction  Depth of focus enhanced compared to conventional system at the same NA  Preserve infrastructure investment of existing tools oLasers oOptical materials & coatings oMasks and pellicles oResists (might require boundary layer?) ISSUES  Fluid – Resist interaction  Material properties  Mitigation of “bubbles”  Fluid – Tool interaction (tool specific)  Liquid delivery/recovery system (tool specific) Bold indicates SEMATECH focused areas Courtesy: Walt Trybula Sematech

36 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry New technology could combine detection and treatment Immediate sensing as a tumor is removed! Sandia National Laboratories

37 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Elementary to High School DCTC and other Two-year colleges University and Graduate school NSF-ATE Grant Coverage HS NanoTech Camps Capstone Courses Core Interdisciplinary Courses Nanoscience Curriculum: A career path approach

38 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoScience Technician Program Course and Credit Allocation Revision based on first 1.5 year experience of program execution. Note: Univ. of MN lecture and lab courses for the fourth semester previously were allocate 16 credits total. As of 10 Nov 2005 the credit total will be 15. Nanoscience Technology AAS Degree Curriculum: 72 Credits Summer Optional Semester Semester 1 at DCTCSemester 2 at DCTCSemester 3 at DCTCSemester 4 at U of MN CourseNameCreditsCourseNameCredit s CourseNameCredit s Cours e NameCredit s CourseNameCredit s Gen Biology 4Biol 1500 Gen. Biology 4Chem 1500 Chemistry4Nano 2100 Nano Electronics3Univ #s All – Lecture and Lab 15 Physics 1500 Physics I4Physics 1510 Physics II4Nano 2110 Nanobiotech3 Coml 1400 Intro to Computers 3Nano 2120 Nanomaterials3 Engl 1100 Writing and Research Skills 3Spee 1020 Interpersonal Communication 3Nano 2130 Manufacturing, QA, reliability 2 Algebra4Mats 1300 Algebra4Mats 1250 Statistics4Nano 2140 Interdisciplinary Lab 3Nano 3970 Internship2 Nano 1100 Fund of Nano I 3Nano 1200 Fund of Nano II3Nano 2150 Capstone prep and Industry Tours 1 Nano 1210 Com Sim1 Credits8 13to 21 Credits19Credits15Credits17

39 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry NanoTechnology Understanding CategoryCompetencySem. 1Sem. 2Sem.3Sem.4 Concept of ScaleDescribe the nanoscale by various methods such as analogy, mathematical (decimal or exponential) format and by sizes of representative material and systems. XX Determination of the relative importance of properties, interactions and forces at the macro, micro and nano scale. XXXX Application and knowledge of top-down and bottom-up approach to the nanoscaleXXXX GeneralKnowledge of the historical and developmental aspect of nanotechnology including key players and contribution XX Ability to assess and discuss societal aspects of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, i.e., regulatory, IP, global competitiveness, environment, awareness XX Understanding of various factions in nanoscience technology and their respective approach to political, research, economic and environmental issues. XX ToolsFor all of the basic tools of nanotechnology (ATM, SEM, STM, TEM, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Ellipsometer, mass spectrometer, confocal microscopes) be able to…. Explain and understand the capability and limitations of the equipmentXXXX Define in detail how the tool operates and controls requiredXXXX How to prepare samples for observationXXX Define measurement properties and units, capability and variationsXXX How to independently calibrate and maintain each piece of equipmentXX Ability to independently operate, control and use the machine on different sample typesXX

40 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry In each developed Nano Course Individual and group presentations (Do their own research) Individual and group research/essay work On-line discussions Homework – reading, problems as appropriate Course project (paper and poster) Poster session at end of the semester Tests – usually essay/concept Resources: Pieces of multiple textbooks ($$$$) Articles: Nature, Science, Physics Today, Physics World, NanoLetters, Nanotechnology, Nature Materials, Nature Physics, IEEE Spectrum, IEEE Proceedings, Scientific American etc. NOTE: Instructor Guides have been created for the first 2 courses. Course I includes 24 topics, Course II includes 32 topics. For each topic the guide includes: Traditional info to be covered (description only), exercises, questions, discussion items, and nanoscale considerations.

41 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Assessment Approaches Assessment of student learning –All class “deliverables” are graded (tests not majority %) – Some by just Deb, other have input from peers –Tests –Usually have a question where they can select the topic to discuss and a second question where they discuss another students topic. Example: Nanotechnology tools Assessment of the course and content: Traditional end of semester – DCTC standard Bi-weekly quick checks –Understanding of topic –Level of reading, homework, assignments –Areas of confusion Strong, open relationships

42 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Focus Areas for Traditional Sciences Math Exponents, algebra, trig, statistics Biology Cell structure, ion channels, proteins, energy creation Chemistry Colloids, wet, atomic structure, bonding mechanisms Physics Force, momentum, optics, quantum, solid state Engineering Transistor fab and operation, material properties, measurement

43 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry The Aspirin Calculation Group 8 Hunter Miske Robert Stady Scott Weber

44 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Assuming the aspirin is a true cylinder (using the center height) how many aspirin molecules are in the tablet? Given that a 200 mg tablet has these dimensions Height = 4.2 mm Diameter = 10.3 mm Radius = 5.15 mm

45 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Volume of a Cylinder = area of base x height Volume = π R 2 h Vol. = 3.14 x (5.15mm) 2 x 4.2 mm = 350 mm 3 Change units from cubic millimeters (mm 3 ) to cubic nanometers (nm 3 ) Assume 1 nm spherical aspirin molecule occupies 1 cubic nm of space Divide volume of cylinder by volume of aspirin spheres

46 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry How long would it take to assemble the aspirin molecule by molecule? Time required = number required ÷ rate of assembly 61.6 million years

47 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Our Approach Reach down to high school students and teachers Articulation with MN Universities/Partnering Create separate “nano” courses that go in lock step with Gen. Ed. Lab awareness and experience from the first semester –DCTC AFM,STM, Hysitron nanomechanical measurement system –University of MN lab tours –Industry facility tours Industry guest speakers –(10/year: 3M, Medtronic, Hysitron, Entegris, Surmodics, Donaldson, Imation et. al.) Focus on concepts of equations not mathematical derivation –Schrödinger wave equation: probabilities and quantum results, –Gausses law/EM: relation between energy, potential, flux, work Use graphics and simulations to explain concepts –Brillouin zones, planes, Miller indices, energy bands, cleave planes, temperature effects

48 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Use of Scale Chart: Not only do students need to develop a sense of scale but they must also be reminded of where we are on that scale when discussing various aspects of science Macro Micro Nano

49 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Macro Micro Nano Material Categories: Metal Ceramic Plastic Cement Composite How do we determine which category a material may fit into? Based on measurable properties: Electrical conductivity Magnetic properties Hardness (moduli) Flexibility Thermal (melting point) Measured – traditionally at the macro level Assignment: Select a property – research std. measurement methods, define the equations used, environmental parameters (temp, pressure, humidity etc.) --- create a flip chart(s).

50 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Macro Micro Nano Material (crystalline) structure 14 major types of unit cells (FCC, BCC, hex etc.) Miller indecies a,b,c, alpha, beta, gamma etc. These unit cells are based on a repeating structure of crystals With (many) ^2 atoms Review: Bonding types and mechanisms Nano: How would the unit cells be changed if there were only 50 to 100 atoms in the configuration? Assignment: Go back to the traditional measurement of properties and consider impact of nanoscale – sample size, measurement equipment and error bars/tolerance Influence of measurement equipment, environmental parameters etc.

51 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Macro Micro Nano Material (crystalline) structure 14 major types of unit cells (FCC, BCC, hex etc.) Miller indecies a,b,c, alpha, beta, gamma etc. These unit cells are based on a repeating structure of crystals With (many) ^2 atoms Review: Bonding types and mechanisms Nano: How would the unit cells be changed if there were only 50 to 100 atoms in the configuration? Assignment: Go back to the traditional measurement of properties and consider impact of nanoscale – sample size, measurement equipment and error Influence of measurement equipment, environmental parameters etc.

52 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Interdisciplinary Nature of Nanoscience Students need a way of skipping from one science to the other Materials Science Chemistry Physics Biology Engineering

53 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Micro Arrays

54 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Physics Materials Science Chemistry Biology Engineering Micro arrays DNA SNPs Proteins Bio/non-bio interfaces Measurement mechanisms Photons/electrical

55 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Results Multi- disciplinary program Outreach to educators and high school students Nanoscale concepts in addition to equipment understanding and operation Increasing level of detail as program progresses Core “traditional” science concepts

56 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Things to understand and think about Issue of “clean rooms” –Legacy of electronics industry –Not required for many of emerging “nano” areas Issue of equipment (AFMs, SEMs, TEMs) –Table top/more affordable versions –Combined “regional” labs/business incubators Proprietary/use/funding considerations –Remote use of research lab equipment Operation or observation Interconnected resources On-line general/intro classes (DCTC Nanotechnology Concepts) Robust, interactive, fast, AV connections between campuses

57 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry Observations Scientifically complex subjects can be explained and understood in an applied and conceptual way Research skills should be taught that enable students to find detailed information as needed Students need to know terminology and language that allow them to work as a team member with scientists and engineers Students need to become lifelong learners –How to stay up to date in nanoscience (via professional organizations, articles – which supplement texts)

58 © Copyright Dakota County Technical College and Deb Newberry CurriculumNanoTech will Allow……NanoTech will need…. Graphic DesignFaster computers, more memoryBio savvy designers Nursing/ Medical AssistantRemote, detail patient monitoringProtein awareness, sensor knowledge Automotive TechnologyMore sensors – electronics Stronger, different materials Interpretive knowledge, material know-how Computer TechnologyModeling at the molecular/atomic levelTech’s with atomic understanding Architecture TechnologyStronger but lighter materials Environmental friendly materials Smart walls and lighting RF homes, appliances Students who know about these advances and how to apply then to design Auto BodySelf repair paint, memory encoded body panels Application and use of the new materials Interior DesignColor changing fabrics, acoustical walls, stain resistant furniture, embeddable light panels Designers who are aware of these new applications and products – can use them to increase efficiency and reduce cost TelecommunicationsTotal optical networks, adaptable antennasPhotonics understanding, network understanding Business and Professional Dev.New businesses, changes in technology investments, more interaction with academia New metric understanding, Entrepreneurial, new strategic planning skills, multi-market understanding Marketing and SalesNew markets, product applications and changing customer requirements Sales force that understands nanotechnology impacts to products and customers Concrete and MasonryPolymer coatings that extend lifetime, or can repel dirt and grime. New fabricated materials that are stronger, environmentally safe, contain sensors or electronics – providing enhanced capability beyond structure Technicians and workers who are aware and understand the application, use in design and potential of these new or enhanced products


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