# 1. Metric System: Based on the power of Ten. a. Prefixes i. Kilo- 1000 ii. Centi- 1/100,.01 iii. Milli- 1/1000,.001 2. Base Units a. Length- Meter (m)

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1. Metric System: Based on the power of Ten. a. Prefixes i. Kilo- 1000 ii. Centi- 1/100,.01 iii. Milli- 1/1000,.001 2. Base Units a. Length- Meter (m) b. Volume- Liter (l) c. Mass- Gram (g) Ex. 1.0 m= 100cm 1.0 mL=.001L 1kg= 1000g

3. Volume: The amount of space an object takes up.(cm 3 or mL) a. Volume of liquids i. measured in a graduated cylinder ii. unit (label) = milliliter (ml) b. Volume of Regular Shaped Solids (i.e. rectangles/squares) V = Length X Width X Height H L W cm V =cm X cm X cm Unit (label) = cm 3 or cubic centimeters (Note: 1cm 3 = 1 ml)

A c. Volume of Irregular Solids 1) Water displacement in a graduated cylinder. B rock 10 ml 25 ml V= 25 ml – 10 ml = 15 ml Therefore 15 ml OR 15 cm 3 is the volume of the rock. Unit (label) = ml or cm 3.

4.Mass: The amount of matter an object contains. (How much “stuff “is inside an object.) a. Mass is measured with a Triple Beam Balance. Unit (label) = grams

WHAT IS THE MASS ??????????? 100’s 10’s 1’s Mass = 79.4 grams

Electronic Balance… How do we use this???

DefinitionInstrumentUnit LengthDistance b/w 2 points RulerCm or m VolumeAmount of space an object takes up, size Grad. Cyl. Or L x w x h Ml or cm 3 MassAmount of matter in an object (# of molecules) Scaleg

5. Observation: a description using one or more of your senses. Ex: The sky is blue. The spoiled milk tastes sour. The sandpaper feels rough. 6. Instrument: A man-made device that helps the senses observe better. Ex: hearing aidthermometer rulertriple beam balance

7. Measurement: an observation with a numerical value. Ex: a) It is hot outside. = an observation b) It is 80 o F outside. = a measured observation A. Measurements are made by comparing an object to a known standard. ex: measuring instruments are known standards. (rulers, balances, thermometers)

8. Classification: The process by which objects are put into groups based on similar or common properties. Why do we classify? It makes it easier to study. Organizes data. Ex: Clouds: classified by shape and by altitude Rocks: classified by origin and by texture.

9. Inference: A thought process that provides a possible explanation for observations. (Educated Guess!) Ex: observation: I see a round, smooth rock. Inference: I think the rock was once in a river. Predictions are inferences. Ex: weather forecasts. 10. Percent Deviation (Error): The amount of error in a measurement as compared to the accepted value (actual answer). % Error = Difference between measured and accepted value Accepted Value X 100

% Error = Difference between measured and accepted value Accepted Value X 100 Ex: student measurement = 127.5 g accepted value = 125.0 g % error = 127.5 g – 125.0 g 125.0 g X 100 = 2.0 %

11. Density: The amount of mass (matter) in a certain amount of volume (space). OR How close together the particles (atoms) are in a substance. same volume Less Dense More Dense The closer the particles, the greater the density.

12. Density = Mass Volume (grams per cm 3 ) 2 cm 3 cm 7 cm First find the volume: V = L x W x H V = 2cm x 3cm x 7cm V = 42 cm 3 Mass of the block = 168 g Find the density of the block: D = m / v D = 168 g 42 cm 3 = 4 g/cm 3

Ex: 42 ml 60 ml Mass of the stone = 54 g Find the density of the stone: D= m / v Volume of stone = 60 ml – 42 ml = 18 ml OR 18 cm 3 D= 54 g / 18 cm 3 D= 3 g / cm 3

13. The volume or shape of an object DOES NOT AFFECT IT’S DENSITY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Ex: Pebble of Rock A Block of Rock A M = 12 g V = 2 cm 3 D = m / v = 12g / 2 cm 3 D = 6 g/cm 3 M = 3600 g V = 10cm x 12cm x 5cm = 600cm 3 D = m / v = 3600g / 600 cm 3 D = 6 g/cm 3 10cm 5 cm 12 cm The volume or shape of an object does not affect it’s density!!!!!!!!!

Ex: An object has a density of 3 g/cm3 The object is cut into 10 pieces. What is the density of each piece??? Answer: 3 g/cm 3 Density problems… A. An object has a mass of 48.0 grams and a volume of 60 cm 3. What is the density of the object? D = m / v = 48g / 60cm3 = 0.8 g/cm3

B. The density of an object is found to be 4.2 g/cm 3. What is the volume of this object if it’s mass is 126.4 g? D = m / v4.2 g/cm 3 = 126.4 g X 4.2 g/cm 3 x X = 126.4 g X = 126.4 g 4.2 g /cm 3 X = 30.1 cm 3

C. An object has a density of 2.6 g/cm 3 and a mass of 72.6 g. Another piece of the same object has a mass of 145.2 g. What is the density of this object??? D = 2.6 g/cm 3

14.What can change the density of an object? Three states of matter Solid, Liquid,Gas Most substances have their greatest density as a solid and their least density as a gas. When an object’s temperature increases, it’s density decreases. REASON: Heat causes the particles to speed up and spread apart

15. The Density of Water SolidLiquidGas 0oC0oC100 o C Most Dense 4oC4oC Water has it’s greatest density at 4 o C Solid water (ice) is less dense than liquid water. Less dense materials float in more dense materials. A B A is less dense than B.

16. Graphs A. Graphs show the relationship between 2 variables. B. Types of Graphs 1) Line Graphs x x x y y y As x increases y increases As x increases y decreases As x increases y stays the same a) The steeper the line, the greater the rate (speed) of change shown by the graph.

2) Pie graphs. E AB C D The larger the section, the greater the value. Which section is… Largest Smallest D B 3) Bar Graph Y X The higher the bar the greater the value.

17. Given enough time, everything changes. A. Some changes are fast and therefore are easier to observe or measure. Ex: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions B. Some changes are slow and therefore are harder to observe or measure. Ex: erosion of a mountain, continental drift, growth of a tree 18. Cyclic changes: Changes that repeat at regular intervals. Cyclic changes can be predicted Ex: Seasonsday and night phases of the moonsunrise and sunset

TIME (X axis) (Y axis) CYCLIC CHANGE One cycle

20. Non Cyclic (Random) Changes: Changes that occur at irregular intervals and therefore are difficult to predict. Ex: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, avalanches TIME NON-CYCLIC CHANGE (X axis) (Y axis) No Patterns!!!

ENERGY 1. Energy is the ability to do work. 2. All earth processes are the result of a transfer of energy. 3. Electromagnetic Energy A. Electromagnetic energy is energy in the form of waves.

B. The Structure of Waves AA BB CC 1) Wavelength: the distance between any 2 consecutive waves.

4. Types of Electromagnetic Energy A. Gamma Rays B. X-Rays C. Ultraviolet D. Visible Light E. Infrared F. Microwaves G. Radio waves *** The types of electromagnetic energy are different from each other by their wavelength.

5. The Electromagnetic Spectrum A. A chart that places the types of electromagnetic energy in their order of wavelength. (Reference Tables page 14).

Which form of electromagnetic energy has the longest wavelength?

Which form of electromagnetic energy has the longest wavelength? Radio waves

Which is shorter, UV or Microwaves?

Which is shorter, UV or Microwaves? Ultraviolet

B. The shorter the wavelength, the more dangerous the type of electromagnetic energy is to living things. 6. Speed of Electromagnetic Energy A. ALL TYPES of electromagnetic energy travel at the speed of light. 186,000 miles/sec 300,000 kilometers/sec

7. Temperature and Electromagnetic Energy A. The HOTTER the material, the more electromagnetic energy it gives off. Ex: What gives off more electromagnetic energy, an object at 100 o F or an object at 500 o F? Answer: 500 o F

8. Methods of Energy Transfer A. Conduction 1) In conduction, energy is transferred by the direct touching of particles. 2) Conduction is common in metals. Metal bar (circles are atoms) Atoms touch atoms to move the heat Ex: frying pan on a stove.

Ceiling Floor What happens to the air above the flame (heat)? Heat causes the air to rise (less dense) carrying the heat with it. Ex: winds

C. Radiation 1) In radiation, energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves. 2) No touching of particles needed. No carrier (air or water) needed. 3) Radiation can occur directly across empty space. Ex: The Sun’s energy reaching earth.

9. Direction of Energy Flow A. RULE: Energy always moves away from the warmer area (source) and toward the cooler area (sink). Ex: Ice cube water 70 o inside 40 o outside

10. Temperature A. Temperature is the average speed of the particles of a substance. 1) The faster the particles, the higher the temperature. B. Temperature is measured with a thermometer In degrees.

11. Temperature Scales A. Fahrenheit : U.S. Scale B. Celsius : Metric Scale C. Kelvin : (RT page 13) Ex: -16 o F= ___________ o C 14 o C = ___________ o F 40 o C = ___________ o K 58 -27 313

12. Heat A. Heat is the total speed of the particles of a substance. B. Heat is measured in Joules(calories). 13. Specific Heat A. Specific heat is the amount of heat or joules needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 o C. B. The higher the specific heat the more heat it takes to warm it up.

Specific heat continued…. 1) A high specific heat = harder to heat up. 2) A low specific heat = easier to heat up. 3) Reference Tables front page (top right).

Examples: 1) Which form of water will the temperature rise the quickest when heat is added to it? ______________ Reason: They both have a lower specific heat. 2) Which material takes the least heat to raise its temp?________ Reason: lowest specific heat solid & gas Lead

14. Change of State (Change of phase) A. Latent Heat: The heat involved in a change of state. SOLIDLIQUIDGAS 15. Examples of Phase Changes A. Melting SOLID to a LIQUID 1)Latent heat is gained to melt a substance. B. Freezing LIQUID to a SOLID 1) Latent heat is released to freeze a substance.

C. EvaporationLIQUID to a GAS 1)Latent heat is gained to evaporate a substance. D. Condensation GAS to a LIQUID 1)Latent heat is released to condense a substance. E. Properties of Water (RT front cover)

16. ADD HEAT (Gain) TAKE AWAY HEAT (Release) Melting (80 cal/g) Evaporation (540 cal/g) Condensation (540 cal/g) Freezing (80 cal/g)

17. During a change of state the temperature of a substance STAYS THE SAME.

Temperature ( o C) HEAT A = _______ D=___________ B-C_________________ B=_______ E=___________C-B__________________ C=_______ D-E_______________________ E-D_______________________ -50 (ice) 0 (ice) 0 (liquid) 100 (liquid) 100 (gas/steam) No change in temp. (melting) No change in temp. (freezing) No change in temp. (evaporation) No change in temp. (condensation) A B C DE

18. Earth’s Energy Sources A. Primary source: the Sun. 1) The sun’s energy drives all surface processes on Earth. Ex: the weather B. Secondary Source: Radioactive Decay 1) When radioactive elements inside the earth break down, heat is released. 2) This energy drives all interior processes Ex: earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics

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