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Skysail IRPCS Training © 2010 WWW.SKYSAILTRAINING.CO.UK Collision Regulations IRPCS 1 of 63 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.

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Presentation on theme: "Skysail IRPCS Training © 2010 WWW.SKYSAILTRAINING.CO.UK Collision Regulations IRPCS 1 of 63 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 1 of 63 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea IRPCS - Colregs Assessment Collision Regulations Exam Test yourself – online quiz RYA Day Skipper and Yachtmaster ICC / BSAC Seamanship Mouse click or Page Down to start Feedback is welcome. click on for more tests on Weather and CEVNI, and to buy IRPCS/Colregs, Weather, VHF, Safety, CEVNI and Navigation skills charts. 8 th May 2010

2 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 2 of 63 SKYSAIL SKILLS CHARTS Day Skipper ChartworkWeather VHF Extracts from Skysail Skills Charts on the essential navigation subjects

3 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 3 of 63 Day Skipper Colregs Quiz The full text of IRPCS is here: Before the detailed Yachtmaster Collision Regs questions, there is a short section on what you need to know for the RYA Day Skipper course.

4 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 4 of 63 Day Skipper – Colregs 1 Basic Rules  The rules apply anywhere on the sea or connected to it (subject to local by-laws).  Keep a good lookout at all times by all means available (sight, sound, radar).  Maintain a safe speed for the conditions: waves, hazards, tide, traffic, visibility, depth, manoeuvrability, background lights  The words 'Right of Way' do not occur in the rules. A ‘Stand on' vessel should maintain its course and speed until it is clear that the ‘Give way' vessel is not taking avoiding action. Then all vessels must keep clear.  Action taken to avoid a collision shall be positive, early and safe.  A risk of collision exists if a bearing by compass, radar or transit stays constant.  Navigate on the starboard side of a channel.  When crossing a shipping lane or traffic separation scheme, keep your heading at right angles to the traffic.

5 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 5 of 63 Day Skipper – Colregs 1 Special rules apply in fog: There is no ‘Give Way’ vessel, everyone must keep clear. If you hear any vessel ahead:  sound your signal  slow down but keep steerage way on  stop if necessary  navigate with extreme caution till danger is past.

6 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 6 of 63 Day Skipper - Colregs 2  General Rules for Priority: 1. Not Under Command 2. Restricted Ability to Manoeuvre 3. Constrained by Draught 4. Fishing 5. Sail 6. Motor (including motor sailing) Tugs are treated as motor vessels, unless they are also RAM or CBD Exceptions to General Rules: Narrow channels Traffic Separation Schemes.  Overtaking boats keep clear - sail and power.  Sailing Rules 1. Starboard tack boat 2. Port tack boat Sailing boats on the same tack: Windward boat keeps clear.  Motoring Rules Boats meeting head on - both turn to starboard. If two power vessels are crossing, the boat which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.

7 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 7 of 63 Day Skipper Colregs Quiz 3 What is the meaning of this day shape? Vessel at anchor Keep a good lookout at all times by all possible means What are the rules concerning lookout? Do the words ‘Right of Way’ appear in the Rules? What is the meaning of this flag ? Diver down Keep well clear at slow speed No

8 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 8 of 63 Day Skipper Collision Regulations Sailing vessel Motor sailing What is the meaning of this sign? Vessel fishing Head on: Turn to Starboard Keep to Starboard side of channel Converging: Boat on right stands on B goes behind, slows down or stops Two motor boats meet head on, what action is required? Two motor boats converge B A

9 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 9 of 63 Day Skipper Colregs 4 What action should each vessel take? Windward boat B gives way Port tack boat A gives way One boat overtakes another Two sailing boats on same tack Two sailing boats on opposite tack Wind A B B A Overtaking Boat keeps clear

10 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 10 of 63 Day Skipper Colregs 5 give type of vessel, size and aspect What vessel carries these lights? Motor vessel What vessel carries this light? Sailing Port side What vessel carries this light? Stern light - any vessel Vessel at anchor Small craft Over 50m long From ahead What vessel carries this light? Under 50m long Motor vessel Starboard side

11 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 11 of 63 Yachtmaster Assessments The RYA assessment requires that you achieve 80% in the Collision Regulations assessment. You need to know all that follows in this test

12 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 12 of 63 Application - IRPCS Rule 1 Do the Collision Regulations apply on Lake Geneva? No. This is not the high seas, or navigable water connected with the high seas

13 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 13 of 63 Responsibility – IRPCS Rule 2 Do the words ‘right of way’ appear in the collision regulations? No. It is everyone’s responsibility to avoid a collision, there is no exoneration. There are ‘give way’ vessels and ‘stand on’ vessels.

14 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 14 of 63 General Definitions - Rule 3 Does a sailing yacht which is motor-sailing count as a sailing vessel or a power-driven vessel? What is the definition of “under way”? A power-driven vessel, it is being propelled by machinery Underway: not anchored, or made fast to the shore, or aground. Vessels ‘making way’ are moving through the water by power, sail or oars, but this is not defined in the IRPCS.

15 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 15 of 63 Look-out - IRPCS Rule 5 What do the colregs say about the maintenance of a look-out? May this rule be relaxed by single handed sailors? At all times, by all available means, including sight, sound, and radar if available. No

16 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 16 of 63 Safe Speed – IRPCS Rule 6 What is a safe speed? At a safe speed a vessel can take proper and effective action to avoid collision, and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. Consider:  Stopping and turning ability of your vessel  Visibility  Draught of your vessel and Depth of water  Weather  Sea State  Traffic  Hazards  Background lights at night

17 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 17 of 63 Risk of Collision - Rule 7 How do you determine that a risk of collision exists? Take bearings of an approaching vessel. If the bearings stay constant and the distance is closing there is a risk of collision.

18 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 18 of 63 Action to avoid Collision - Rule 8 What are the rules about action to avoid a collision? Your action should obvious to another vessel. Your action should be safe Action should be early, in ample time. At night, show another aspect of your lights.

19 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 19 of 63 Narrow Channels - Rule 9 What are the rules for any sailing vessel, and vessels less than 20m in length, in narrow channels? They must not impede the passage of a vessel which can navigate safely only in the channel.

20 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 20 of 63 Traffic Separation Schemes – Colregs Rule 10 When you cross a Traffic Separation Scheme, do you make Heading or Ground Track at right angles to the lane? Your heading should be as nearly as practicable at right angles to the traffic flow. This is the quickest route and shows the maximum aspect of your boat to vessels using the lane. Also you have the best view of traffic. Tide Ground track

21 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 21 of 63 Sailing Vessels – IRPCS Rule 12 When two sailing vessels on opposite tacks meet, which gives way to the other: The vessel with the wind on the port side (on port tack) Port tack boat A gives way Wind A B

22 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 22 of 63 Sailing Vessels – IRPCS Rule 12 When two sailing vessels on the same tack meet which gives way to the other: The vessel to windward of the other Windward boat B gives way B Wind A

23 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 23 of 63 Sailing Vessels – Colregs Rule 12 A sailing vessel on port tack sees another sailing vessel ahead to windward but is not certain whether the other vessel is on port or starboard tack. Does she: stand on or give way? She gives way

24 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 24 of 63 Overtaking – Colregs Rule 13 When is a vessel overtaking? A planing sailing dinghy is overtaking a motor cruiser. Which keeps clear? Any overtaking vessel must keep clear When it is approaching from an angle more than 22.5º abaft the beam of another vessel (ie in the arc of the stern light). 22.5º

25 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 25 of 63 Overtaking - IRPCS Rule 13 Assume you are overtaking and act accordingly. Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear. What should you do if you are not sure you are overtaking? What happens if you change your course or speed to come out of the overtaking sector?

26 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 26 of 63 Head-on Situation - Colregs Rule 14 When two power-driven vessels meet head on, what action should they take? Both vessels alter course to starboard and make a sound signal (1 short blast)

27 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 27 of 63 Crossing situation – IRPCS Rule 15 Two power-driven vessels are crossing. Who keeps clear, and what action should she take? The vessel with the other on her starboard side. (At night, she could see a red light on the other vessel).  She must slow down, or alter course to starboard to clear the other vessel’s stern, and make a sound signal (1 short blast).

28 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 28 of 63 Action by give-way vessel - Rule 16 What kind of action should be taken by the vessel required to keep clear? It should be and early, in ample time substantial

29 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 29 of 63 Action by stand on vessel - Rule 17 What is the ‘stand-on’ vessel required to do? What should the ‘stand on’ vessel do if a collision appears imminent Maintain her course Take action to avoid the collision and speed

30 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 30 of 63 Responsibilities between vessels - Collision Regulations Rule 18 List the following in order of priority Vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvre Power driven vessel Fishing vessel Sailing vessel Vessel Not Under Command Vessel Constrained by Draught Vessel Not Under Command Vessel Restricted in Ability to Manœuvre Vessel Constrained by Draught Fishing vessel Sailing vessel Power vessel

31 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 31 of 63 Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility – Colregs Rule 19 In restricted visibility what must all vessels ensure regarding their speed and means of propulsion?  A safe speed suitable for the prevailing circumstances.  Engines are ready for immediate manoeuvre.

32 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 32 of 63 Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility - Rule 19 In restricted visibility, you hear the fog signal of vessel ahead of you. What must you do? Sound your fog signal. Reduce speed to the minimum while maintaining steerage way. Stop if necessary. Navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over

33 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 33 of 63 Collision Regulations – Under Way Which vessels can you distinguish as either ‘under way’ or ‘making way’ at night? 1. Not Under Command 2. Restricted Ability to Manœuvre 3. Fishing All other vessels can only be identified as ‘under way’ at night.

34 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 34 of 63 Collision Regulations: Under way/ Making Way How do vessels at night indicate they are making way?  Not Under Command: shows side and stern lights NB no steaming light at masthead.  Restricted Ability to Manœuvre, and Fishing: show side lights, stern lights and masthead (steaming) lights.

35 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 35 of 63 Collision Regulations Which vessels can only be distinguished as ‘under way’ at night? 1. Sail 2. Power 3. Constrained By Draught 4. Pilot Define Tugs as ‘Towing’.

36 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 36 of 63 Definitions – IRPCS Rule 21 Match the lights listed to their arcs of visibility: Masthead light, Sidelight, Stern light, All round light 360º 112.5º on each side of bow 112.5º on one side of bow only 67.5º on each side of stern All-round light Masthead light Side light Stern light (overtaking sector is 22.5 º aft of the beam)

37 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 37 of 63 Collision Regulations Rule 24 What lights are shown by a tug with: length of tow 200m or less length of tow greater than 200m?  One additional masthead light.  Yellow towing light at the stern  Two additional masthead lights  Yellow towing light at the stern

38 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 38 of 63 Collision Regulations Rule 24 What lights are shown by a vessel being towed?  Sidelights and a Sternlight (Same as a sailing vessel, ie no power)

39 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 39 of 63 Fishing Vessels – Colregs Rule 26 At night, what lights are shown by a vessel engaged in trawling ? What is its day shape? All-round green over all-round white Two cones, apex together

40 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 40 of 63 IRPCS Rule 26 At night, what lights are shown by a vessel engaged in fishing, not trawling,? If its gear extends more than 150m to the side, what additional light and shape must it show? All-round white light in the direction of the gear All-round red over all round white

41 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 41 of 63 IRPCS Rule 27 What lights are shown by a vessel not under command? What day shape must it show? Two all-round red lights Two balls in a vertical line

42 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 42 of 63 Vessels not under command or restricted in ability to manoeuvre – Colregs Rule 27 What lights are shown by a vessel when it is restricted in its ability to manœuvre? What day shapes must it show? All-round red, white, red in a vertical line Ball, diamond, ball in a vertical line 1 metre apart

43 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 43 of 63 IRPCS Rule 27 When a vessel is carrying out dredging, how does it indicate the safe side to pass? The unsafe side? Unsafe: two 360º red lights vertical Two vertical balls Safe: two 360 º green lights vertical Two vertical diamonds

44 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 44 of 63 IRPCS Rule 27 What lights are shown by a vessel engaged in mine clearance? What shapes by day? Three all-round green lights, one at the masthead and one at the end of each yard Three balls

45 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 45 of 63 IRPCS Rule 28 What lights are shown by a vessel constrained by her draught? What day shape? Three all-round red lights A cylinder 1m x 2m

46 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 46 of 63 Collision Regulations Rule 29 What lights are shown by a vessel on pilot duty? What will the pilot vessel show by day? What sound signals are made by a pilot vessel on duty All-round white over all-round red Flag ‘H’ Four short blasts ( Morse ‘H’ )

47 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 47 of 63 Collision Regulations Rule 30 What lights are shown by vessels less than 50m in length at anchor? What shape by day? What additional light is shown at anchor by a vessel > 50m long? All-round white light forward A ball forward An all-round white light low down near the stern > 50 m port aspect

48 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 48 of 63 Collision Regulations Rule 30 What lights are shown by vessels aground? What day shape? Three balls in a vertical line Anchor lights plus two vertical all-round red lights Port side > 50m)

49 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 49 of 63 Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 34 When a vessel makes the following sound signals in good visibility what do they mean? One short blast Two short blasts Three short blasts Five or more short rapid blasts I am altering course to starboard I am altering course to port I am operating astern propulsion What are your intentions

50 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 50 of 63 Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 34 What do the following signals mean when made between vessels in a narrow channel? One long blast Two long followed by one short blast Two long followed by two short blasts One long, one short, one long & one short I intend to overtake on your starboard side I intend to overtake on your port side ‘Affirmative’ (by vessel being overtaken) Vessels approaching blind bend (here I come sounding one)

51 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 51 of 63 Manœuvring and Warning Signals – Colregs Rule 35 What sounds should the following vessels make in restricted visibility? A vessel not under command A vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvre A vessel constrained by draught A fishing vessel A sailing vessel A tug One long followed by two short blasts every 2 mins

52 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 52 of 63 Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 35 What sounds should the following vessels make in restricted visibility? Power vessel making way Power driven vessel stopped, not making way A vessel constrained by draught A sailing vessel A Pilot boat on duty One long blast every 2 minutes Two long blasts every 2 minutes One long followed by two short every 2 mins Four short blasts (in addition to one long blast for a motor vessel)

53 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 53 of 63 Manœuvring and Warning Signals – IRPCS Rule 35 In fog, you hear one long blast followed by three short. What is it? In fog, you hear a bell rung rapidly for 5 seconds, then a gong, every minute. What is it? A vessel under tow (last vessel in tow) A vessel >100m long at anchor Forward Aft

54 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 54 of 63 Distress Signals - Rule 37 What are the International Distress signals?

55 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 55 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions In the questions that follow, give all possible information: Type of vessel (NUC, RAM, CBD etc) Power or sail Under way or making way Length Aspect (starboard, port, stern, bow) Length of tug and Length of tow It can help to draw up a table like this, and complete all possible items Vessel typePower / sailLengthAspectUnderway Making way Tug Tow

56 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 56 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions You see a single white light. What is it? (3 answers) 1.The stern light of another boat 2.An anchor light 3.A light shown by a vessel < 7m and < 7 knots eg a small motor boat or dinghy with a torch

57 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 57 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions When does a sailing vessel on starboard tack give way to another vessel? 1. When it is overtaking boat 2. When it is to windward of another boat on starboard tack 3. When it meets another vessel which is NUC, RAM, CBD, Fishing. 4. When it meets a motor vessel which can only navigate within a narrow channel, or in a Traffic Separation Scheme.

58 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 58 of 63 More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights? Motor vessel > 50m long Bow aspect Constrained by Draught Under way

59 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 59 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights? Length not known Vessel Not under command Starboard aspect Making way

60 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 60 of 63 More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights? Length not known Vessel Trawling Stern aspect Making way

61 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 61 of 63 More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights? Sailing Vessel Under way Starboard aspect Length < 20m

62 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 62 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights? Vessel at anchor Length > 50m Starboard aspect

63 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 63 of 63 More Collision Regs questions  Vessel towing. Length over 50m. Port side. Tow less than 200 metres long  Vessel towing, length under 50m. Starboard side  Tow over 200 metres long What vessel carries these lights?

64 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 64 of 63 More IRPCS Test Questions What is meant by the following sound signals?? Motor vessel – stopped in restricted visibility Additional warning – vessel anchored in restricted visibility My engines are in astern propulsion Pilot vessel – making way in fog I intend to overtake to starboard I intend to overtake to port Affirmative

65 Skysail IRPCS Training © Collision Regulations IRPCS 65 of 63 Colregs, IRPCS International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea


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