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1Feedback is welcome. click on www.skysailtraining.co.uk for more tests on Weather and CEVNI, and to buy IRPCS/Colregs, Weather, VHF, Safety, CEVNI and Navigation skills charts.International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea IRPCS - Colregs Assessment Collision Regulations Exam Test yourself – online quiz RYA Day Skipper and Yachtmaster ICC / BSAC Seamanship Mouse click or Page Down to start8th May 2010
2SKYSAIL SKILLS CHARTS http://www. btinternet. com/~keith Extracts from Skysail Skills Charts on the essential navigation subjectsDay SkipperVHFWeatherChartwork
3Day Skipper Colregs Quiz The full text of IRPCS is here:Before the detailed Yachtmaster Collision Regs questions, there is a short section on what you need to know for the RYA Day Skipper course.
4Day Skipper – Colregs 1 Basic Rules The rules apply anywhere on the sea or connected to it (subject to local by-laws).Keep a good lookout at all times by all means available (sight, sound, radar).Maintain a safe speed for the conditions: waves, hazards, tide, traffic, visibility, depth, manoeuvrability, background lightsThe words 'Right of Way' do not occur in the rules. A ‘Stand on' vessel should maintain its course and speed until it is clear that the ‘Give way' vessel is not taking avoiding action. Then all vessels must keep clear.Action taken to avoid a collision shall be positive, early and safe.A risk of collision exists if a bearing by compass, radar or transit stays constant.Navigate on the starboard side of a channel.When crossing a shipping lane or traffic separation scheme, keep your heading at right angles to the traffic.
5Day Skipper – Colregs 1 Special rules apply in fog: There is no ‘Give Way’ vessel, everyone must keep clear.If you hear any vessel ahead:sound your signalslow down but keep steerage way onstop if necessarynavigate with extreme caution till danger is past.
6Day Skipper - Colregs 2 General Rules for Priority: 1. Not Under Command 2. Restricted Ability to Manoeuvre 3. Constrained by Draught 4. Fishing 5. Sail 6. Motor (including motor sailing) Tugs are treated as motor vessels, unless they are also RAM or CBDExceptions to General Rules: Narrow channels Traffic Separation Schemes.Overtaking boats keep clear - sail and power.Sailing Rules1. Starboard tack boat 2. Port tack boat Sailing boats on the same tack: Windward boat keeps clear.Motoring RulesBoats meeting head on - both turn to starboard.If two power vessels are crossing, the boat which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.
7Day Skipper Colregs Quiz 3 What is the meaning of this day shape?What are the rules concerning lookout?Vessel at anchorKeep a good lookout at all times by all possible meansWhat is the meaning of this flag ?Do the words ‘Right of Way’ appear in the Rules?NoDiver downKeep well clear at slow speed
8Day Skipper Collision Regulations Two motor boats meet head on, what action is required?What is the meaning of this sign?Head on: Turn to Starboard Keep to Starboard side of channelSailing vesselMotor sailingWhat is the meaning of this sign?Two motor boats convergeBAConverging: Boat on right stands onB goes behind, slows down or stopsVessel fishing
9Day Skipper Colregs 4 What action should each vessel take? Two sailing boats on same tackTwo sailing boats on opposite tackWindABBWindAWindward boat B gives wayPort tack boat A gives wayOne boat overtakes anotherOvertaking Boat keeps clear
10Day Skipper Colregs 5 give type of vessel, size and aspect What vessel carries this light?What vessel carries these lights?Over 50m longMotor vesselVessel at anchorFrom aheadStern light - any vesselSmall craftWhat vessel carries this light?What vessel carries this light?Motor vesselSailing Port sideUnder 50m longStarboard side
11Yachtmaster Assessments The RYA assessment requires that you achieve 80% in the Collision Regulations assessment.You need to know all that follows in this test
12Application - IRPCS Rule 1 Do the Collision Regulations apply on Lake Geneva?No. This is not the high seas, or navigable water connected with the high seas
13Responsibility – IRPCS Rule 2 Do the words ‘right of way’ appear in the collision regulations?No.It is everyone’s responsibility to avoid a collision, there is no exoneration.There are ‘give way’ vessels and ‘stand on’ vessels.
14General Definitions - Rule 3 Does a sailing yacht which is motor-sailing count as a sailing vessel or a power-driven vessel?What is the definition of “under way”?A power-driven vessel, it is being propelled by machineryUnderway: not anchored, or made fast to the shore, or aground.Vessels ‘making way’ are moving through the water by power, sail or oars, but this is not defined in the IRPCS.
15What do the colregs say about the maintenance of a look-out? Look-out - IRPCS Rule 5What do the colregs say about the maintenance of a look-out?May this rule be relaxed by single handed sailors?At all times, by all available means, including sight, sound, and radar if available.No
16Safe Speed – IRPCS Rule 6 What is a safe speed? At a safe speed a vessel can take proper and effective action to avoid collision, and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.Consider:Stopping and turning ability of your vesselVisibilityDraught of your vessel and Depth of waterWeatherSea StateTrafficHazardsBackground lights at night
17Risk of Collision - Rule 7 How do you determine that a risk of collision exists?Take bearings of an approaching vessel.If the bearings stay constant and the distance is closing there is a risk of collision.
18Action to avoid Collision - Rule 8 What are the rules about action to avoid a collision?Action should be early, in ample time.Your action should obvious to another vessel.At night, show another aspect of your lights.Your action should be safe
19Narrow Channels - Rule 9What are the rules for any sailing vessel, and vessels less than 20m in length, in narrow channels?They must not impede the passage of a vessel which can navigate safely only in the channel.
20Traffic Separation Schemes – Colregs Rule 10 When you cross a Traffic Separation Scheme, do you make Heading or Ground Track at right angles to the lane?Your heading should be as nearly as practicable at right angles to the traffic flow.This is the quickest route and shows the maximum aspect of your boat to vessels using the lane. Also you have the best view of traffic.TideGround track
21Sailing Vessels – IRPCS Rule 12 When two sailing vessels on opposite tacks meet, which gives way to the other:The vessel with the wind on the port side(on port tack)WindPort tack boat A gives wayAB
22Sailing Vessels – IRPCS Rule 12 When two sailing vessels on the same tack meet which gives way to the other:The vessel to windward of the otherWindward boat B gives wayWindBA
23Sailing Vessels – Colregs Rule 12 A sailing vessel on port tack sees another sailing vessel ahead to windward but is not certain whether the other vessel is on port or starboard tack.Does she: stand on or give way?She gives way
24Overtaking – Colregs Rule 13 When is a vessel overtaking?A planing sailing dinghy is overtaking a motor cruiser.Which keeps clear?When it is approaching from an angle more than 22.5º abaft the beam of another vessel (ie in the arc of the stern light).22.5ºAny overtaking vessel must keep clear
25Overtaking - IRPCS Rule 13 What should you do if you are not sure you are overtaking?Assume you are overtaking and act accordingly.What happens if you change your course or speed to come out of the overtaking sector?Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.
26Head-on Situation - Colregs Rule 14 When two power-driven vessels meet head on, what action should they take?Both vessels alter course to starboard and makea sound signal (1 short blast)
27Crossing situation – IRPCS Rule 15 Two power-driven vessels are crossing. Who keeps clear, and what action should she take?The vessel with the other on her starboard side. (At night, she could see a red light on the other vessel).She must slow down, or alter course to starboard to clear the other vessel’s stern, and make a sound signal (1 short blast).
28Action by give-way vessel - Rule 16 What kind of action should be taken by the vessel required to keep clear?It should beandearly, in ample timesubstantial
29Action by stand on vessel - Rule 17 What is the ‘stand-on’ vessel required to do?What should the ‘stand on’ vessel do if a collision appears imminentMaintain her courseand speedTake action to avoid the collision
30Responsibilities between vessels - Collision Regulations Rule 18 List the following in order of priorityVessel restricted in ability to manoeuvrePower driven vesselFishing vesselSailing vesselVessel Not Under CommandVessel Constrained by DraughtVessel Not Under Command123456Vessel Restricted in Ability to ManœuvreVessel Constrained by DraughtFishing vesselSailing vesselPower vessel
31Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility – Colregs Rule 19 In restricted visibility what must all vessels ensure regarding their speed and means of propulsion?A safe speed suitable for the prevailing circumstances.Engines are ready for immediate manoeuvre.
32Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility - Rule 19 In restricted visibility, you hear the fog signal of vessel ahead of you. What must you do?1234Sound your fog signal.Reduce speed to the minimum while maintaining steerage way.Stop if necessary.Navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.
33Collision Regulations – Under Way Which vessels can you distinguish as either ‘under way’ or ‘making way’ at night?Not Under CommandRestricted Ability to ManœuvreFishingAll other vessels can only be identified as ‘under way’ at night.
34Collision Regulations: Under way/ Making Way How do vessels at night indicate they are making way?Not Under Command:shows side and stern lights NB no steaming light at masthead.Restricted Ability to Manœuvre, and Fishing:show side lights, stern lights and masthead (steaming) lights.
35Collision Regulations Which vessels can only be distinguished as ‘under way’ at night?SailPowerConstrained By DraughtPilotDefine Tugs as ‘Towing’.
36Definitions – IRPCS Rule 21 Match the lights listed to their arcs of visibility:Masthead light, Sidelight, Stern light, All round light360º112.5º on each side of bow112.5º on one side of bow only67.5º on each side of sternAll-round lightMasthead lightSide lightStern light (overtaking sector is 22.5 º aft of the beam)
37Collision Regulations Rule 24 What lights are shown by a tug with:length of tow 200m or lesslength of tow greater than 200m?One additional masthead light.Yellow towing light at the sternTwo additional masthead lightsYellow towing light at the stern
38Collision Regulations Rule 24 What lights are shown by a vessel being towed?Sidelights and a Sternlight(Same as a sailing vessel, ie no power)
39Fishing Vessels – Colregs Rule 26 At night, what lights are shown by a vessel engaged in trawling ?What is its day shape?All-round green over all-round whiteTwo cones, apex together
40IRPCS Rule 26 All-round red over all round white At night, what lights are shown by a vessel engaged in fishing, not trawling,?If its gear extends more than 150m to the side, what additional light and shape must it show?All-round red over all round whiteAll-round white light in the direction of the gear
41IRPCS Rule 27What lights are shown by a vessel not under command?What day shape must it show?Two all-round red lightsTwo balls in a vertical line
42What day shapes must it show? Vessels not under command or restricted in ability to manoeuvre – Colregs Rule 27What lights are shown by a vessel when it is restricted in its ability to manœuvre?What day shapes must it show?All-round red, white, red in a vertical lineBall, diamond, ball in a vertical line1 metre apart
43IRPCS Rule 27When a vessel is carrying out dredging, how does it indicate the safe side to pass?The unsafe side?Safe: two 360 º green lights verticalTwo vertical diamondsUnsafe: two 360º red lights verticalTwo vertical balls
44IRPCS Rule 27What lights are shown by a vessel engaged in mine clearance?What shapes by day?Three all-round green lights, one at the masthead and one at the end of each yardThree balls
45Three all-round red lights IRPCS Rule 28What lights are shown by a vessel constrained by her draught?What day shape?Three all-round red lightsA cylinder1m x 2m
46Collision Regulations Rule 29 What lights are shown by a vessel on pilot duty?What will the pilot vessel show by day?What sound signals are made by a pilot vessel on dutyAll-round white over all-round redFlag ‘H’Four short blasts (Morse ‘H’)
47Collision Regulations Rule 30 What lights are shown by vessels less than 50m in length at anchor?What shape by day?What additional light is shown at anchor by a vessel > 50m long?All-round white light forwardA ball forwardAn all-round white light low down near the stern> 50 m port aspect
48Collision Regulations Rule 30 What lights are shown by vessels aground?What day shape?Anchor lights plus two vertical all-round red lightsPort side > 50m)Three balls in a vertical line
49Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 34 When a vessel makes the following sound signals in good visibility what do they mean?One short blastTwo short blastsThree short blastsFive or more short rapid blastsI am altering course to starboardI am altering course to portI am operating astern propulsionWhat are your intentions
50Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 34 What do the following signals mean when made between vessels in a narrow channel?One long blastTwo long followed by one short blastTwo long followed by two short blastsOne long, one short, one long & one shortVessels approaching blind bend (here I come sounding one)I intend to overtake on your starboard sideI intend to overtake on your port side‘Affirmative’ (by vessel being overtaken)
51Manœuvring and Warning Signals – Colregs Rule 35 What sounds should the following vessels make in restricted visibility?A vessel not under commandA vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvreA vessel constrained by draughtA fishing vesselA sailing vesselA tugOne long followed by two short blasts every 2 mins
52Manœuvring and Warning Signals - Rule 35 What sounds should the following vessels make in restricted visibility?Power vessel making wayPower driven vessel stopped, not making wayA vessel constrained by draughtA sailing vesselA Pilot boat on dutyOne long blast every 2 minutesTwo long blasts every 2 minutesOne long followed by two short every 2 minsOne long followed by two short every 2 minsFour short blasts (in addition to one long blast for a motor vessel)
53Manœuvring and Warning Signals – IRPCS Rule 35 In fog , you hear one long blast followed by three short. What is it?In fog, you hear a bell rung rapidly for 5 seconds, then a gong, every minute. What is it?A vessel under tow (last vessel in tow)A vessel >100m long at anchorForwardAft
54Distress Signals - Rule 37 What are the International Distress signals?
55More IRPCS Test Questions In the questions that follow, give all possible information:Type of vessel (NUC, RAM, CBD etc)Power or sailUnder way or making wayLengthAspect (starboard, port, stern, bow)Length of tug and Length of towIt can help to draw up a table like this, and complete all possible itemsVessel typePower / sailLengthAspectUnderway Making wayTug Tow
56More IRPCS Test Questions You see a single white light. What is it? (3 answers)The stern light of another boatAn anchor lightA light shown by a vessel < 7m and < 7 knots eg a small motor boat or dinghy with a torch
57More IRPCS Test Questions When does a sailing vessel on starboard tack give way to another vessel?When it is overtaking boatWhen it is to windward of another boat on starboard tackWhen it meets another vessel which is NUC, RAM, CBD, Fishing.When it meets a motor vessel which can only navigate within a narrow channel, or in a Traffic Separation Scheme.
58More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights?> 50m longConstrained by DraughtUnder wayMotor vesselBow aspect
59More IRPCS Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights?Vessel Not under commandStarboard aspectMaking wayLength not known
60More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights?Vessel TrawlingStern aspectMaking wayLength not known
61More Colregs Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights?Sailing VesselUnder wayStarboard aspectLength < 20m
62More IRPCS Test Questions What vessel shows the following lights?Vessel at anchorStarboard aspectLength > 50m
63More Collision Regs questions What vessel carries these lights?Vessel towing. Length over 50m. Port side. Tow less than 200 metres longWhat vessel carries these lights?Vessel towing, length under 50m. Starboard sideTow over 200 metres long
64More IRPCS Test Questions What is meant by the following sound signals??Motor vessel – stopped in restricted visibilityAdditional warning – vessel anchored in restricted visibilityMy engines are in astern propulsionPilot vessel – making way in fogI intend to overtake to starboardI intend to overtake to portAffirmative
65International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea Colregs, IRPCSInternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea