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13 4/12/2017 Study of Imbibition Mechanisms in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area Yan Fidra Petroleum and Chemical Engineering Department New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

14 Outline Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling Conclusions
4/12/2017 Outline Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling Conclusions Recommendations

15 Outline Introduction Problem statement Literature review Objectives
4/12/2017 Outline Introduction Problem statement Literature review Objectives Overview of the study Laboratory Experiments Modeling Conclusions Recommendations

16 4/12/2017 Problem Statement Lack in understanding of upscaling laboratory imbibition experiments to field dimensions Wetting behavior - Low rock permeability that represent real thing - Static and dynamic process - Reservoir conditions

17 Literature Review 4/12/2017 rock characteristics (Mattax and Kyte, 1962; Torsaeter, 1984; Thomas 1984; Hamon and Vidal, 1988) fluid properties (Iffly et al., 1972; Cuiec et al., 1990; Keijzer and De Vries, 1990; Ghedan and Poetmann, 1990; Schechter et al., 1991; Babadagli, 1995; Al-Lawati and Saleh, 1996) low permeability of Chalk reservoir (Torsaeter, 1984; Bourbiaux and Kalaydjian, 1990; Cuiec et al., 1990) wettability (Anderson, 1986; Hirasaki, et al, 1990; Zhou et al., 1995; Buckley, et al , 1995) aging time and temperature and initial water saturations (Zhou et al., 1993; Jadhunandan and Morrow, 1991) scaling of imbibition data (Mattax and Kyte, 1962; Lefebvre du Prey, 1978; Ma, 1995; Zhang et al, 1996)

18 4/12/2017 Objectives To investigate wettability of Spraberry Trend Area at reservoir conditions. To upscale the laboratory imbibition results to field-scale dimensions. To investigate the contribution of the capillary imbibition mechanism to waterflood recovery. To determine the critical water injection rate during dynamic imbibition.

19 Fracture Capillary Number
4/12/2017 Overview of the Study Dynamic imbibition Static imbibition Determine rock wettability Capillary pressure curve Determine laboratory critical injection rate Fracture Capillary Number Scaling equations Upscaling Upscaling Field dimension

20 Outline Laboratory Experiments Static Imbibition Tests
4/12/2017 Outline Introduction Laboratory Experiments Static Imbibition Tests Verify the effect of P & T on recovery mechanisms Determine rock wettability index Dynamic Imbibition Tests Investigate the effect of injection rate on recovery mechanism Determine critical injection rate Modeling Conclusions Recommendations

21 Static Imbibition Experiments
4/12/2017 Static Imbibition Experiments Materials Experimental apparatus Results

22 Synthetic Reservoir Brine
4/12/2017 Materials Fluids Crude Oil Synthetic Reservoir Brine (TDS = 130,196 ppm) Porous Media Berea sandstone Low permeability Spraberry rock

23 Schematic Diagram of the Static Imbibition Process in Laboratory
4/12/2017 Schematic Diagram of the Static Imbibition Process in Laboratory 138oF Imbibition model with one end closed 1.5” X ” Core core oil Synthetic brine water beaker

24 Experimental Set-up for Imbibition Tests under HPHT
4/12/2017 Experimental Set-up for Imbibition Tests under HPHT Side View Air Bath NV BV BV PR Brine Tank High Pressure core Imbibition Graduated Cylinder Cell BV N2 Bottle (2000 psi) BV = Ball Valve NV = Needle Valve PR = Pressure Regulator Top View Inlet for creating tangential flow

25 Confining pressure gauge
4/12/2017 Flooding Apparatus Brine Pump Oil Pump Air Bath Core holder Confining pressure gauge Graduated cylinder Oil tank Brine tank

26 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Static Imbibition
4/12/2017 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Static Imbibition Rate and Recovery using Berea Sandstone

27 Effect of Temperature on Static Imbibition
4/12/2017 Effect of Temperature on Static Imbibition Rate and Recovery using Spraberry Reservoir Rock 138oF 70oF

28 Experimental Procedures for determining WI using Spraberry Cores
4/12/2017 Experimental Procedures for determining WI using Spraberry Cores Cleaning Spraberry core plugs Dean Stark Extraction Chloroform Displacement Drying (2 days) Evacuated Spraberry brine Evacuation (24 hours) Measure brine density and viscosity Weight Saturation of core samples Ionic equilibrium (3 days) Porosity calculation Oil viscosity, density and Brine permeability IFT measurements Recheck the porosity Oil flooding Establish Swi i Aging core samples in oil Aging time (days) Aging time (days) No aging time at reservoir temperature at reservoir temperature Imbibition tests (21 days) Imbibition tests (21 days) Imbibition tests (2 months) at reservoir temperature at reservoir temperature at ambient condition Brine displacement Brine displacement Brine displacement at reservoir temperature at room temperature at room temperature Results

29 Amott Wettability Index
4/12/2017 Static imbibition Amott Wettability Index Displacement A B 1 less more Water-wet

30 4/12/2017 Oil Recovery Curves Obtained from Static Imbibition Experiments at Reservoir Temperature Static imbibition A Spraberry cores

31 4/12/2017 Static imbibition Total recovery vs aging time shows that 7 days aging time is adequate to start the experiments Displacement A B Spraberry cores

32 Wettability index vs aging time
4/12/2017 Static imbibition Wettability index vs aging time for different experimental temperatures Displacement A B Spraberry cores

33 Dynamic Imbibition Experiments
4/12/2017 Dynamic Imbibition Experiments Schematic of displacement process Experimental apparatus Results

34 4/12/2017 Schematic Representation of the Displacement Process in Fractured Porous Medium MATRIX BLOCK Water Oil + Water FRACTURE MATRIX BLOCK Oil saturated matrix Imbibed water Capillary imbibition Viscous flow Oil produced

35 Artificially fractured core
4/12/2017 Experimental Apparatus for Dynamic Imbibition Tests Artificially fractured core Fracture Air Bath Core holder Brine tank Confining pressure gauge Graduated cylinder N2 Tank (2000 psi) Ruska Pump Matrix

36 4/12/2017 Oil Recovery from Fractured Berea Cores during Water Injection using Different Injection Rates

37 4/12/2017 Oil Recovery from Fractured Spraberry Cores during Water Injection using Different Injection Rates Unfractured core Fractured core

38 Injection rate versus oil-cut curve for Berea and Spraberry cores
4/12/2017 Injection rate versus oil-cut curve for Berea and Spraberry cores

39 Outline Modeling Static imbibition data Dynamic imbibition data
4/12/2017 Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling Static imbibition data Investigate Pc from matching of experimental data. Scale up of static imbibition data. Dynamic imbibition data Obtain Pc curves from matching of experimental data. Scale up of dynamic imbibition data. Conclusions Recommendations

40 Modeling of Static Imbibition
4/12/2017 Modeling of Static Imbibition Numerical Analysis of Static Imbibition Data Scaling of static imbibition data Results

41 Numerical Analysis of Static Imbibition Data
4/12/2017 Numerical Analysis of Static Imbibition Data Matching between Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Solution Capillary Pressure Curve Obtained as a Result of Matching Experimental data

42 4/12/2017 Scaling of Imbibition Data “Concept of Imbibition Flooding Process” ( Brownscombe, 1952 ) Invaded zone Oil production by water imbibition Matrix Water Oil production Fracture water oil Capillary force fracture matrix Matrix fracture fluid exchange mechanism Viscous force To investigate the contribution of a static imbibition process to waterflood recovery

43 Complete Oil Recovery Curves Obtained from Imbibition Experiments
4/12/2017 Complete Oil Recovery Curves Obtained from Imbibition Experiments Spraberry cores Imbibition A No aging

44 Oil Recovery Curves in Terms of Dimensionless Variables
4/12/2017 Oil Recovery Curves in Terms of Dimensionless Variables

45 Averaging of imbibition curves
4/12/2017 Averaging of imbibition curves

46 Equations for Scaling of Static Imbibition Data
4/12/2017 Equations for Scaling of Static Imbibition Data ; C = 10.66

47 Rock Properties of Upper Spraberry 1U Unit
4/12/2017 Rock Properties of Upper Spraberry 1U Unit

48 Recovery Profile 1U Upper Spraberry 1 U Formation (Shackleford-138)
4/12/2017 Recovery Profile 1U h = 10 ft Ls = 3.79 ft Upper Spraberry 1 U Formation (Shackleford-138)

49 Effect of Matrix Permeability and Fracture Spacing on Oil Recovery
4/12/2017

50 Modeling of Dynamic Imbibition Data
4/12/2017 Modeling of Dynamic Imbibition Data Numerical analysis of dynamic imbibition data to obtain capillary curves. Concept of fracture capillary number. Upscaling of dynamic imbibition data to determine critical water injection rate.

51 Matching Between Experimental Data and Numerical Solution
4/12/2017 Berea Core Matching Between Experimental Data and Numerical Solution Cumulative water production vs. time Cumulative oil production vs. time Cumulative water production vs. time Spraberry Core Cumulative oil production vs. time

52 Pc Curves Obtained as Result of Matching Experiment Data
4/12/2017 Pc Curves Obtained as Result of Matching Experiment Data Pc from Numerical Model and Laboratory Experiment Berea core Spraberry core

53 Fracture Capillary Number
4/12/2017 Fracture Capillary Number Lab Units : Viscous force (v w Af ) Capillary force ( cos  Am) w h dz Am Field Units : Af

54 Injection Rate versus Oil-cut
4/12/2017 Injection Rate versus Oil-cut

55 Dimensionless fracture capillary number versus oil-cut
4/12/2017 Dimensionless fracture capillary number versus oil-cut

56 Upscaling of Critical Injection Rate
4/12/2017 Upscaling of Critical Injection Rate

57 O’Daniel Pilot Layout Fracture orientation 4/12/2017 5U (N32E)
1000 3000 2000 4000 5000 FEET 3 16 1-4 15 6 1A 1 5 14 9 13 10 4 7 28 23 2 1C 36 37 25 21 29 1B PROPOSED CO2 INJECTION WELL PROPOSED LOGGING OBSERVATION WATER INJECTION WELL PLUGGED AND ABANDONED ACTIVE PRODUCER SHUT IN WELL 46 45 47 41 42 44 40 39 38 43 48 5U (N32E) 5U (N80E) 1U (N42E) Fracture orientation

58 4/12/2017 Estimate Critical Water Injection Rates for Wells in O’Daniel Pilot Area

59 Outline Conclusions Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling
4/12/2017 Outline Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling Conclusions Recommendations

60 Conclusions Wettability Determination
4/12/2017 Conclusions Wettability Determination Performing the imbibition tests at reservoir temperature and displacement tests at room temperature indicate that WI is 0.3 to 0.4. Performing both imbibition and displacement tests at the same temperature (i.e., reservoir temperature or at room temperature) lowers the WI in the range of 0.20 to 0.25; thus, the temperatures during the experimental sequence affect wettability index determination. Comprehensive experimental data clearly demonstrates that Spraberry reservoir rock is a very weakly water-wet system.

61 Conclusions (cont’d) Static Imbibition
4/12/2017 Conclusions (cont’d) Static Imbibition Effect of pressure is much less important than the effect of temperature on imbibition rate and recovery. Performing the imbibition tests at higher temperature results in faster imbibition rate and higher recovery due to change in mobility of fluids, expansion of oil, and change in IFT. The final recovery due to imbibition using Spraberry cores varies from 10% to 15% of IOIP, depending on aging time.

62 Conclusions (cont’d) Scaling of static imbibition data
4/12/2017 Conclusions (cont’d) Scaling of static imbibition data The contribution of the imbibition mechanism to oil recovery is up to 13% IOIP, depending on rock properties and wettability. Degree of heterogeneity in the matrix and natural fracture system controls the efficiency of Spraberry waterflood performance.

63 Conclusions (cont’d) Dynamic Imbibition
4/12/2017 Conclusions (cont’d) Dynamic Imbibition As the flow rate increases, contact time between matrix and fluid in fracture decreases causing less effective capillary imbibition. The capillary pressure curve obtained from dynamic imbibition experiments is higher that of the static imbibition experiments due to viscous forces during the dynamic process.

64 4/12/2017 Conclusions (cont’d) The limiting value of fracture capillary number for an efficient displacement process in this study was found to be and for Berea and Spraberry cores, respectively. Beyond this range, the displacement process is inefficient due to high water-cut.

65 Outline Recommendations Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling
4/12/2017 Outline Introduction Laboratory Experiments Modeling Conclusions Recommendations

66 4/12/2017 Recommendations Necessary to correlate the static and dynamic tests in order to achieve proper upscaling. The capillary pressure curve obtained from dynamic imbibition experiments using artificially fractured core can be used as input data in naturally fractured reservoir simulations instead of using mercury injection capillary pressure curves.

67 Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my advisor Dr. David S. Schechter and My committee members Dr. Robert L. Lee, Dr. H.Y. Chen and Dr. Donald Weinkauf for their advice and time spent on this thesis. To PRRC for the financial support through research assistantship grant. To my fellow students and the entire staff of the PRRC for their kindness and assistance.

68 4/12/2017 Thank You… Happy Thanksgiving

69 4 1 Fracture orientation 4/12/2017 5U (N32E) 1U (N42E) 5U (N80E) 15 28
1000 3000 2000 4000 5000 FEET 15 1 28 4 37 25 46 45 47 41 42 44 40 39 38 43 48


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