2Petroleum Petra (L. rock) Oleum (L. oil) Oil extracted from rock that lies just below the surface
3U.S. Primary Energy Flow by Source and Sector, 2009 (Quadrillion Btu) Total = 94.6
4Petroleum Statistics, 2008 data 1 barrel = 42 gallonsTop Oil Producing Country?Saudi Arabia 10,782,000 barrels/dayTop Oil Consuming Country?United States 19,948,000 barrels/dayTop U.S. Petroleum/Crude Oil Supplier?CANADA 2,493,000 barrels/day
5More Statistics, 2008 U.S. Motor Gasoline Consumption (per day)? 8,989,000 barrels (378,000,000 gallons)
6Breakdown of cost of gasoline Today’s price: $2.87/gallon
7Price comparison for other countries CountryPrice per gallon (US dollars)Spain$6.02Canada$3.67Mexico$2.12Kuwait$0.87Turkey$9.24Australia$4.32Japan$5.19The place of the cheapest gasoline in the world?Venezuela $0.12/gallon
8Cost of gasoline compared to other liquids Price per gallonMilk$3.50Windex$10.21Red Bull Energy Drink$21.77White Out$246.55Black ink to refill printer cartridge1$86.95Renu contact lens solution$58.49Tap water< $0.01Bottled water (school cafeteria)$7.57Garnier Fructis Shampoo$22.34Dove Body Wash$29.01All prices are from Sam’s Club Butler, PA unless otherwise stated.1 from station.com
12What does the catalytic converter do? A catalytic converter is a device that uses a catalyst to convert three harmful compounds in car exhaust into harmless compounds.Hydrocarbons (in the form of unburned gasoline)Carbon monoxide (formed by the combustion of gasoline)Nitrogen oxides (created when the heat in the engine forces nitrogen in the air to combine with oxygen)
13Why are these compounds bad? Hydrocarbons are suspected carcinogens.Gets converted into carbon dioxide and waterCarbon monoxide is a poison for any air-breathing animal.Gets converted to carbon dioxideNitrogen oxides lead to smog and acid rain, and hydrocarbons produce smog.Gets converted into nitrogen and oxygen
14What does it look like?In a catalytic converter, the catalyst (in the form of platinum and palladium) is coated onto a ceramic honeycomb or ceramic beads that are housed in a muffler-like package attached to the exhaust pipe.
15Cylinder sealed as both intake valve and exhaust valve are closed Four Stroke EngineSpark plug fires, igniting the compressed mixture of gasoline and air and begins the power stroke.Combustion products are swept out of the cylinder through the open exhaust port.Heated gases expand very rapidly and push the piston down turning the crankshaft.Cylinder sealed as both intake valve and exhaust valve are closedGasoline-Air mixture enters cylinder through open intake valve.Heat AddedPower StrokeCompression StrokeExhaust StrokeIntake Stroke
17So what is in gasoline that makes the engine work? Gasoline is a mixture of over 500 hydrocarbon compounds that contain between 5 and 12 carbons.Some of the compounds are:2-methylbutane2,2-dimethylpropane2,2-dimethylbutane2,2-dimethylpentane2,2,3-trimethylbutane2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane)
18Octane RatingFuel octane requirements for gasoline engines vary with the compression ratio of the engine.Engine compression ratio is the relative volume of a cylinder from the bottom most position of the piston's stroke to the top most position of the piston's stroke.The higher an engine's compression ratio, the greater the amount of heat generated in the cylinder during the compression stroke.
19Octane Rating, cont.If fuel octane is too low for a given compression ratio, the fuel prematurely and spontaneously ignites too early and the fuel charge EXPLODES rather than BURNS resulting in incomplete combustion.The net effect is a loss in power, possible engine damage, and an audible "knock" or "ping", referred to as detonation.
20Octane Rating, cont.The octane number of gasoline is a measure of its resistance to knock.The octane number is determined by comparing the characteristics of a gasoline to isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) and heptane.Isooctane is assigned an octane number of 100. It is a highly branched compound that burns smoothly, with little knock.On the other hand, heptane, a straight chain, unbranched molecule is given an octane rating of zero because of its bad knocking properties.
21Octane Ratings of Common Cpds found in gasoline HydrocarbonOctane Ratingn-butane113n-pentane62n-hexane19n-heptane2-methylbutane992,2-dimethylpropane1002,2-dimethylbutane892,2-dimethylpentane2,2,3-trimethylbutane2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane)
22Trends of Octane Ratings Octane ratings decrease with increasing carbon chain length.Octane ratings increase with carbon chain branching.Octane ratings increase in aromatics with same number of carbons.
23What octane rating should you purchase? For most automobiles, use the lowest grade of 87 octane, unless they specifically say to use a higher octane gasoline.Using higher octane grades does not provide any extra power or extra mileage.
24How they drill for the oil Process for drilling oil and natural gas are basically the same.Click on all three slides and label the parts and a few words describing their function.