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Vertical Circulation Team 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Vertical Circulation Team 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vertical Circulation Team 1

2 Team Members Marie Baretsky Robert Davis Hadiza Djibring
David Encarnacion Hadiza Djibring

3 History 1854- Elisha Otis demonstrates his safety brake at the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations at the Crystal Palace in NY. Elevator ropes at the time were generally made out of fiber and if the rope broke there was nothing to stop it. The introduction of a safety brake helped alleviate the publics fear of falling. 1857- The first public elevator is installed at the E.V. Haughwout & Co. store in NY. It serviced five floors and traveled at an average rate of 40 feet per min. 1889- The first electric elevator is installed at the Demarest Building in NYC replacing the steam engine with an electric motor. MB

4 1900- Otis Elevator Co. trademarks the term “escalator”.
1894- The Otis Elevator Co. installs the first automatic electric push-button elevator. 1892- Early predecessors to the escalator are invented and patented. Jesse Reno’s “Endless conveyor or Elevator” and George Wheeler’s “inclined elevator” 1900- Otis Elevator Co. trademarks the term “escalator”. 1900 Paris Exposition uses movable ramps and walkways to aid in circulation. 1902- Flatiron building is built with elevators servicing 21 floors. 1913- Woolworth building rises 57 stories. 1920’s- Ward-Leonard system of electric motor speed and control allows for smooth transitioning between accelerating and decelerating (Strakosch and Caporale 30) MB

5 Hydraulic Elevators RD

6 • Speeds vary from 25 to 150 fpm (Feet Per Minute)
Hydraulic Elevators: • Pumps provide oil pressure for lift. An electric motor pumps the oil into a cylinder to move the piston • They are used in low rise buildings up to 50 feet high or 5 stories maximum. • Speeds vary from 25 to 150 fpm (Feet Per Minute) RD

7 Hydraulic Elevator Types
In-Ground: This type has a cylinder that extends into the ground the same height to which the elevator is to be lifted. Hole-Less: This type uses telescoping pistons on one or both sides of the cab to lift it. The cylinder stands within the hoist way and does not require a drilled hole. This class is typically limited to under 40’ of travel. Roped: This type is similar to a traction type elevator. The cab is elevated by an attached rope that is pulled by pistons. No wires, cables, or overhead machinery is required for the In-Ground and Hole-less types. A machine room is required to house both the oil storage tank and the pump. The slow speeds of hydraulic elevators makes the ideal for freight elevators up to 50 tons. RD

8 Hydraulic Elevator Types
In-Ground Hole-Less Roped RD

9 How Hydraulics Work The cylinder is connected to a fluid-pumping system. The hydraulic system has three parts: A tank (the fluid reservoir) A pump, powered by an electric motor A valve between the cylinder and the reservoir The pump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder. When the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return to the fluid reservoir. But when the valve is closed, the pressurized fluid has nowhere to go except into the cylinder. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the car. Working Diagram RD

10 Machine Room Sizes RD Hydraulic elevators come in a wide variety of
speeds, capacities and travel heights. These options determine the size and horsepower of the power unit, which in turn determines the size of the machine room. The most desirable machine room location is on the lowest door served, adjacent to the elevator hoist-way. If necessary, it may be located remotely from the hoist-way. RD

11 Safety Systems All elevator systems should be equipped with a complete safety system. Some of the safety systems that most elevators currently on the market utilize are: built in braking systems a governor (speed monitoring device) electromagnetic brakes and a shock absorber system These subsystems are easier to install in roped elevator systems. Another safety feature in most elevators is a sensor on the door that ensures that nothing is caught in the doorway when the doors are closing. When motion or the presence of an object is sensed the doors go to an open position for a specified number of seconds. Then the doors again try to close. RD

12 Pros and Cons The main advantage of hydraulic systems is they can easily multiply the relatively weak force of the pump to generate the stronger force needed to lift the elevator car. But these systems suffer from two major disadvantages. The main problem is the size of the equipment. In order for the elevator car to be able to reach higher floors, you have to make the piston longer. The cylinder has to be a little bit longer than the piston, of course, since the piston needs to be able to collapse all the way when the car is at the bottom floor. In short, more stories means a longer cylinder. The problem is that the entire cylinder structure must be buried below the bottom elevator stop. This means you have to dig deeper as you build higher. This is an expensive project with buildings over a few stories tall. To install a hydraulic elevator in a 10-story building, for example, you would need to dig at least nine stories deep! The other disadvantage of hydraulic elevators is that they’re fairly inefficient. It takes a lot of energy to raise an elevator car several stories, and in a standard hydraulic elevator, there is no way to store this energy. The energy of position (potential energy) only works to push the fluid back into the reservoir. To raise the elevator car again, the hydraulic system has to generate the energy all over again. RD

13 Traction Elevators (Pull Elevators).
The Most Common type of Elevators. Cars pulled up by means of rolling steel ropes over a deeply grooved pulley, commonly called a sheave. The weight of car balanced by a counter weight. Sometimes cars built in pairs and synchronized to move in opposite directions, and serve as each other’s counterweigh. Traction elevators use steel cords or flat steel ropes a lot of traction elevators prefer the use of flat steel ropes because they are extremely light due to its carbon fiber core and a high-friction coating, and does not require any oil or lubricant. Because of these qualities, elevator energy consumption in high-rise buildings can be cut significantly. Hadiza D.

14 Different types of Traction Elevators
Gearless Geared Different types of Elevators Hydraulic Elevators. Traction Elevators. Climbing Elevators. Pneumatic Elevators. Different types of Traction Elevators Geared Elevators. Gear-Less Elevators. Machine-Room-Less Elevator. Hadiza D.

15 Geared Traction Elevator.
The Gear Box Is attached to the Motor, to drive the wheel and pull the rope. These elevators typically operate at speeds from 38 to 152 meters ( ft) per minute and carry loads of up to 13,600 kilograms (30,000 lb). Machines Driven by AC or DC electric motors hoists. Geared machines use worm gears to control mechanical movement of elevator cars by "rolling" steel hoist ropes over a drive sheave which is attached to a gearbox driven by a high speed motor.  An electrically controlled brake between the motor and the reduction unit stops the elevator, holding the car at the desired floor level. Hadiza D.

16 Geared Traction Elevator Configuration.
The Governor The governor is a device actuated by the centrifugal force of whirling weights opposed by gravity. It is used in elevators as a standard safety measure to set an emergency mechanical brake that brings the car to a stop when the car exceeds a safe speed. A set of redundant safety features (both mechanical and electrical) are used in the elevator industry to ensure that cars do not run away. These safety measures depend on local and national codes and vary from country to country and even state to state. The interested reader is invited to read [1] should he/she be interested in learning more about them. Compensating Ropes Compensating ropes are used to compensate for the change in hoisting rope weight that occurs as a function of the position of the car in long hoist ways. Basically, the use of compensating ropes insures that, for a given load, the motor sees the same inertia at all stops in the hoist way. Double/Single Wrapping The use of double wrapping provides substantially increased hoist rope traction surface area and is desirable in elevators with heavy loads. Hoist traction occurs between the hoisting ropes and grooves that are cast in the drive sheave. Figure 4 presents a cross section of two drive sheaves and represents the two most prevalent groove types used in the industry. As a rule of thumb the single wrap machines use the "V" groove and the double wrap machines use the "U" groove. Hadiza D.

17 Gearless Traction Elevator.
There is a wheel attached to the motor. These elevators typically operate at speeds greater than 500 feet per minute. A brake is mounted between the motor and drive sheave (or gearbox) to hold the elevator stationary at a floor. Hadiza D.

18 Gearless Overhead. Hadiza D.
1.1 Gearless traction elevators are typically used in high speed applications for tall hoist ways. This gearless hoist machine consists of the traction sheave, brake drum and motor armature or rotor all mounted on a common shaft supported by two roller bearings. The gearless motor can be either A-C or D-C. They can be single or double wrapped as shown in Figure 1. Hadiza D.

19 Gearless Overhead. 2.1 Gearless traction elevators are also used in high speed applications for tall hoistways however they are typically used for shorter hoistways and lower speeds than their 1:1 cousins. Like the 1:1 machine the 2:1 gearless elevator consists of a traction sheave, brake drum and motor armature or rotor all mounted on a common shaft supported by two roller bearings. The main difference is the roping configuration which allows for a motor rotational speed that is double that employed in the 1:1 machine for the same car speed (and hence the use of smaller motor frames for the same horsepower). The gearless motor can be either A-C or D-C. They can be single or double wrapped as shown in Figure 2.

20 Machine-Room-Less Elevators:
They are typically traction elevators that do not have a dedicated machine room above the elevator shaft. The machine sits in the override space and the controls sit above the ceiling adjacent to the elevator shaft. Designed for buildings between about two and 30 stories, this system employs a smaller sheave than conventional geared and gearless elevators. The reduced sheave size, together with a redesigned machine, allows the machine to be mounted within the hoistway itself—eliminating the need for a bulky machine room on the roof. The true MRL gearless traction model has been made possible by two main factors: the compact controller innovation and the inspection/test panel. In these true MRL models, compact controllers fit inside the wall of the top elevator landing, and most necessary test and maintenance features can be concealed behind a panel in the elevator entrance to give building personnel, elevator mechanics, and city or state inspectors access to the critical items they need. Hadiza D.

21 Traction Elevators Disadvantages: Traction Elevators advantages:
Installation costs can be 15-25% higher than the hydraulic elevators. Traction elevators might be initially offered at a low and convenient price and then skyrocketed with outrages service charges.    Maintenance is difficult because the machine is located in the headroom of the shaft and reaching it can be a challenge. Serious accidents during construction and servicing of the elevator are highly probable. If the car is stuck, the machine cannot be serviced from the top of the car, and insecure methods may then be needed. Traction elevators are initially offered at reasonable prices and the low income is later attained through frequent servicing and high-priced spare parts. Obtaining the spare parts can be a nightmare since servicing may only be performed by the original installer or by their service partners.  Disregard of Safety Requirements: Rescue of passengers during an emergency situation can be challenging, because the traction elevators require special knowledge and the machine is difficult to reach in the shaft. Temperature and humidity conditions inside the shaft may be tragic and can easily affect the electronic components which might cause more frequent break-downs and servicing. A short circuit to the motor or fire can result in entrapped passengers in the elevator. The fire itself might not be deadly but rather the smoke within the shaft.  It uses less energy than hydraulic elevators because the motor is only used to overcome friction - there is no lifting involved because of the counterweight system. The only time the motor is used in traction elevators to lift the cab is when the counterweight is not even with the cab weight. The most inefficient of these elevators are older models that use direct-current electricity - used because it is easy to control speed with DC current. Most of the energy used by these elevators happens when it is idle from the heating, cooling and lighting systems. Using LED lighting and timers for fans will help reduce the energy use. To put the energy use in relative terms, the energy used in light sensor stairways exceeds that of the energy used for a traction elevator ride. Hadiza D.

22 Escalators DE

23 HISTORY Escalator are a type transportation device that moves people from one level to another without human physical movement. It’s a moving staircase with steps that move up or down different levels, that use a conveyor belt and track which keep the step horizontal for the pedestrians. Thus the escalator began as an amusement and not as a transportation system that is being use today. The first patent relating to an escalator-like machine was granted in 1859 to a Massachusetts man for a steam driven unit. On March , Jesse Reno patented his moving stairs or inclined elevator as he called it. DE

24 1900’s – Present 1900’s Escalator, few difference, yet still the same concept of transportation. Escalator of present day. This is a picture taken from Broadway Junction. Since the invention of escalator, it has not change. But the rise and run of it has change over time to accommodate different level of floor height due to technology. Otis Elevator Company produced the first commercial escalator in 1899. DE

25 Design & Specifications
CODE CLEARANCE Specifications Balustrades in "solid" usually #4 or #8 stainless steel and bronze or glass with thickness either 3/8" or 1/2". Speed. 100 ft per minute, which is the maximum speed. Step widths in 24-in, 32-in and 40-in. Microprocessor based controller. Maximum travel distance varies with manufacturer. Painted steps in silver and black High-impact step inserts in yellow and black Floor Plate in aluminum and stainless steel Safety features. (See Safety Features sidebar below.) DE

26 Specifications 24 inch wide escalators accommodate a single person without room for any extra items or people. These are generally used in low traffic areas or where space is tight. 32 inch wide escalators accommodate a single person and a suitcase or package.  These are used at moderate traffic areas. 40 inch wide escalators accommodate two people side-by-side and allow a person to pass a stationary person.  These are recommended for high traffic applications. DE

27 Spiral Escalators In 1985 Mitsubishi Electric installed the world's first practical spiral escalator in Osaka, Japan. Since then they have installed a number of spiral escalators in public complexes throughout Japan, Asia, and in the United States. Spiral escalators are space-efficient, offering commercial developers new options in public space design, be it for shopping malls, hotels, or business offices. They increase the amount of usable floor space and add to a building's reputation and value.

28 Corner Plan Opening Plan

29 Specification Chart Size Step Width Single-step capacity Applications
Energy consumption in Horsepower Small 24 in One passenger Two passengers - one may walk past another 5 HP Medium 32 in One passenger + one package or one piece of luggage 10 HP Large 40 in Mainstay of metro systems, larger airports, train stations, some retail usage 15 HP

30 Building Code- Chapter 30
Number of elevators in a hoistway. Where four or more elevator cars serve all or the same portion of a building, the elevators shall be located in no fewer that two separate hoistways. Not more that four elevator cars shall be located in a single hoistway. Elevator car to accommodate ambulance stretcher Where elevators are provided in buildings four or more stories above grade plane or four or more stories below grade plane, at least one elevator shall be provided for fire department emergency access to all floors. The elevator shall be of such a size to accommodate a 24-inch by 84-inch ambulance stretcher in the horizontal, open position and shall be identified by the international symbol for emergency medical services (star of life). The symbol shall not be less that 3 inches high. And placed on both sides of the hoistway door frame ( MB

31 3002.7 Common enclosure with stair way
Elevators shall not be in a common shaft enclosure with a stair way. Number of elevators A number of elevators shall be kept available at every floor for the sole use of the Fire Department. This requirement shall apply to the following types of buildings: High-rise buildings with occupancies classified in Groups A, B, E, I, F, H, M and S Buildings with Group B occupancies with a gross area of 200,000 square feet Buildings with a main use or dominant occupancy in Group R-1 or R-2 Three or fewer elevators Where a floor is serviced by three or fewer elevators, every car shall be kept available for sole use by the Fire Department More than three elevators Where a floor is serviced by more that three elevator cars, at least three elevator cars with a total rated load capacity of not less that 6,000lbs shall be kept available for the sole use of the Fire Department. If the total load capacity of all cars servicing the floor is less that 6,000lbs, all such cars shall be kept available for sole use of the Fire Department MB

32 ADA Standards Chapter 4 section 407
Table Elevator Car Dimensions (text version) Minimum Dimensions Door Location Door Clear Width Inside Car, Side to Side Inside Car, Back Wall to Front Return Inside Car, Back Wall to Inside Face of Door Centered 42 inches (1065 mm) 80 inches (2030 mm) 51 inches (1295 mm) 54 inches (1370 mm) Side (off-centered) 36 inches (915 mm)1 68 inches (1725 mm) Any 60 inches (1525 mm)2 1. A tolerance of minus 5/8 inch (16 mm) is permitted. 2. Other car configurations that provide a turning space complying with 304 with the door closed shall be permitted. ( MB

33 What to Consider Pedestrian traffic: What is your peak travel time?
How many people do you need to service? What is an acceptable travel time? Space: Occupying a minimum footprint in the building Recommended: 6,000lb capacity with 60 in center opening doors. Accommodate 25-40% of building occupancy for classrooms and 20% for laboratories during a 5 min period. Interval time between sec (Strakosch and Caporale 324) MB

34 Probable stops- How often the elevator is likely to make based on number of floors and number of passengers Running Time- How long it takes the elevator to travel from floor to floor including stopping and starting based on floor height and elevator speed (Strakosch and Caporale 74) (Strakosch and Caporale 78) MB

35 How long it takes to load and unload the elevator.
Transfer Times- How long it takes to load and unload the elevator. Door Operating Time- How long it takes the elevator doors to open and close. (Strakosch and Caporale 75) (Strakosch and Caporale 76) MB

36 Example Calculation Given: 7 story building
Typ. floor height is 12ft 500 fpm elevator 22 passengers up 22 passengers down Building Occupancy 1,500 people 60in center opening doors Calculate: Total time for an elevator trip Waiting time Number of elevators needed Required: Accommodate 20% of building occupancy during 5 min peak rush Interval (waiting time) between sec MB

37 Total Time= Time up + Time down + Standing time
Time Up= (Running time per floor) X (Number of stops) Calculating Running time/ floor = 4.4 sec/floor (Strakosch and Caporale 74) (Strakosch and Caporale 78) MB

38 Standing time= Lobby time + Transfer time + Door operation time
18 sec for 20 people sec for 2 additional Transfer time= 3 sec for 2 passengers + 1 sec every additional 3+1= 4 sec/stop x 6 stops= 24 sec total time Door operation time for 60 in center open door= 6.5 sec/stop x 6 stops= 39 sec 19.6 sec lobby + 24 sec transfer +39 sec door = 82.6 sec Add 10% for inefficiency= 82.6 x 1.10= sec (Strakosch and Caporale 75) (Strakosch and Caporale 76) MB

39 Standing Time Down= + 90.86 sec Total round trip time= 234.5 sec
For our calculations let’s assume running time and standing time up is equal to running and standing time down Running Time Up= sec Standing Time Up= sec Running Time Down= sec Standing Time Down= sec Total round trip time= sec Passengers up= Passengers down= + 22 Total # of passengers= 44 1 Elevator= 44 people/234.5 sec Five min capacity= 5min x 60 sec/min= 300 sec We need to accommodate 20% of the building occupancy 1,500 people x 0.2= 300 people 300/56= 5.3 = 6 elevators needed 234.5 sec/6 elevators= 39 sec Interval MB

40 References Calculations
Strakosch, George R., and Robert Caporale, ed. The Vertical Transportation Handbook. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010 Code Hydraulic Elevators Building Systems: Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, Fire Safety & Communication Systems, Lighting & Acoustics Wendell C. Edwards, Chapter 11, pg (System requirements) ground) Elevator Co.) for cover page) Elevators) (Section of cylinder) (How hydraulic cylinders work) Hydraulic Elevator Diagram) hydraulics work) and Cons) Team 1

41 Traction Elevators Escalators (Then select first link to download which is a {.PDF} ) Team 1

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