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EHS Division Addressing Safety Concerns in Photovoltaic Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Greater San.

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Presentation on theme: "EHS Division Addressing Safety Concerns in Photovoltaic Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Greater San."— Presentation transcript:

1 EHS Division Addressing Safety Concerns in Photovoltaic Manufacturing: A Supply Chain Perspective American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Greater San Jose Chapter December 8, 2009 Aaron Zude / Sanjay Baliga SEMI EHS Division San Jose

2 Proposed Agenda Photovoltaics (PV) Basics Economics of PVs Overview of PV Manufacturing Overview of Safety Hazards [ Chemical | Mechanical | Facilities | Product ] SEMI’s PV EHS Activities Questions Presentation Overview

3 What are Photovoltaics (PVs)? Arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity Made up of semiconductive materials First introduced into commercial production in the 1950s Renewable energy source (low / zero carbon energy) Often cited as a primary mechanism to address global climate change Basics of Photovoltaics

4 What is the outlook for PVs? EXCELLENT Decreasing manufacturing costs (increasing scale) Increasing power generation efficiency (innovation) Approaching grid parity (versus other sources of electricity) at about $0.10/kWt Grid Parity means you pay the same price for PV generated electricity as for fossil fuel or other generated electricity PV Economic Outlook

5 What is the outlook for PVs? Can be decentralized (good for rural areas with no grid availability) Low / zero carbon substitute in a carbon constrained world Increasing complexity of applications Ecosystem of innovation (application of Moore’s Law- like efficiency gains for PV) PV Economic Outlook

6 Doubling of capacity every 2 years.

7 Different Approaches to Manufacturing PVs Use of various semiconductive materials (Si, CdTe, CIGS, etc) Use of various manufacturing techniques (Poly-Si, Crystal-Si, Thin Film, etc) Use of various end product form factors (cell, module, ribbon, etc) Overview of PV Manufacturing

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10 Thin-Films ~3 GW Total Production in % crystalline silicon90% crystalline silicon 10% thin-films10% thin-films 120 MW in MW in 2010

11 Major PV Manufacturing Steps

12 Example of PV Fabrication Plant c-Si Operation MBPV: 80 MW cell line Acid Texturing PVD PSG Dryer Firing Furnace LCL P-Doper Dryer Diffusion Dope r Cell Sorter Laser SP-1SP-2SP-3 Acid Texturing PVD PSG Dryer Firing Furnace LCL High Line throughput & yield Totally in-line process with no manual intervention

13 Example of PV Fabrication Plant Thin Film a-Si 40 MW

14 Different Types of Hazards Chemical [ includes industrial hygiene ] Mechanical Facilities [ includes electrical hazards ] Product [ includes installation and end of life ] Overview of Safety Hazards

15 Chemical Hazards Overview (Not A Complete List) SubstanceUse Arsine (AsH3)Dopant Boron Trifluoride (BF3) or trimethyl boronDopant Trimethyl Boron (TMB)Dopant Diborane (B2H6)Dopant Phosphine (PH3)Dopant Cadmium CompoundsCdTe, CIGS/CdS Tin Oxide, Zinc Oxide (sputtered), or Diethyl Zinc (DEZ) precursor. Top glass transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film GermaneTandem TFPV IPA & AcetoneWetting agents, solvents Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) & Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Surface roughness, stripping Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Phosphoric AcidCleaning agent – c-Si Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)Etchant – c-Si Fluorine (F2)Chamber clean Hydrogen SelenideCIGS selenization HydrogenControls film growth Phosphorous Oxytrichloride (POCl3)Diffusion NF3, SF6, CF4, C2F6, O2, N20Chamber clean, surface texturing, PSG removal Ammonia (NH3)Silicon nitride deposition Silane, trisilanea-Si deposition, SiNx deposition, c-Si production

16 Simplified Process-flow Diagrams Mining to System Manufacturing Stages (mono-, ribbon-, and multi-Si PVs, and (b) thinfilm CdTe PVs) Source: “Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles”, Vasilis M. Fthenakis, Hyung Chul Kim, and Erik Alsema

17 What is Silane? Compressed pyrophoric gas Leaks of silane can oxidize in air without obvious signs of ignition Leaks can also result in flames, with the severity depending on the leak hole size, ventilation and containment “Poppers” can occur when a small amount of silane leaks into space between valve and cap during storage & transit When a silane leak is contained and concentration exceeds 4.5% then delayed ignition and bulk autoignition occurs Silane Safety

18 Silane Incidents Major incidents have occurred during Silane use in the semiconductor industry Release and detonation of gas cabinet Release and detonation of duct Release and fire Explosion of cylinder Reaction of solid by-products Pressure relief device leak Aluminum cylinder rupture Silane Safety

19 PV Industry Silane Explosion, Changsha China, August 2009 During installation of a full 10 kg cylinder into a 2 cylinder gas cabinet, there was a release of silane from the cylinder that was online. Flames impinged directly onto the cylinder from the pigtail. This heated the cylinder for some period of time and it ruptured An immediate evacuation occurred, probably preventing serious injury or fatalities. Silane then ignited and detonated blowing out windows on all sides of the 3 storey 1,000 m2 metal frame building. Metal walls on the process side were blown out. There was no fire afterwards 35 cylinders of silane in the area were knocked over by the blast. Two started to leak. One leak was sealed by facility personnel. The second leak could not be stopped and was placed in a field 1000 m away by the fire department Silane Safety

20 Summary of Mechanical Hazards Physical pinch, crush, entanglement, and cut hazards Exposure to the broken glass Ergonomic, trip and slip hazards Noise LASERS Machine guarding Robotics Soldering Glass handling Mechanical Hazards

21 Summary of Facilities Hazards Facility fitup Building design (materials of construction, exiting, access, etc.) Tool Installation Tool commissioning Management of change Facilities Hazards

22 Summary of Facilities Hazards Bulk specialty gases & distribution Process effluent management Electrical & Arc Flash Use of combustible plastics Waste management Electrical Safety (hazardous voltages, energies) Facilities Hazards

23 Summary of Product Hazards Solar farm fires (frames) Electrical shock potential to emergency responders Products of combustion during fire? Installation hazards End of life product hazards (CaTe hazards) Product Hazards

24 Concerns over PV safety issues PV technology is rapidly evolving, bringing in new materials (or new uses of existing materials) whose EHS characteristics may not be fully known or appreciated. New manufacturing locations are being brought on-line at a rapid pace, sometimes at the expense of best known construction design and tool fit-up and hook-up ESH principles. Industry Responses

25 Concerns over PV safety issues There is no single “platform” for globally sharing technical information, best practices and other resources among those assigned PV EHS responsibilities. Regional EHS laws and standards that address PV EHS concerns are oftentimes not in place or are developing. Regional infrastructure is oftentimes not in place or is developing. Regional geographic conditions preclude the application of EHS best practices. Industry Responses

26 What is SEMI doing to address these safety concerns? Tradeshow workshops Webcasting Partnering with others (SEIA, EPIA, SESHA, etc) Peer knowledge-sharing (Safety Grapevine / SemiNeedle) Technical standards (S2 for PVs) SEMI EHS Division Activities

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29 To Join The PV EHS Group: 1.Visit 2.Choose the “Sites” tab 3.Click on “PV EHS” site 4.Select “Request to Join”

30 What can ASSE members do? Actively participate in EHS seminars such as this Consider participating in the SemiNeedle PV EHS Group Understand and apply semiconductor-related EHS guidelines, standards and best known methods (BKM’s) to your operations as appropriate Share BKM’s and lessons learned Obtain outside assistance, if needed, to conduct hazards analysis techniques on materials or processes of concern Develop “Alternate Methods and Materials” when geographic or other conditions preclude application of guidelines, standards or BKM’s Potential ASSE PV Safety Activities

31 Thank You

32 Please contact: Aaron Zude (Senior Director), Sanjay Baliga (Senior Manager), Questions


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