# Program: Respiratory Therapy Course: Introduction to Respiratory Sciences Lesson: Gas Physics Handle Gas Cylinders With Care.

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Program: Respiratory Therapy Course: Introduction to Respiratory Sciences Lesson: Gas Physics Handle Gas Cylinders With Care

Lesson: Gas Physics Major Student Performance Objective -Lecture The student will be able to discuss and demonstrate the gas laws and physics used in the field of respiratory care.

Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture: Lesson: Gas Physics Describe Avogadro’s Law relating to a mole of oxygen and its dimensions. Relate Dalton’s Law to the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere and in the lung. Recall concentration of O2 in the atmosphere and the lung. Apply the alveolar air equation. Relate ideal gas laws to situational use of gas delivery.Discuss agencies that regulate gas administration.

Recall color codes mandatory for E cylinders. Differentiate between safety systems and when used. Demonstrate recognition of cylinder markings. Calculate duration of flow for E, G, and H cylinders. Recall cylinder capacities for E, G, and H cylinders. Demonstrate safe cylinder handling. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture Continued: Lesson: Gas Physics

Discuss cylinder testing. Recall the difference between liquid and gaseous O2. Differentiate between single stage, multi-stage, preset, and adjustable flow meters. Differentiate between compensated and uncompensated flow meters. Make necessary adjustments when using an oxygen flow meter to deliver helium/oxygen mixtures. Describe the function and advantages/ disadvantages of the Bourdon Gauge. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture Continued: Lesson: Gas Physics

Major Student Performance Objective -Laboratory The student will be able to operate Oxygen Supply Systems, Liquid Oxygen Systems, and Oxygen Concentrators.

Correctly select an “E” or “H” cylinder for use. Correctly maneuver a medical gas cylinder on and off a cylinder cart. Demonstrate the correct handling of a cylinder and cart on level ground. Properly prepare a cylinder for attachment of a reducing valve or gas delivery device. Correctly demonstrate the process of bleeding a reducing valve before removal. Demonstrate how to prepare an air/oxygen blender for use. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Laboratory: Lesson: Gas Physics

States of Matter §Solid §Liquid §Gas Lesson: Gas Physics

Gases §Molecules continuously moving §Avogadro’s Law l 1 gram of any substance has 6.02 x 10 23 known as a mole l 1 mole of a gas at STP = 22.4 Liters Lesson: Gas Physics

Pressure §PB = Barometric Pressure l 760 mmhg l 14.7 PSI l 1034 cmH2O §Water vapor (or humidity) exerts pressure l PH2O at 100% humidity at body temperature = 47 mmhg §Dalton’s Law l Individual partial pressures = Total l Pb = PN2 + PO2 + P trace gases Lesson: Gas Physics

Concentrations of Gases in the Air §Oxygen20.95% §Nitrogen78.08% §Argon0.93% §Carbon Dioxide0.03% §Trace Gases0.01% Lesson: Gas Physics

Ideal Gas Law §If mass is constant then P1V1 = P2 V2 T1 T2 Lesson: Gas Physics

Boyle’s Law §If temperature and mass are constant, volume and pressure are inversely proportional. §P1V1 = P2 V2 Lesson: Gas Physics

Charles’ Law §If pressure and mass are constant, temperature and volume are directly proportional. §V1 = V2 T1 T2 Lesson: Gas Physics

Gay-Lussac’s Law §If volume and mass remain constant, pressure and temperature are directly proportional. §P1 = P2 T1 T2 Lesson: Gas Physics

Relationships of Gas Laws Lesson: Gas Physics Volume Boyle’sCharles’ m (constant) PressureTemperature Gay-Lussac’s

Gas Laws/Temperature §All gas laws use temperature in Kelvin (known as absolute scale) §C + 273 = Kelvin Lesson: Gas Physics

Agencies §Agencies Regulating Gas Administration l Department of Transportation - DOT l Health and Human Services - HHS Food and Drug Administration - FDA l Occupational Safety and Health Administration - OSHA §Recommending Bodies l Compressed Gas Association - CGA l National Fire Protection Association - NFPA l Committee of American National Standards for Anesthetic Equipment Z-79 Lesson: Gas Physics

Safety Systems for Cylinders §Color Coding §Pin Index Safety System §American Standard Safety System §Diameter Index Safety System Lesson: Gas Physics

Qualities of Cylinder Gases §Flammable Gases l ethylene l cyclopropane §Nonflammable Gases l nitrogen l carbon dioxide l helium §Gases that support combustion l oxygen l oxygen mixtures l nitrous oxide Lesson: Gas Physics

Qualities of Oxygen §Fractional Distillation §Colorless §Odorless §Tasteless §Atomic Weight = 16 gms §Molecular Weight = 32 gms §Critical Temperature l -118.8 C or -181.1 F and 49.7 atm l Above this temperature, it cannot remain a liquid Lesson: Gas Physics

Cylinder Marking and Testing §Front: l DOT-3AA: DOT specifications and service pressure l Serial Number l Ownership markings l Manufacturer’s mark §Back: l Original hydrostatic testing l Specifications l Retest dates l Inspector’s marks §Cylinders are filled to 5/3 maximum pressure every 5-=10 years Lesson: Gas Physics

Cylinder Handling §Keep in carrier or stand. §No flames/no smoking. §Proper technique in attaching regulators. §Store with cap to prevent breaking stem. §Cylinder testing Lesson: Gas Physics

Major Student Performance Objective -Lecture The student will be able to discuss and demonstrate the gas laws and physics used in the field of respiratory care.

Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture: Lesson: Gas Physics Describe Avogadro’s Law relating to a mole of oxygen and its dimensions. Relate Dalton’s Law to the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere and in the lung. Recall concentration of O2 in the atmosphere and the lung. Apply the alveolar air equation. Relate ideal gas laws to situational use of gas delivery.Discuss agencies that regulate gas administration.

Recall color codes mandatory for E cylinders. Differentiate between safety systems and when used. Demonstrate recognition of cylinder markings. Calculate duration of flow for E, G, and H cylinders. Recall cylinder capacities for E, G, and H cylinders. Demonstrate safe cylinder handling. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture Continued: Lesson: Gas Physics

Discuss cylinder testing. Recall the difference between liquid and gaseous O2. Differentiate between single stage, multi-stage, preset, and adjustable flow meters. Differentiate between compensated and uncompensated flow meters. Make necessary adjustments when using an oxygen flow meter to deliver helium/oxygen mixtures. Describe the function and advantages/ disadvantages of the Bourdon Gauge. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Lecture Continued: Lesson: Gas Physics

Major Student Performance Objective -Laboratory The student will be able to operate Oxygen Supply Systems, Liquid Oxygen Systems, and Oxygen Concentrators.

Correctly select an “E” or “H” cylinder for use. Correctly maneuver a medical gas cylinder on and off a cylinder cart. Demonstrate the correct handling of a cylinder and cart on level ground. Properly prepare a cylinder for attachment of a reducing valve or gas delivery device. Correctly demonstrate the process of bleeding a reducing valve before removal. Demonstrate how to prepare an air/oxygen blender for use. Supporting Student Performance Objectives - Laboratory: Lesson: Gas Physics

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