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Chapter 5 Circular Motion

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Uniform Circular Motion Radial Acceleration Banked and Unbanked Curves Circular Orbits Nonuniform Circular Motion Tangential and Angular Acceleration Artificial Gravity MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Angular Displacement x y i f is the angular position. Angular displacement: Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Questions 1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 16, and 17. Note: angles measured CW are negative and angles measured CCW are positive. is measured in radians. 2 radians = 360 = 1 revolution MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Arc Length x y i f r arc length = s = r is a ratio of two lengths; it is a dimensionless ratio! MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Angular Speed The average and instantaneous angular velocities are: is measured in rads/sec. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Angular Speed x y i f r An object moves along a circular path of radius r; what is its average speed? Also, (instantaneous values). MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Period and Frequency The time it takes to go one time around a closed path is called the period (T). Comparing to v = r: f is called the frequency, the number of revolutions (or cycles) per second. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Centripetal Acceleration**

Consider an object moving in a circular path of radius r at constant speed. x y v Here, v 0. The direction of v is changing. If v 0, then a 0. Then there is a net force acting on the object. Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Questions 4 and 7. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Centripetal Acceleration**

Conclusion: with no net force acting on the object it would travel in a straight line at constant speed It is still true that F = ma. But what acceleration do we use? MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Centripetal Acceleration**

The velocity of a particle is tangent to its path. For an object moving in uniform circular motion, the acceleration is radially inward. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Centripetal Acceleration**

The magnitude of the radial acceleration is: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Rotor Ride Example The rotor is an amusement park ride where people stand against the inside of a cylinder. Once the cylinder is spinning fast enough, the floor drops out. (a) What force keeps the people from falling out the bottom of the cylinder? x y w N fs Draw an FBD for a person with their back to the wall: It is the force of static friction. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Rotor Ride Example (b) If s = 0.40 and the cylinder has r = 2.5 m, what is the minimum angular speed of the cylinder so that the people don’t fall out? Apply Newton’s 2nd Law: From (2): From (1) MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Unbanked Curve A coin is placed on a record that is rotating at 33.3 rpm. If s = 0.1, how far from the center of the record can the coin be placed without having it slip off? We’re looking for r. x y w N fs Draw an FBD for the coin: Apply Newton’s 2nd Law: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Unbanked Curve From (2) Solving for r: What is ? MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Banked Curves A highway curve has a radius of 825 m. At what angle should the road be banked so that a car traveling at 26.8 m/s has no tendency to skid sideways on the road? (Hint: No tendency to skid means the frictional force is zero.) Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Questions 8, 18, and 19. Take the car’s motion to be into the page. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Banked Curves x y N w FBD for the car: Apply Newton’s Second Law: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Banked Curves Rewrite (1) and (2): Divide (1) by (2): MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Circular Orbits Consider an object of mass m in a circular orbit about the Earth. Earth r The only force on the satellite is the force of gravity: Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Questions 9 and 20. Solve for the speed of the satellite: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Circular Orbits Example: How high above the surface of the Earth does a satellite need to be so that it has an orbit period of 24 hours? From previous slide: Also need, Combine these expressions and solve for r: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Circular Orbits Kepler’s Third Law It can be generalized to: Where M is the mass of the central body. For example, it would be Msun if speaking of the planets in the solar system. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Nonuniform Circular Motion**

Nonuniform means the speed (magnitude of velocity) is changing. at v ar a There is now an acceleration tangent to the path of the particle. Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Questions 5, 10, 11, 12, and 15. The net acceleration of the body is This is true but useless! MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Nonuniform Circular Motion**

at ar a at changes the magnitude of v. Changes energy - does work ar changes the direction of v. Doesn’t change energy - does NO WORK The accelerations are only useful when separated into perpendicualr and parallel components. Can write: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Loop Ride Example: What is the minimum speed for the car so that it maintains contact with the loop when it is in the pictured position? r FBD for the car at the top of the loop: N w y x Apply Newton’s 2nd Law: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Loop Ride The apparent weight at the top of loop is: N = 0 when This is the minimum speed needed to make it around the loop. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Loop Ride Consider the car at the bottom of the loop; how does the apparent weight compare to the true weight? FBD for the car at the bottom of the loop: Apply Newton’s 2nd Law: N w y x Here, MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Linear and Angular Acceleration**

The average and instantaneous angular acceleration are: Could incorporate personal response system questions from the College Physics by G/R/R 2E ARIS site (www.mhhe.com/grr), Instructor Resources: CPS by eInstruction, Chapter 5, Question 6. is measured in rads/sec2. MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**at Linear and Angular Acceleration**

Recalling that the tangential velocity is vt = r means the tangential acceleration is at MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Linear and Angular Kinematics**

Linear (Tangential) Angular With “a” and “at” are the same thing MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Dental Drill Example A high speed dental drill is rotating at 3.14104 rads/sec. Through how many degrees does the drill rotate in 1.00 sec? Given: = 3.14104 rads/sec; t = 1 sec; = 0 Want . MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Car Example Your car’s wheels are 65 cm in diameter and are rotating at = 101 rads/sec. How fast in km/hour is the car traveling, assuming no slipping? v X MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Artificial Gravity A large rotating cylinder in deep space (g0). MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Artificial Gravity FBD for the person x y N x y N Top position Bottom position Apply Newton’s 2nd Law to each: MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Space Station Example A space station is shaped like a ring and rotates to simulate gravity. If the radius of the space station is 120m, at what frequency must it rotate so that it simulates Earth’s gravity? Using the result from the previous slide: The frequency is f = (/2) = Hz (or 2.7 rpm). MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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**Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10**

Summary A net force MUST act on an object that has circular motion. Radial Acceleration ar=v2/r Definition of Angular Quantities (, , and ) The Angular Kinematic Equations The Relationships Between Linear and Angular Quantities Uniform and Nonuniform Circular Motion MFMcGraw Ch5-Circular Motion-Revised 2/15/10

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