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Unit 3 : Happiness
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Unit 3: Part A Quotations About HappinessQuotations About Happiness A Gallup Poll About HappinessA Gallup Poll About Happiness A SurveyA Survey
Directions: Read the following quotations about happiness and decide which one is your preference. Happiness belongs to the self-sufficient. Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without action. The happiness that is genuinely satisfying is accompanied by the fullest exercise of our faculties and the fullest realization of the world in which we live. Unhappiness is best defined as the difference between our talents and our expectations. Happiness is not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved.
A Gallup Poll about Happiness Directions: Here are some tables or figures. Read them and try to find out what these figures or tables indicate. Table 1: More women (40%) than men (34%) report being very happy. But more women (12%) than men (9%) say they are not too happy. The largest difference lies in the middle — more men (57%) than women (48%) report being fairly happy.
Table 1: Gallup data indicates that people with higher household incomes are far more likely to consider themselves to be very happy than are those with lower incomes. Among people from households earning $75,000 or more annually, 52% consider themselves to be very happy, compared to just 29% of people in households earning $20,000 or less annually. Similarly, the percentage of not too happy people increases substantially as income decreases.
Survey Form Direction:Below are five statements that you may agree or disagree with. Using the 1-7 scales below, indicate your agreement with each item by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding. 7 - Strongly agree 6 - Agree 5 - Slightly agree 4 - Neither agree nor disagree 3 - Slightly disagree 2 - Disagree 1 - Strongly disagree
Statements 1-5 In most ways my life is close to my ideal. The conditions of my life are excellent. I am satisfied with my life. So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing. So, how many scores do you get? Extremely satisfied Satisfied Slightly satisfied Neutral Slightly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Extremely dissatisfied
Intensive Study of Text A Text Organization Text Organization Text Organization Text Organization Further understanding Further understandingFurther understandingFurther understanding Detailed Study Detailed StudyDetailed StudyDetailed Study
Text A The Pursuit of Happiness for the Common Good —Richard Layard
Global Reading_1 Parts Para. Main Ideas 1 2 1~2 3~6 Once material discomfort has been banished, improved relationships become more important than extra money in making us happier. The pursuit of higher relative income or status is a zero-sum game, producing a useless rat race that fails to increase overall happiness. 37~11 To become happier, we need to change our attitudes. We should broaden the criteria for respect, value the intrinsic worth of people’s experiences and acquire a healthier philosophy of life We should adopt the greatest happiness of humankind as our concept of the common good.
Further Understanding When we human beings enjoy better life provided by extraordinary economic growth, we should naturally feel happier. 1. What is so-called standard economic theory? No improvement on degrees of happiness and crime rates. 2. What are the indicators of dissatisfaction mentioned? When people have enough money to meet their daily needs, extra income may sound not so important. 3. According to the passage, at what stage increased income wouldn’t sound so important at all?
2. The reason why in some western countries people overall don’t become happier with the increase of financial income is that the increase is not substantial at all. Intense individualism should be replaced by equal rights to pursue happiness as our central guideline. 1. Even though individualism didn’t make people happier, it still is a central part of the nation’s policy. The reason for this phenomenon is our expectations rise with the financial increase, that is to say, the increase in financial income has been offset by people’s growing expectations. 3. People would only feel better off if they are relatively rich compared to the average standard. 4. If we consider society as a whole, we really don’t need to work so hard for the increase in social status. true or false ( F ) ( T )
who help others without any consideration of their own interests Global Reading_4 Information Gap Directions: Fill in the following blanks with the information you get after reading the third part. 1.Even though financial income can bring us, we also should praise those people respect _______ ___________________ _______________________________. 2.There is nothing wrong with, because it is. But what really matters is that our system of ranking is comparison ___________ inevitable_________ subjective_________. 3.As we lived in an era of, our objective is only to. Consequently, we are not aware of the importance of unprecedented individualism _______________________ realize our full potential ___________________ common good or collective interests _________________ _______________.
What can make us happier? Greater wealth? Richard Layard argues that often it does not. He suggests some alternative ways to increase happiness for all.
Over the last 50 years, we in the west have enjoyed unparalleled economic growth. We have better homes, cars, holidays, jobs, education and above all health. According to standard economic theory, this should have made us happier. But surveys show otherwise. When Britons or Americans are asked how happy they are, they report no improvement over the last 50 years. More people suffer from depression, and crime, another indicator of dissatisfaction is also much higher.unparalleleddepression
These facts challenge many of the priorities we have set ourselves both as societies and as individuals. The truth is that we are in a situation previously unknown to man. When most people exist near the breadline, material progress does indeed make them happier. People in the rich world (above, say, $20,000 a head per year) are happier than people in poorer countries, and people in poor countries do become happier as they become richer. But when material discomfort has been banished, extra income becomes much less important than our relationships with each other: with family, with friends and in the community. The danger is that we sacrifice relationships too much in pursuit of higher income.prioritiesbreadline
The desire to be happy is central to our nature. We all want a society in which people are as happy as possible and in which each person’s happiness counts equally. That should be the philosophy for our age, the guide for public policy and for individual action. And it should come to replace the intense individualism which has failed to make us happier.intense
Indeed, money is perceived as one of the key factors affecting a person’s happiness. But can money alone make us happy in the long run? In any society, richer people are often happier than poor people. Yet, as a western country becomes richer, its people overall do not become happier. The reason for this is that over time our standards and expectations rise to meet our income. A Gallup Poll has asked Americans each year: “What is the smallest amount of money a family of four needs to get along in this community?” The sums mentioned rise in line with average incomes. Since people are always comparing their incomes with what others have, or with what they are used to, they only feel better off if they move up relative to the norm.in the long runoverall in line with relative to
This process can have counterproductive effects. I have an incentive to work and earn more: it will make me happier. So do other members of society, who also care about their relative standard of life. Since society as a whole cannot raise its position relative to itself, the effort which its members devote to that end could be said to be a waste — the balance between leisure and work has been shifted “inefficiently” towards work.counterproductiveincentive
To reinforce the case, let me explain it in terms of status, which may derive as much from the earning of income as from the spending of it. People work, in part at least, to improve their status. But status is a system of ranking: one, two, three and so on. So if one person improves his status, someone else loses an equal amount. It is a zero-sum game: private life sacrificed in order to increase status is a waste from the point of view of society as a whole. That is why the rat race is so destructive: we lose family life and peace of mind in pursuing something whose total cannot be altered.reinforcein terms ofderiverank
In one sense, what people most want is respect. They seek economic status because it brings respect. But we can increase or decrease the weight we give to status. In an increasingly competitive society, life will become tougher for people in the bottom half of the ability range unless we develop broader criteria for respect. We should respect people who co-operate with others at no gain to themselves, and who show skill and effort at whatever level. That is why it is so important to enable everyone to develop a skill. In Britain, this means ensuring that all young people can take up an apprenticeship if they wish, so that those who have not enjoyed academic success at school can experience professional pride and avoid starting adult life believing themselves to be failures.decrease ensur
Some comparisons between people are inevitable, since hierarchy is necessary and unavoidable. Some people get promoted and others do not. Moreover, those who get promoted must be paid more, since they are talented and the employer wishes to attract talent. So pay is important at key moments as a way of affecting people’s decisions about occupations or in choosing between employers. The problem is that in most jobs there is no objective measure of individual performance, so people must in effect be evaluated against their peers. But the ranking process, which is very subjective, fundamentally alters the relationship of co-operation between an employee and his boss, and between an employee and his peers.hierarchyoccupationsfundamentally
If we want a happier society, we should focus most on the experiences which people value for their intrinsic worth and not because other people have them, above all, on relationships in the family, at work and in the community. It seems likely that the extra comforts we now enjoy have increased our happiness somewhat, but that deteriorating relationships have made us less happy.deteriorat
We live in an age of unprecedented individualism. The highest obligation many people feel is to make the most of themselves, to realize their potential. This is a terrifying and lonely objective. Of course they feel obligations to other people too, but these are not based on any clear set of ideas in western societies. The old religious worldview is gone; so too is the postwar religion of social and national solidarity. We are left with no concept of the common good or collective meaning.collective
To become happier, we have to change our inner attitudes as much as our outward circumstances. I am talking of the everlasting philosophy which enables us to find the positive force in ourselves, and to see the positive side in others. Such compassion, to ourselves and others, can be learned and it ought to be taught in schools. Every city should have a policy for promoting a healthier philosophy of life in its youngsters and for helping them to distinguish between superficial pleasures and real happiness.outward
So my hope is that in this new century we can finally adopt the greatest happiness of humankind as our concept of the common good. This would have two results. It would serve as a clear guide to policy. But, even more important, it would inspire us in our daily lives to take more pleasure in the happiness of others, and to promote it. In this way we might all become less self-centered and happier.
1. What does “exist near the breadline” mean in this passage? When most people exist near the breadline, material progress does indeed make them happier. 2. Paraphrase the sentence. “Exist near the breadline” means “just have enough money to feed themselves.” When a multitude of people in a society only have money enough to feed themselves, they would feel much happier if they can earn more money.
But when material discomfort has been banished, extra income becomes much less important than our relationships with each other: with family, with friends and in the community. 1. What does “material discomfort has been banished” mean? This part means that people have enough money to meet everyday needs, they don’t worry about their daily life anymore. 2. Translate the sentence. 然而，物质上的匮乏一旦消除，收入的增加便不如亲情、 友情、邻里等人际关系那么重要。
The reason for this is that over time our standards and expectations rise to meet our income. 1. What does “our standards and expectations rise to meet our income” mean? It means “with the increase in our income, our standards and expectations also rise.” 2. Translate the sentence. 原因是随着时间的推移，我们的标准和期望随着收入的增 加而上升。
Since people are always comparing their incomes with what others have, or with what they are used to, they only feel better off if they move up relative to the norm. 1. What does “the norm” refer to in this sentence? It refers to “average income.” 2. Paraphrase “move up relative to the norm.” They earn more than the average income.
Since society as a whole cannot raise its position relative to itself, the effort which its members devote to that end could be said to be a waste — the balance between leisure and work has been shifted “inefficiently” towards work. 1. What does “the effort which its members devote to that end” refer to in this sentence? People make an effort to raise their social status or position by working harder or earning more. 2. What does “inefficiently” refer to in this sentence ? It means useless, meaningless, that’s to say, it’s useless for people to sacrifice their leisure time to work. 3. Why does the author think these efforts are meaningless at all? Because their increase in income would definitely be counterbalanced by increase in average income, so that they wouldn’t feel happier than before by working harder or earning more.
It is a zero-sum game: private life sacrificed in order to increase status is a waste from the point of view of society as a whole. 1.What does “a zero-sum game” refer to in this sentence? Linguistically it refers to “a situation in which you receive as much money or advantages as you give away.” In this sentence, it means that you pay a lot to increase social status, for example, private life, leisure time, even health. But what you gain seems equal to what you have paid. 2. Translate the sentence. 这是一种得失平衡的游戏：从整个社会看，为了提高 地位而牺牲个人的生活，是一种浪费。
In an increasingly competitive society, life will become tougher for people in the bottom half of the ability range unless we develop broader criteria for respect. 1.What does “people in the bottom half of the ability range” mean ? It refers to “those people whose ability is below the average.” 2. What kind of ability does this sentence mean in your opinion? It may refer to a person’s ability to earn money. 3. What does “broader criteria for respect” refer to? It means that besides economic status, more factors are considered to decide whether one person deserves our respect or not.
We should respect people who co-operate with others at no gain to themselves, and who show skill and effort at whatever level. Paraphrase the sentence. We should respect people who work with others for no reward and those who use their skills and work hard at jobs of whatever rank.
It seems likely that the extra comforts we now enjoy have increased our happiness somewhat, but that deteriorating relationships have made us less happy. 1. What extra comforts do we enjoy? The extra comforts may include a better living place, a more luxurious car, etc. 2. What kinds of relationships have been deteriorating? Relationships in the family, at work and in the community. 3. Paraphrase the sentence. While our higher standard of living has probably been a source of some extra happiness, this has been offset by the worsening of our relationships brought about by the single-minded pursuit of wealth.
The old religious worldview is gone; so too is the postwar religion of social and national solidarity. 2.What do “the old religious worldview” and “the postwar religion of social and national solidarity” refer to? Open-ended. But this question is worth discussing about. Teachers can really hold a deep discussion about this. 1. Translate the sentence. 无论是古老的、虔诚的世界观，还是战后社会的团结精神 和国家的凝聚意识，皆荡然无存。
We are left with no concept of the common good or collective meaning. 1.What does this sentence indicate? It indicates that we are not aware of and pay little attention to the concept of the common good and collective interests. 2.What does “the common good and collective meaning” refer to? It means the advantage of everyone in the society or the advantage of the whole society.
unparalleled: adj. having no parallel or equal; unmatched New agricultural and industrial processes have boosted productivity to unparalleled heights. With the soar of energy costs, this country is confronted with an economic crisis unparalleled in its history.
depression: n. 1) being depressed; low spirits 他一时想不开, 自杀了。 He committed suicide during a fit of depression. Peter fell into a deep depression on hearing the news. 2) a period when there is little economic activity, and high unemployment Lots of people were deprived of all these property in the Great Depression.
priority: n. 1) (a) (state of) being more important (in rank) Japan enjoys priority over other countries in the field of microelectronics. The Government gave top priority to reforming the legal system. 政府将改革法制列为工作的重点。 2)the thing that is (regarded as) more important than others You must decide what your priorities are. Housework is low on her list of priorities.
breadline: n. a very low level of income which allows people to eat but not have any extra things For those people who exist near the breadline, this policy really crushes them. be / live on the breadline be near / below the breadline Collocations: 非常穷，勉强维持生活 接近 / 低于最低生活标准
intense: adj. 1)(of sensations) having a very strong effect or felt very strongly The heat was intense. 2)(of emotions, etc) very strong 这个年轻的女士十分嫉妒。 This young lady was overcome by an intense feeling of jealousy. She can be so intense. It makes me exhausted.
in the long run: later in the future, not immediately The less you rely on painkillers now, the better it will be for your health in the long run. We can’t sacrifice our ecosystem to immediate economic growth. As in the long run, this decision would be disastrous.
overall: 1) adj. including everything, taking everything into account There’s been an overall improvement recently. 2)adv. including everything; generally 总的来说，价格仍在上升。 Overall, the prices are stilling rising. My overall impression of his work is good.
in line with: in accordance to 养老金将会跟着通货膨胀的水平增长。 Pensions will be increased in line with inflation. line of business drop sb. a line on the right lines in line with be in sb.’s line take a firm line on Collocations: 专业， 行业 给人写短信（便条） 正确，对的 与 …… 一致 是某人的专长 对某事采取坚定的态度 Income tax fluctuates in line with the change in one’s earning.
relative to: with regard to, concerning; in comparison with Before you resort to justice, you should accumulate enough evidence relative to this issue. People only feel better off if they move up relative to the average income.
counterproductive: adj. achieving the opposite result to the one that you want Sending young offenders to prison can be counterproductive. His comfort may be counterproductive as this little boy was overcome by hatred and jealousy. NB: counterattack counteract counterbalance countermeasure counter- revolution counterpart 反击 抵消，对抗 使 …… 平衡 对策 反革命 两方面地位、职务相当的人 counter 是一个前缀，表达的意思是 “ 相反的 ” 。 例如：
incentive: n. sth. encouraging people to do sth., stimulus The chance of a higher salary and a quick promotion gives young people incentive to work harder. 那么低的价格让农民没有动力再种植下去了。 With such a low price, there is little incentive for farmers to go on this practice in the following years.
reinforce: v. 1)to give more support to (sth.); emphasize 2)to increase the numbers or military strength of Conclusions from the report have been reinforced by more recent studies. 这个证据证实了我认为他是间谍的这一看法。 This evidence reinforces my view that he is a spy. Our defenses must be reinforced against attack.
in terms of: as measured or indicated by; in units of; with reference to In terms of customer satisfaction, the policy can’t be criticized. 这是一种低廉的娱乐，但就浪费的时间来说却极昂贵。 This is a kind of cheap entertainment, but costly in terms of time wasted.
derive from: get sth. from sth. or sb. This dictator derived happiness from citizens’ miseries and sufferings. 得知自己不是唯一考试没过的人时，他得到了一些安 慰。 He derived some comfort from the fact that he wasn’t the only one to fail the exam.
rank: 1)n. the position in a scale of responsibility, quality, social status, etc He is a painter of the top rank. To tackle such a social problem, people of all ranks should cooperate with each other. 2)v. to hold a particular rank This recession ranks as one of the worst in recent times. 她在班上总是排名第一。 She does always rank first in the class.
decrease: 1) v. to (cause sth. to) become smaller or fewer; diminish Student numbers have decreased by )n. decreasing; reduction This month has witnessed a decrease of 3% in the rate of inflation. 人们对此项运动的兴趣已逐渐淡薄。 People’s interest in the sport is decreasing gradually. There has been a decrease in imports.
ensure: v. 1) make sure; guarantee The book ensured his success. 2)make (sb.) certain to get (sth.); assure These pills should ensure you a good night’s sleep. Please ensure that all the lights are switched off at night. CF: ensure, insure, guarantee & pledge insure guarantee pledge 这些动词都有 “ 保证 ” 之意。 常与 ensure 换用，但前者多指经济方面的保证、 保险。而 ensure 强调使人相信某事必将发生，还 有 “ 保证获得 ” 、 “ 保证赋予 ” 的意思。 指对事物的品质或人的行为及履行义务、义务等 承担责任的保证。 正式用词，指通过郑重许诺、协议或立誓等保证 承担某一义务或遵守某一原则。
hierarchy: n. a system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest There is a hierarchy in the classification of all living creatures. 重要的决策都在管理层中决定。 Important decisions were made high up in the management hierarchy.
occupation: n. 1) job; profession 大学生正在为将来的职业积累足够的专业知识。 The college students are accumulating a great multitude of expertise for their future occupations. Please state your name, address and occupation. 2)an activity that occupies a person’s time; pastime She has many occupations including gardening and wine-making. 他的业余爱好是看书。 His favorite occupation is reading.
fundamentally: adv. essentially, primarily Her ideas are fundamentally sound, even if she says silly things sometimes. 你我的宗教信仰根本不同。 Your religious beliefs and mine are fundamentally different.
deteriorate: v. become worse in quality or condition The discussion deteriorated into a bitter quarrel. Leather can deteriorate in damp conditions.
collective: 1) adj. joint; shared Only a collective government can make the best out of democracy. 2) n. a group of people who work together or to run sth. such as a business or a farm; the business or farm that is run by this type of people This is a collective decision on the part of the management. The worker’s collective decided to launch a campaign against overtime working.
outward: adj. 1) going out or away from He got lost on the outward journey. 2) of or on the outside She gives no outward sign of the sadness she must feel. 这座城市外表上有些变化，但实质上还是老样子。 There were outward changes, but the city remained essentially the same. An outward show of confidence concealed his nervousness.
After reading Useful expressions Useful expressionsUseful expressionsUseful expressions Group discussionGroup discussionGroup discussionGroup discussion Writing practice Writing practice Writing practice Writing practice Proverbs and quotations Proverbs and quotationsProverbs and quotationsProverbs and quotations
1. 史无前例的经济增长 2. 为温饱发愁 3. 物质上的匮乏 4. 追求更高的收入 5. 这个时代的人生哲学 6. 极端的个人主义 7. 和 …… 一致 8. 和平均水准相比有所上升 9. 当休闲与工作的天平偏 向工作 10. 以自己为参照物 11. 来源于 economic growth unparalleled in history exist near the breadline material discomfort in pursuit of higher income philosophy for our age intense individualism in line with move up relative to the norm balance between leisure and work shifted towards work relative to itself derive from
13. 永无止境的竞争 14. 能力偏低的人 15. 自己没有获益 16. 事实上 17. 内在的价值 18. 一个空前的个人主义的时代 19. 在自身找到积极的力量 20. 肤浅的快乐 21. 我们的公益观 22. 一套清晰的理念 12. 得失平衡的游戏 a zero-sum game rat race people in the bottom half of the ability range at no gain to oneself in effect intrinsic worth an age of unprecedented individualism find the positive force in oneself superficial pleasures our concept of the common good a clear set of ideas
Group Discussion Directions: Get into several groups, discuss the following questions and then select a representative to present the opinions of your group. What is the common good in your opinion? How can we take more pleasure in others’ happiness? Would you feel jealous if some of your friends become successful in career or study?
Writing Practice Basically speaking, the first step of table writing is to describe the table or chart given to you. The description should be clear and concise. Generally speaking, the description of the table or chart is followed by some explanation of the reasons that cause the changes occurring in the table. At last, a piece of table writing is either ended with possible problems caused by the changes in the table, or with some prediction. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Table Writing
Useful Expressions: the table shows the changes in the number of... over the period from... to... the bar chart illustrates that... the graph provides some interesting data regarding... the diagram shows (that)... the pie graph depicts (that)... this is a cure graph which describes the trend of... as is shown / demonstrated / exhibited in the diagram / graph / chart / table... according to the chart / figures... as is shown in the table...
Sample As is obviously betrayed in the pie above, the main contagion channels among China’s HIV positive cases are drug injection (43.9%), commercial blood donors (24.1%), and sexual contact (19.8%). The statistics have indicated the reality that we are facing and have profound implication for us in terms of AIDS control and prevention.
Column A Column B (your list) fame work family health wealth friends social status living environment contribution to the society 1. ________________ 2. ________________ 3. ________________ 4. ________________ 5. ________________ 6. ________________ 7. ________________ 8. ________________ 9. ________________
Step 1: Rearrange the factors related to happiness in Column A in the order of their significance and write them down in Column B. Then exchange your list with your neighbour’s and explain why you think the FIRST TWO factors on your list are the most important and the LAST factor is the least important in relation to happiness.
Step 2: Students can walk around in a class to find out others’ opinions about it, and make a presentation, orally or in written form, on classmates’ opinions about the two most important factors and the least important one. Tips: Refer to Writing Practice.
1. Happiness held is the seed; happiness shared is the flower. 手上的幸福是种子, 分享的幸福是花朵。 2. Happiness takes no account of time. 欢娱不惜时光逝。 3. The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer somebody else up. — Mark Twain, American Writer 让自己高兴的最好的办法是让别人高兴起来。 —— 美国作家 马克 吐温 4. Pleasure is spread through the earth In stray gifts to be claimed by whoever shall find. — William Wordsworth, British Poet 幸福就在散落于地球上的七零八落的礼物中, 任何人都可 以拥有它。 —— 英国诗人 威廉 华兹华斯
6. My crown is called content, a crown that seldom kings enjoy. — William Shakespeare, English Writer and Poet 我的皇冠是自我满足，这个皇冠很少有国王拥有。 —— 英国作家和诗人 威廉 莎士比亞 5. Happiness is like a butterfly which, when pursued, is always beyond our grasp, but, if you will sit down quietly, may alight upon you. — Nathaniel Hawthorne, American Writer 幸福就像蝴蝶，当你追赶它时，它已飞走。而当你静静坐 着时，它却可能就落在你头上。 —— 美国作家 纳桑尼尔 霍桑