2Genetic engineeringGenetic engineering is the technology of modifying the genetic material of a living being, by adding, removing or manipulating their genes, to make that organism acquire a desired new characteristic or ability.USDA
3Increase food production The aim is to find solutions to many problems or needs such as to:Fight against human diseasesIncrease food productionImprove animal breedingSolve infertility, etc.
4Genetic engineering is based on a technology called recombinant DNA Genetic engineering is based on a technology called recombinant DNA. It involves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism that thus takes on the new trait.
5Genetic Engineering give us the possibility of setting up animals and plants resistant to insects, diseases, etc:Extended shelf-life tomatoInsect resistant cottonHerbicide resistant crops: soya bean, potato, lettuce, etc.
6Drugs, human proteins and new materials expressed in milk: Spider silk produced by goats used to make soft-body bullet proof vestsPlants with increased vitamins and nutrients content:Golden Rice – with high level of Vitamin A
7Insulin produced by bacteria Modified microorganisms that could be used to:increase efficient mining and use of scarce mineralsbiodegrade sewage, petroleum spill, wasteGenetically modified microorganisms could be used to:produce new drugs and vaccinesPotential is virtually endless:produce new drugs and vaccinesbiodegrade sewage, petroleum spill, wasteincrease efficient mining and use of scarce minerals, etc.Insulin produced by bacteria
8Potential is virtually endless!!! Cloning living beingsDolly was the first mammal that was cloned in 1997 using DNA from another sheep. It was made from two different sheepPotential is virtually endless!!!
9Human cloningIn 1998 Britain scientists said that it was acceptable to clone human material for medical puroses.Human cloning might :facilitate ill children who need organ transplants to have a clone born to donate themhelp infertile or lesbian or gay couples to have children
10Human cloninghelp with treatments for brain damage and other important diseases.
11People against human cloning argue that is wrong because: It brings along the loss of identity, individuality and human diversity.Cloned man would become simply another man-made thing, whose ‘designer’ stands above. The cloned child will be dehumanized or have emotional problems.A dictator could finance a programme to breed humans with certain characteristics.
12Cloning techniques are still very risky Cloning techniques are still very riskyThe cloned ‘materials’ destroyed would mean loss of human beings (Roman Catholics)Some changes will likely be passed down from generation to generation, thus are a permanent change to the human genome and nobody has the right to do that.
13Bill Clinton said“Banning human cloning reflects our humanity. At its worst, this could lead to misguided and malevolent attempts to select certain traits, even to create certain kinds of children – to make our children objects rather that cherished individuals.”
14Most Americans state that: People mustn’t be treated as a means to obtain something.Using embryos to cure another person’s illness is to omit the “dignity” that everybody has.
15Source: Gallup/CC/USA/Today 11/01 According to a CNN/Time poll of 1005 adults most Americans considered that cloning animals and particularly humans was immoral and unacceptable.Source: Gallup/CC/USA/Today 11/0150% of those polled also said they would not be willing to eat fruits, vegetables or animals resulting from cloning or genetic engineering techniques
16Genetic engineering represents a whole new world of questionable outcomes and possibly dangerous results.Some people state that genetic engineering is unnecessary, unnatural and therefore intrinsically wrong.
17Other people fear that it could arise: new uncontrollable diseases, allergies, antibiotic resistance, production of new toxins and more virulent virusesfreak animals
18Greenpeace and other NGO are concerned about the fact that animals could simply be seen as machines to be treated as people wish. The animals‘ dignity will be sacrificed for the supposed benefits to humans.They also fear:Long term adverse effects of environment: Problems for Biodiversity, concentration of Toxic Metals and poisons, etc.The possible devastation of Third World Agriculture due to genetically engineered crops.Unforeseen Problems (as it happened with CFCs)
19Some people think that Genetic engineering is a fact of life that has become indispensable, e.g. to produce human insulin, vaccines, etc.The development of genetic engineering will certainly lead to the control and improvement of our health and quality of lifeWe would also be able to improve the genes of animals and plants so that these organisms can better serve the human race: increase crop yield, healthier and meatier animals, cheaper food to feed more hungry children.
20For those in favour of Genetic engineering, it leaves the door open for endless enhancement of our species.It seems to be the answer to gaining the enhancements that would allow us to live longer, happier and healthier lives.
21On the one hand everyone should have the right to chose -e. g On the one hand everyone should have the right to chose -e.g. to eat genetically modified food or not- So we need clear information and knowledge.On the other hand, what gives an individual the right to make decisions that will affect generations to come?It seems as if we are putting a great deal of power into human hands. But humans could make mistakes.
22“By asking a novel question that you don’t know the answer to, you discover whether you can formulate a way of finding the answer, and you stretch your own mind, and very often you learn something new”Walter Gilbert, Nobel Price in Chemistry in 1980.Each individual must decide for him or herself their stance on this issue, but hopefully you have come to understand that in order to do it we need enough knowledge and be fully aware that as citizens we should keep reflecting on it and asking the authorities to legislate and carefully control all this technology.
23Now, we would like to discuss: Don’t you think we would be happier if we were clones made to fit society's needs?Do you think we would be free if we were clones?Do you think our genes determine who we are?