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Chapter 7 Goal Directed Systems Design Part 1: Input – Process – Output Model Input: Unsafe worker Process Output: Safe worker.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Goal Directed Systems Design Part 1: Input – Process – Output Model Input: Unsafe worker Process Output: Safe worker."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Goal Directed Systems Design Part 1: Input – Process – Output Model Input: Unsafe worker Process Output: Safe worker

2 Table of Contents Definitions Check lists and rules Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6 Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

3 Table of Contents Activity 7 Activity 8 Activity 9 Activity 10 Activity 11 Activity 12 Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

4 Table of Contents Review Section Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

5 Table of Contents Definitions –ProcessesProcesses –Outputs, inputs, or goalsOutputs, inputs, or goals –Ultimate goalUltimate goal –Goal-directed approachGoal-directed approach –Final outputFinal output –Input-Process-Output ChainInput-Process-Output Chain –Main resourcesMain resources –ProductionProduction –DistributionDistribution –Research and Development (R & D)Research and Development (R & D) Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

6 Table of Contents Check lists and rules –Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goalsRules in outlining the structure of organizational goals –Questions to ask yourself when making the outline of organizational goalsQuestions to ask yourself when making the outline of organizational goals –Outline checklistOutline checklist Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

7 Table of Contents Activity #1 –#1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16, #17, #18, #19, #20, #21, #22, #23, #24, #25, #26, #27, #28, #29, #30#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8#9 #10#11#12#13#14#15#16 #17#18#19#20#21#22#23 #24#25#26#27#28#29#30 Click to skip table of contents Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

8 Table of Contents Activity #2 –#31, #32, #33, #34, #35, #36, #37, #38, #39, #40#31#32#33#34#35#36 #37#38#39#40 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

9 Table of Contents Activity #3 –#41, #42, #43, #44#41#42#43#44 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

10 Table of Contents Activity #4 –#45, #46, #47, #48, #49, #50, #51, #52, #53, #54#45#46#47#48#49#50 #51#52#53#54 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

11 Table of Contents Activity #5 –#55, #56, #57, #58, #59, #60, #61, #62, #63, #64,#55#56#57#58#59#60 #61#62#63#64 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

12 Table of Contents Activity #6 –#65, #66, #67, #68#65#66#67#68 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

13 Table of Contents Activity #7 –#69, #70, #71, #72#69#70#71#72 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

14 Table of Contents Activity #8 –#73#73 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

15 Table of Contents Activity #9 –#74,#74 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

16 Table of Contents Activity #10 –#75,#75 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

17 Table of Contents Activity #11 –#76,#76 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

18 Table of Contents Activity #12 –#77,#77 Return to Table of Contents Click to skip table of contents Click to go back to your previous slide

19 Goal-Directed Systems Design is a technology for designing an ideal structure of organizational goals using a behavioral systems analytic approach.

20 In this part of the workshow you will learn the concepts involved in Goal-Directed Systems Design (GDSD) and do some practice-work in designing organizational goals.

21 You can do a GDSD up front for a new organization that you’re starting, to help it work well from day one…

22 …or you can apply GDSD later to an existing organization, to help it work better and to recover from organizational disasters.

23 What’s the behavioral systems analysis approach?

24 Behavioral Systems Analysis approach A system is an organized, integrated, unified set of components, accomplishing a particular set of goals.

25 Behavioral Systems Analysis approach A system consists of inputs (resources), processes, and outputs (goals).

26 For example, an automobile is an example of a system. It inputs people at one location and moves them to another. It’s a transportation system. Behavioral Systems Analysis approach

27 A behavioral system is a system in which the principle components are human beings.

28 Behavioral System… For example, a university is an example of a behavioral system, which inputs high-school graduates, educates them, and outputs college graduates.

29 In a behavioral systems approach, you define an organization as a set of systems by identifying the output, process, and input for each component.

30 In other words, you see an organization as a behavioral system, or a collection of behavioral systems, each of which has an output, a process, and inputs.

31 Practice!!-Activity #1 For the following behavioral systems, identify each underlined component of the system as either output, process, or input. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

32 Practice!!-Activity #1 Put O for output, P for process, or I for input.

33 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess C. InputInput #1 Return to Table of Contents

34 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A. Output B.Process C.Input No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Treating sick people is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!

35 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.Output B. Process C. Input No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Treating sick people is an activity and not the initial thing or condition that begins the process. Back to the question!

36 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.Output B. Process C. Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! Treating sick people is the behavior responsible for processing sick people into healthy people.

37 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.OutputOutput B. Process C. InputInput #2 Return to Table of Contents

38 A hospital: ___Treating Sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.Output B. Process C. Input No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. Back to the question!

39 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.Output B. Process C. Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

40 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people A.OutputOutput B. Process C. Input #3 And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

41 A hospital: ___Treating sick people ___Sick people ___Healthy people Right on!!! Healthy people is the final outcome or goal when treating sick people. A.Output B. Process C. Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question!

42 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People #4 A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput Return to Table of Contents

43 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Amusing people is an activity and not a thing or condition.

44 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system.

45 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

46 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People #5 A. OutputOutput B.Process C.InputInput Return to Table of Contents

47 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system.

48 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People Good!! Happier people is the final outcome or goal when trying to amuse people. A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question!

49 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People A. Output B.Process C.InputInput #6 And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

50 An amusement park: ___Amusing people ___Happier people ___People Right on!!! A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question!

51 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people #7 A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput Return to Table of Contents

52 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A.Input B.Process C.Output Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]” Back to the question!

53 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A.Input B.Process C.Output No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Back to the question!

54 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

55 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people #8 A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.Input Return to Table of Contents

56 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A. Output B.Process C.Input No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing rooms to people is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!

57 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

58 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people #9 A. OutputOutput B.Process C.Input Return to Table of Contents

59 A motel: ___Tired people ___Providing rooms ___Rested people A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! Rested people is the final outcome or goal when providing a room for tired people.

60 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people #10 A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput Return to Table of Contents

61 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

62 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!

63 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! People at their destination is the final goal when transporting people.

64 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people #11 A. Output B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput Return to Table of Contents

65 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

66 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

67 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people #12 A. Output B.ProcessProcess C.Input And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

68 A bus company: ___People at destination ___People at place of departure ___Transporting people A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

69 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books #13 A.InputInput B.ProcessProcess C.OutputOutput Return to Table of Contents

70 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

71 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is what a book store wishes to accomplish through the sales process. Back to the question!

72 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

73 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books #14 A.Input B.ProcessProcess C.OutputOutput Return to Table of Contents

74 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process and is defined as a thing or condition. Selling books is an activity and not a thing or condition. Back to the question!

75 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

76 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books #15 A.Input B.Process C.OutputOutput And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

77 A book store: ___People who don’t have books and books to be sold ___Selling books ___People who have books A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! People who have books is the final outcome or goal of a book-selling process.

78 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets #16 A.OutputOutput B.InputInput C.ProcessProcess Return to Table of Contents

79 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. Back to the question!

80 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

81 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

82 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.OutputOutput B.Input C.ProcessProcess #17 Return to Table of Contents

83 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

84 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Keep it up!!! People who have pets is the final outcome of a pet-selling process.

85 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets #18 A.Output B.Input C.ProcessProcess And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

86 A pet store: ___People who don’t have pets and pets to be sold ___People who have pets ___Selling pets A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

87 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs #19 A.OutputOutput B.InputInput C.ProcessProcess Return to Table of Contents

88 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!

89 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

90 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice job!!! Repaired VCRs is the goal of a VCR- repairing process.

91 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs #20 A.Output B.InputInput C.ProcessProcess Return to Table of Contents

92 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!

93 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

94 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs #21 A.Output B.InputInput C.Process And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

95 A VCR repair company: ___Repaired VCRs ___Repairing VCRs ___Broken VCRs A.Output B.Input C.Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

96 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision #22 A.InputInput B.ProcessProcess C.OutputOutput Return to Table of Contents

97 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output Back to the question! Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

98 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is what the cable company wishes to accomplish by providing cable to customers.

99 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! That’s right!!!

100 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision #23 A.Input B.ProcessProcess C.OutputOutput Return to Table of Contents

101 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing cable to customers is an activity and not a thing or condition.

102 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Yup!!!

103 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision #24 A.Input B.Process C.OutputOutput And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

104 A Cablevision company: ___People without cablevision ___Providing cablevision ___People with cablevision A.Input B.Process C.Output On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! People with cablevision is the final output of a cable providing company.

105 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput #25 Return to Table of Contents

106 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. Providing services is an activity and not a thing or condition.

107 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system.

108 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

109 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. OutputOutput B.Process C.InputInput #26 Return to Table of Contents

110 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal a hair salon wishes to accomplish by providing quality service to customers.

111 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! YES!!!

112 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. OutputOutput B.Process C.Input #27 And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

113 A hair salon: ___Providing hair services ___People unhappy about their hair ___People happy about their hair A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Sweet!!!

114 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. OutputOutput B.ProcessProcess C.InputInput #28 Return to Table of Contents

115 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition. “Selling” is an activity and not a thing or condition.

116 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system.

117 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

118 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. OutputOutput B.Process C.InputInput #29 Return to Table of Contents

119 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input Back to the question! No, Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the sales process.

120 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next question! Back to the previous question! That’s right!!!

121 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. OutputOutput B.Process C.Input #30 And so the last one would be…. Return to Table of Contents

122 A bike shop: ___Selling bikes ___People without bikes and bikes to be sold ___People with bikes A. Output B.Process C.Input On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

123 In this workbook, you are asked to describe outputs, inputs, or goals as things or conditions.

124 You are also asked to describe processes as activities or behaviors.

125 We want you to learn this distinction because a process does not necessarily produce the expected output even when the process seems to be active.

126 For example… Even when a motel provides plenty of rooms, people may not get rested because of poor service, dirty bath rooms, etc.

127 So, we do not want to say the goal of a motel is to provide rooms. …..that’s what the motel does to accomplish the output of rested people.

128 The goal should be described as “rested people” and one of its processes as “providing rooms”.

129 This distinction may seem odd and less important to you, but it becomes critical when you start designing the structure of organizational goals later.

130 Rules Define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Use “[verb] + ing + [noun]” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define a process. Example: Baking bread, or to bake bread. Define outputs, inputs, or goals of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “[verb] + ing + [noun]” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output/input. Instead, Use [adjective] + [noun] to define inputs/outputs. Example: Baked bread. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

131 Identify the following items by selecting whether it is either an Output or a Process Example: Baking bread __Output or __Process Practice!!-Activity 2 A.Output B. Process Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

132 Manufacturing watches __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #31 Return to Table of Contents

133 Manufacturing watches __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

134 Manufacturing watches __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

135 School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #32 Return to Table of Contents

136 School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Sorry….Remember that you define processes of an organization as activities or behaviors. Processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

137 School bus drivers trained __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

138 Writing a book __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #33 Return to Table of Contents

139 Writing a book __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

140 Writing a book __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Yup!!!

141 Making an appointment __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #34 Return to Table of Contents

142 Making an appointment __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Sorry, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

143 Making an appointment __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! That’s right!!!

144 Teaching students __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #35 Return to Table of Contents

145 Teaching students __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

146 Teaching students __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

147 Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #36 Return to Table of Contents

148 Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Sorry….Remember processes often end in “-ing” or are used in the following sense: “to [verb] [noun]”

149 Computer supplies bought __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice!!!

150 Landscaped lawn __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #37 Return to Table of Contents

151 Landscaped lawn __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! A little reminder: You define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

152 Landscaped lawn __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Correct!!!

153 Training a dog __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #38 Return to Table of Contents

154 Training a dog __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Try once more. Remember to avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

155 Training a dog __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

156 Training materials distributed __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #39 Return to Table of Contents

157 Training materials distributed __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

158 Training materials distributed __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

159 Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process A.OutputOutput B. ProcessProcess #40 Return to Table of Contents

160 Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process Back to the question! Sorry… but remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions.

161 Sending electronic mail. __Output or __Process A.Output B. Process On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Good Work!!!

162 Goal-Directed Systems Design: 1 st : select the ultimate goal of an organization

163 Goal-Directed Systems Design: 1 st : select the ultimate goal of an organization 2 nd : select the various levels of intermediate goals needed to accomplish that ultimate goal

164 Goal-Directed Systems Design: 1 st : select the ultimate goal of an organization 2 nd : select the various levels of intermediate goals needed to accomplish that ultimate goal 3 rd : select the initial goals needed to accomplish those intermediate goals

165 In other words… you decide what to accomplish first and then design goals that will enable you to accomplish what you have decided to accomplish.

166 Definition The ultimate goal is the highest level of the organizational goals and ought to involve the well-being of living creatures. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

167 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

168 Philosophically we believe…. the world would be better off if every organization set their ultimate goal as the well-being of creatures on the earth, and derived the intermediate and initial goals from this ultimate goal.

169 All of us should work toward this goal, and Goal-Directed Systems Design will help us achieve this ultimate goal. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

170 However… We also think this might be too idealistic. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

171 Now just for the record… We are not selling our philosophical stand. Instead, we are providing a technology that helps you accomplish whatever you want to accomplish. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

172 In fact… You are learning to analyze organizational goals not from the well-being of living creatures but from the final output of an organization. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

173 Regardless of the goal you start with, Goal-Directed Systems Design is useful and effective because of its goal-directed nature, or in other words, “top-down approach”. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design important?

174 Definition Goal-directed approach: A technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting sub goals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals. Thus, the accomplishment of each subgoal contributes to the accomplishment of the higher goals. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

175 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful?

176 #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

177 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations. As long as the desired output is accomplished, the process that produces the output could be anything.

178 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations. In systems engineering terms, this is called equifinality.

179 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 In systems engineering terms, this is called equifinality.

180 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? There are a number of different processes that can produce the same final output. For example… #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

181 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? For example… working in a training department at a company, you may feel that you must train people whenever there is a performance problem. #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

182 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? But, if you look at the desired outcome (i.e., job done), the best bet may NOT be training but rather a simple job aid (like the job aid we’re using to help you apply GDSD). #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

183 Or maybe the most cost-effective solution is performance-management contingencies (like the point contingencies we’re using to encourage you to apply GDSD to an area of professional interest). Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

184 Focusing on the output before selecting the process thus gives you flexibility in selecting processes. Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #1 It gives flexibility in designing organizations.

185 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #2 We take a goal-directed approach in order to avoid two kinds of mistakes.

186 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? #2 We take a goal-directed approach in order to avoid two kinds of mistakes. One is the activity trap and the other is the means-ends trap.

187 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? In both kinds of traps, we fail to accomplish what we want to accomplish without even knowing it. #2 We take a goal-directed approach in order to avoid two kinds of mistakes (activity trap & means-end trap).

188 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? An activity trap occurs when you are satisfied with an activity or process without producing a valuable accomplishment or output.

189 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? For example… An instructor at a university may use a lot of advanced technologies in her psychology class, such as an interactive video and computer- assisted instruction.

190 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? An activity trap occurs when she or the university is satisfied with the use of the technology and not concerned about how students are doing in the class.

191 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? It may be the case that the students are failing to learn the material because they lack the prerequisite skills necessary to make use of the material the instructor has presented.

192 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? To get around the trap, you have to focus on the output of a system. In this case, it is the students who learned the material.

193 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? A means-ends trap occurs when you are satisfied with the accomplishment of lower-level goals and not concerned with the accomplishment of higher-level goals to which the lower-level goals are supposed to contribute.

194 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? In the former example, suppose the instructor finally succeeded in making the students learn in the class.

195 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? A means-ends trap occurs, for example, when the students fail to succeed after they graduate from her class. The jobs they got do not require the skills she taught.

196 Why is the Goal-Directed Systems Design useful? To get around this trap, you need to derive your goals from what you are ultimately attempting to accomplish.

197 Practice!! Read the definition of the goal- directed approach again: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals

198 Practice!!-Activity 3 For the following pairs of descriptions, indicate which is an example of a goal-directed approach. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

199 In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, raise funds and send the money to the third world countries. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #41 Return to Table of Contents

200 Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question! A. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, raise funds and send the money to the third world countries. B. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. Sorry…. Remember the goal-directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting sub goals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals

201 A.In order to achieve the well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, raise funds and send the money to the third world countries. B. In order to achieve the well-being of humanity we need to achieve the physical well-being of humanity and the psychological well-being of humanity. In order to achieve the physical well-being of humanity, we need to, for instance, decrease mortality rate. To decrease the mortality rate, for instance, we need to decrease Fetus Alcohol Syndrome. To decrease the FAS, we need to provide behavioral management programs to pregnant women. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Yup!!!

202 A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #42 Return to Table of Contents

203 A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question! Sorry…. Here’s a little refresher of t he definition of the goal-directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals

204 A. In order to provide nutritious and delicious food to customers with a reasonable price, basically we need food and customers. To get foods we need to buy materials and cook them. To get customers we need advertising. B. Because this restaurant is near a university, it would be better to serve fast foods. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Keep it up!!!

205 A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #43 Return to Table of Contents

206 A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question! Remember…… The goal- directed approach is: a technology of designing organizational goals by defining higher goals of an organization first, and then selecting subgoals that are necessary to accomplish those higher goals

207 A. To increase the happiness of employees, we can improve physical and economical conditions of the employees. To improve their physical conditions, we can provide safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use, and a diet or nonsmoking program. To improve the economical conditions we can introduce social welfare programs and life insurance. B. To decrease the time loss from injuries, we need to introduce safety programs such as encouraging seat belt use. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Great Work!!!

208 A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. #44 Return to Table of Contents

209 A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question!

210 A. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to redecorate the employee break room. Then we need to provide better foods in our cafeteria, and also encourage the bosses to speak more kindly to the employees on the manufacturing floor. B. To improve our current rate of productivity, we need to examine the current rate, decide on a goal rate, and provide rewards for the employees contingent upon achieving the goal rate. Which is an example of a goal-directed approach? (click your choice below) A. B. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice!!!

211 Although it is ideal to analyze organizational goals from the ultimate goal, it is often difficult and time consuming.

212 Therefore, in this program, you will only be asked to start analyzing organizational goals with a final output of organizations.

213 Final output: The final product of an organization that is distributed outside the organization.

214 Final output: It is defined in terms of things or conditions but not in terms of activities or behaviors.

215 For example… The final output of this workbook is “students who can use Goal- Directed Systems Design” but not “teaching students how to use Goal-Directed Systems Design.” This is a very important point.

216 Note: Once you finish an outline, it is a good idea to go back and examine your final output and make sure it is defined in terms of things or conditions and not in terms of activities or behaviors.

217 A rough rule: the final output is usually what the organization gets paid for. Another way to put it is that the final output is the “purpose” of the organization.

218 Definition A final output of an organization is the final product that is distributed outside the organization. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

219 Practice!!-Activity 4 The following are descriptions of final outputs for some organizations. Identify which is an example of a final output in each pair. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

220 Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? A. B. #45 A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

221 Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? A. B. A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition.

222 Which is an example of a final output of an automobile company? A. B. A. Net profits 30% increase. B. Automobiles manufactured. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Great!!!

223 Which is an example of a final output of a university? A. B. #46 A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

224 Which is an example of a final output of a university? A. B. A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition.

225 Which is an example of a final output of a university? A. B. A. Graduates, 1000 BAs, 60 MAs, and 10 Ph.Ds per year. B. An increase in employees’ commitment to the university. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Yup!!!

226 Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? A. B. #47 A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

227 Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? A. B. A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

228 Which is an example of a final output of a mental health hospital? A. B. A. People who become functional in society. B. Reduction of labor costs. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Correct!!!

229 Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? A. B. #48 A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

230 Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? A. B. A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) Back to the question! Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition.

231 Which is an example of a final output of a computer retail shop? A. B. A. Personal computer systems sold. B. Selling personal computer systems (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!! Nice Work!!!

232 Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? A. B. #49 A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

233 Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? A. B. A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

234 Which is an example of a final output of a city hotel? A. B. A. The reputation of the hotel. B. Customers rested and satisfied with the service. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

235 Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? A. B. #50 A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

236 Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? A. B. A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

237 Which is an example of a final output of a retail sun-glass store? A. B.. A. Inventory 100% full. B. Sunglasses sold. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice job!!!

238 Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? A. B. #51 A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

239 Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? A. B. A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! Remember that the output is the final outcome or goal of the process. It is defined as a thing or condition.

240 Which is an example of a final output of an animal shelter? A. B. A. Animals adopted. B. Increased community awareness of unwanted pets. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right!!!

241 Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? A. B. #52 A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

242 Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? A. B. A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

243 Which is an example of a final output of a fast-food restaurant? A. B. A. Burgers sold. B. Raw materials bought. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! That’s great!!!

244 Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? A. B. #53 A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

245 Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? A. B. A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

246 Which is an example of a final output of a coffee shop? A. B. A. Coffee made. B. Coffee sold. (click on your choice below) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! This ain’t so hard huh!!!

247 Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? A. B. #54 A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) Return to Table of Contents

248 Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? A. B. A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) Back to the question! No, Remember that you define outputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an output. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

249 Which is an example of a final output of a publishing company? A. B. A. Books published. B. Books written. (click on your choice below) On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

250 Outlining Organizational Goals In this chapter, you will learn how to design organizational goals. You will use an Output-Process- Input Chain to produce the structure of organizational goals.

251 First, you define the final output of the organization.

252 First, you define the final output of the organization. Then you define the process that produces that output.

253 First, you define the final output of the organization. Then you define the process that produces that output. Then you define inputs that are necessary for the process.

254 This output-process-input forms a subsystem. The inputs for one subsystem are the outputs from other subsystems.

255 Once you have determined the inputs for a subsystem, you go on to define the processes that produce those inputs and the inputs needed for the processes (i.e. the next output-process-input chains).

256 You will repeat this chaining until inputs are obtained from other organizations than the one you are analyzing.

257 In other words…. You are linking subsystems in an organization by chaining the inputs of one subsystem to the output of another subsystem.

258 This chaining continues until the input to a subsystem is offered by other organizations than the one you are analyzing.

259 As you can see in the following outline, it is easy to read the flow of resources in an organization when it is presented as the outline of organizational goals.

260 Input-Process-Output Chain

261 For example… Let’s analyze organizational goals for an automobile assembling factory.

262 For example… This factory simply gets every part needed for building an automobile and assembles the parts. The final output of this organization is “automobiles correctly assembled with no defects.”

263 For example… So, first, you put this final output on the top of the outline: (Automobiles correctly assembled with no defects)

264 Notice that the final output is put in parentheses.

265 In Goal-Directed Systems Design, all outputs and inputs (goals and resources) are put in parentheses in order for us to easily distinguish them from processes.

266 Now, the next thing you do is ask yourself how to accomplish this goal. In other words, what process do you need to produce correctly assembled automobiles?...

267 …Assembling, right? So you put this process underneath the final output slightly (3-4 letters) indented to the right.

268 Notice that you do not have parentheses this time and, instead, have a label (“Production”) and a colon before the description of the process.

269 Indenting is important here because we want to see the hierarchical structure of goals with ease. Indented items illustrate prerequisites for the item just above them.

270 (Indented items cont…) They must be fulfilled in order for the item Just above them to be accomplished.

271 (Indented items cont…) In other words, a process must be active to produce its output, and inputs must be obtained in order for a process to be active.

272 (Indented items cont…) By connecting two levels by lines, you can see more easily the relationship between outputs, processes and inputs.

273 The next question is: what resources do you need for the process?

274 Well, you can come up with many things that you think are necessary for assembling automobiles: Front line workers Tools for the workers Electricity The parts of the automobile Etc.

275 In the output-process-input chains, however, you only focus on the flow of main resources, which are the parts of the automobile in this case.

276 Input-Process-Output Chain

277 The analysis does not stop here. As you might guess, the next question is: what process do you need to get the parts?

278 Before analyzing this, let’s review the definition of the “output-process-input chain,” and learn about main resources and labels for processes.

279 Definition Output-Process-Input chain is a way of sequencing goals first by asking what you want to accomplish (output), second, how you accomplish it (process), and third, what you need to accomplish it (inputs). Then, each input is analyzed in the same way until the organization you are analyzing has made contact with some other organizations. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

280 To make an Output-Process-Input chain you must follow the… Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals.

281 Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals The final output of the organization must be placed on the top. Outputs and inputs consist only of main resources. Outputs and inputs are put in parentheses. Processes must be labeled. Lower level must be indented to the right and connected with a line. 6. Multiple resources or multiple processes must be located at the same level and connected with a line. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

282 What are the main resources? We like to make a distinction between the main resources that are directly processed and the resources that are used in order to process those main resources.

283 What are the main resources? For example… Every behavioral system has workers as human resources (such as builders in the home construction industry).

284 What are the main resources? However… They are NOT the main resources for the manufacturing process in the sense that the builders themselves are not being processed.

285 What are the main resources? Instead, what the builders use in the manufacturing process (such as wood and nails) are considered the main resources.

286 What are the main resources? Builders are considered main resources when their training or recruiting is analyzed. In such a case, you draw a different outline which starts with “skilled builders” as the final output.

287 Definition Main resources: Raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

288 So, it is important to note that you would NEVER put employees in the outline unless they were actually being processed, as in a training department at a corporation.

289 Practice!!-Activity 5 For the following pairs of resources, click on the one that consists of examples of main resources for the specified organization. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

290 Hamburger shop: Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. A.A. B.B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) #55 Return to Table of Contents

291 Hamburger shop: A.Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. B.Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

292 Hamburger shop: A.Vegetables, bread, cheese, etc. B.Cutting board, ovens, microwave, etc. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right!!!

293 Publisher of a magazine: A. Writers and photographers. B. Articles and photographs. A.A. B.B. #56 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

294 Publisher of a magazine: A. Writers and photographers. B. Articles and photographs. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

295 Publisher of a magazine: A. Writers and photographers. B. Articles and photographs. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice!!!

296 Book shop: A. Books B. Employees. A. B. #57 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

297 Book shop: A. Books B. Employees. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! It is important to remember that you would never put employees in the outline unless they were actually being processed, as in a training department at a corporation.

298 Book shop: A. Books B. Employees. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Correct!!!

299 Bar: A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. B. Beer, popcorn, etc. A.A. B.B. #58 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

300 Bar: A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. B. Beer, popcorn, etc. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

301 Bar: A. Table, chairs, glasses, etc. B. Beer, popcorn, etc. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Great!!!

302 University: A. Professors. B. Students. A.A. B.B. #59 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

303 University: A. Professors. B. Students. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

304 University: A. Professors. B. Students. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right!!!

305 VCR repair shop: A. Repair technicians. B. Broken VCRs. A.A. B. #60 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

306 VCR repair shop: A. Repair technicians. B. Broken VCRs. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

307 VCR repair shop: A. Repair technicians. B. Broken VCRs. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! You got it!!!

308 Computer supply store: A. Modems, monitors, etc. B. Salespeople. A.A. B.B. #61 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

309 Computer supply store: A. Modems, monitors, etc. B. Salespeople. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

310 Computer supply store: A. Modems, monitors, etc. B. Salespeople. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

311 An amusement park: A. Customers. B. Maintenance people. A.A. B.B. #62 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

312 An amusement park: A. Customers. B. Maintenance people. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

313 An amusement park: A. Customers. B. Maintenance people. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Yup!!!

314 A movie theater: A. Seats. B. Movie-goers. A.A. B.B. #63 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

315 A movie theater: A. Seats. B. Movie-goers. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

316 A movie theater: A. Seats. B. Movie-goers. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right!!!

317 A doctor’s office: A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. B. Sick people. A.A. B.B. #64 (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Return to Table of Contents

318 A doctor’s office: A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. B. Sick people. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) Back to the question! No, remember that m ain resources consist of raw materials for production processes, resources that are distributed by distribution processes, or customers for ALL selling processes.

319 A doctor’s office: A. Tongue depressors and stethoscopes. B. Sick people. A. B. (click below on the one that consists of examples of main resources) On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

320 We provide a classification system to help you define a variety of processes when you design organizational goals. There are three kinds of processes: Production, Distribution, and Research and Development (R&D).

321 Definition Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing) Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same) Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.) Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

322 Practice!!-Activity 6 Carefully review the definitions and label the following components with production, distribution, R & D, or none of them. Put P for production, D for distribution, R for R & D, or N for none. Note: For any given example, it is possible to use an answer more than once. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

323 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. NoneProduction None B. DistributionDistribution C. R & DR & D #65 Return to Table of Contents

324 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.) Back to the question!

325 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Remember… Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same) Back to the question!

326 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Look it over again and give it another shot…. Back to the question!

327 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

328 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. NoneProduction None B. DistributionDistribution C. R & DR & D #66 Return to Table of Contents

329 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Sorry… Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing)

330 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.)

331 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Look it over again and give it another shot….

332 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D On to the next section! Back to the previous question! You Got It!!! Here beef stew is simply distributed to the customer (not actually processed or changed).

333 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. NoneProduction None B. DistributionDistribution C. R & DR & D #67 Return to Table of Contents

334 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Sorry… Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing)

335 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Remember… Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same)

336 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Look it over again and give it another shot….

337 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Very Nice!!!

338 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. NoneProductionNone B. DistributionDistribution C. R & DR & D #68 Return to Table of Contents

339 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Sorry… Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing)

340 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Remember… Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same)

341 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D Back to the question! Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.)

342 In a restaurant: ___Cooking beef stew ___Serving beef stew to a customer ___Revising the beef stew recipe ___Tips A.Production D. None B. Distribution C. R & D On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right on!!!

343 Practice!!-Activity #7 The following are incomplete descriptions of some organizational subsystems. Complete each analysis by checking the correct process (labeled #1) and the main resource(s) (labeled #2). Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

344 Practice!!-Activity #7 Complete each analysis by checking the correct process (labeled #1) and the main resource(s) (labeled #2).

345 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B)ProductionDistribution __ R & D (C)R & D #69 Select either Production, Distribution, or R & D for (1) Return to Table of Contents

346 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) Back to the question! Remember… Distribution is a process (in which inputs and outputs are the same)

347 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) Back to the question! Not quite… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.)

348 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

349 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1) __ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers (A)__ Broken TV’s (B)CustomersBroken TV’s __ Televisions for sale (C)Televisions for sale (C) #70 Select either Customers, Broken TV’s, or Televisions for sale for (2) Return to Table of Contents

350 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1)__ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers (A) __ Broken TV’s (B) __ Televisions for sale (C) Remember that the input consists of things or conditions that are processed through the system. Back to the question!

351 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1)__ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers (A)__ Broken TV’s (B) __ Televisions for sale (C) Back to the question! Note: You define inputs of an organization as things or conditions. Avoid using “-ing” or “to [verb] [noun]” to define an input. Instead use [adjective] + [noun]. (i.e. baked bread)

352 Example Organization: A television repair company: (1)__ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers (A)__ Broken TV’s (B) __ Televisions for sale (C) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

353 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B)ProductionDistribution __ R & D (C)R & D #71 Select either Production, Distribution, or R & D for (1) Return to Table of Contents

354 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) Back to the question! Sorry… Production is a process (in which inputs and outputs are different, as in manufacturing)

355 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production (A) __ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) Back to the question! Sorry… Research & Development (R & D) is a production process (specifically conducted in order to develop procedures, instructions, equipment, and standards used in another production or distribution process.)

356 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production (A)__ Distribution (B) __ R & D (C) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right!!!

357 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers at the departureCustomers at the departure PlacePlace (A), __ Taxies(B) ___ Drivers (C)TaxiesDrivers #72 Select either Customers at the departure place, Taxies, or Drivers for (2) Return to Table of Contents

358 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers at the departure Place (A), __ Taxies (B) ___ Drivers (C) Back to the question! Sorry, try again.

359 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers at the departure Place (A), __ Taxies (B) ___ Drivers (C) Back to the question! Sorry, give it another shot.

360 Organization: A taxi company (1) __ Production __ Distribution __ R & D (2) __ Customers at the departure Place (A), __ Taxies (B) ___ Drivers (C) On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Nice Work!!!

361 Let’s go back to our example of the automobile assembling factory. How do you get the parts of the automobile?

362 Well, in this factory, all parts are bought from another company. So, the outline looks like this:

363 What do you need to buy the parts? The parts must be for sale, right? So, you put it in underneath the outline, and you are all set.

364 Because selling or manufacturing the parts is not your business, you can stop the analysis here.

365 REMEMBER….. Your outline always ends up with resources that are provided by some other organizations.

366 Note the last two lines of the outline: “Distribution: Buying the parts; & (The parts for sale).” This is the way these items should appear anytime your outline ends with resources that must be obtained (purchased) from someplace else.

367 Outline for Organizational Goals When making the outline of organizational goals, ask yourself the following questions: (1 st ) What do you want to accomplish? Identify the final output in terms of things or conditions. Do not identify the final output in terms of a process or activity. (2 nd ) How do you accomplish it?Identify process(es) that accomplish the goal. (3 rd ) What do you need for the process? Identify the main resources for the process. Don’t put other resources, such as line workers and tools used in the process. These other kinds of resources are analyzed later. Don’t forget customers as one of the main resources for any selling process. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

368 Once you identify the resources, repeat the questions (2) and (3) for each resource you have identified: How do you get the resource? What do you need to do to accomplish that?

369 This is a simple example of the design of organizational goals for a factory that manufactures furniture.

370 The final output is “furniture manufactured,” and in the simplest design, there are only two sub-systems involved.

371 Outline Checklist Here is a checklist you can use to verify that your organizational goals are outlined correctly: Check List: 1.Is the final output located at the top and defined as things or conditions? Yes No 2.Are all outputs/inputs defined as things or conditions and put in parentheses? Yes No 3. Are lower goals right indented from higher goals and connected with lines? Yes No 4. Does the outline end up with resources? Yes No 5. Are all processes defined as activities and labeled correctly? Yes No 6. Are all inputs the main resources for the process? Yes No 7. Are all the main resources necessary for the process defined? Yes No Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

372 Practice!!-Activity #8 Read the following example and look at the two outlines on the following slide carefully. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

373 Practice!!-Activity #8 Example: Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals of a toy manufacturing factory, which buys materials to make toys? Also, state the reason in the blank space at the bottom of your transparency.

374 Practice!!-Activity #8 Note: We are not concerned with shipping the toys yet. It is a good idea to use the check list presented on the right hand side of the screen. This outline checklist is also available from the “checklists and rules” link’ from the table of content. You may also click back to the table of contents to view various definitions.

375 Check List: 1. Is the final output located at the top and defined as things or conditions? Yes No 2. Are all outputs/inputs defined as things or conditions and put in parentheses? Yes No 3. Are lower goals right indented from higher goals and connected with lines? Yes No 4. Does the outline end up with resources? Yes No 5. Are all processes defined as activities and labeled correctly? Yes No 6. Are all inputs the main resources for the process? Yes No 7. Are all the main resources necessary for the process defined? Yes No Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals of a toy manufacturing company? A. B. #73 A. B. Return to Table of Contents

376 Check List: 1. Is the final output located at the top and defined as things or conditions? Yes No 2. Are all outputs/inputs defined as things or conditions and put in parentheses? Yes No 3. Are lower goals right indented from higher goals and connected with lines? Yes No 4. Does the outline end up with resources? Yes No 5. Are all processes defined as activities and labeled correctly? Yes No 6. Are all inputs the main resources for the process? Yes No 7. Are all the main resources necessary for the process defined? Yes No Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals of a toy manufacturing company? A. B. A. B. Sorry…review the checklist and give it another shot! Back to the question!

377 Check List: 1. Is the final output located at the top and defined as things or conditions? Yes No 2. Are all outputs/inputs defined as things or conditions and put in parentheses? Yes No 3. Are lower goals right indented from higher goals and connected with lines? Yes No 4. Does the outline end up with resources? Yes No 5. Are all processes defined as activities and labeled correctly? Yes No 6. Are all inputs the main resources for the process? Yes No 7. Are all the main resources necessary for the process defined? Yes No Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals of a toy manufacturing company? A. B. A. B. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! YES!!! The distribution process must be indented to the right under “(raw materials)”.

378 The next example is the design of organizational goals for a computer shop that buys computers from manufacturing companies and sells them to customers.

379 The final output is “computers sold”. Notice that there are two main resources for the process of selling computers. One is goods to be sold (i.e., computers) and the other is customers.

380 For any selling process, the customer is ALWAYS one of the main resources.

381 Notice how two resources (i.e., computers and customers) are placed in the outline and how they are connected by a line. The line shows that both of them are the main resources for the process, (i.e., selling computers) and they are, in this sense, located at the same level.

382 Pay close attention to the connecting lines – if they are at the same level (indented the same amount of spaces) make sure they are the same in that they are all resources or all processes.

383 In other words… A resource and a process would NOT be indented and connected at the same level.

384 A point worth repeating: For any selling process, the customer is ALWAYS one of the main resources.

385 Practice!!-Activity 9 Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a university book store? Explain on the sheet handed out in class. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

386 Practice!!-Activity 9 Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a small apparel shop? (click your choice below) A. B. #74 A. B. Return to Table of Contents

387 Practice!!-Activity 9 Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a university book store? (click your choice below) A. B. A. B. Back to the question! Sorry…review the checklist and give it another shot!checklist

388 Practice!!-Activity 9 Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a university book store? (click your choice below) A. B. A. B. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right!!! Every selling process must have “customers” as one of the main resources.

389 Some organizations manufacture goods and sell those goods. For example--the design of organizational goals for a hamburger shop. The final output is “hamburgers sold:”

390 Practice!!-Activity 10 Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a small apparel shop that sews clothing and sells them. Explain your answer on the sheet handed out in class. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

391 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a clothing store? (click your choice below) A. B. #75 A. B. Return to Table of Contents

392 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a clothing store? (click your choice below) A. B. A. B. Back to the question! Sorry…review the checklist and give it another shot!checklist

393 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for a clothing store? (click your choice below) A. B. A. B. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right on!!! “(Customers)” must be placed at the same level as “(Sewed clothing)”.

394 Often you need more than one resource for a process. For example… in order to cook hamburgers, you may want to bake the bread yourself rather than buy the bread from some other organizations.

395 Then, you have to treat bread differently from other materials that you buy from other organizations as you can see in the following example.

396

397 Practice!!-Activity 11 Let’s look at a company like Delta Airlines. What would be the correct design for this organization? Explain your answer on the sheet handed out in class. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

398 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for Delta Airlines? (click your choice below) A. B. #76 Return to Table of Contents

399 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for Delta Airlines? (click your choice below) A. B. Back to the question! Sorry…review the checklist and give it another shot!checklist

400 Pay close attention to the example and the following two outlines. Which is the correct outline of the organizational goals for Delta Airlines? (click your choice below) A. B. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Yup!!! Pilots and airplanes are not main resources. People at the airport are the main resource because they are what is distributed, not the pilots or the airplane, at least not as the purpose of the airline.

401 Practice!!-Activity 12 Let’s try one that’s a little more difficult. Consider a business that sells sunglasses. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

402 Practice!!-Activity 12 This company not only sells sunglasses that they purchase from other distributors, but they also manufacture their own line of sunglasses, using raw materials purchased from other suppliers. Outline this organization.

403 For the final question, fill out the handout provided in class pertaining to selling sunglasses. Turn this in with your scantron, and your feedback sheet to your TA to receive full credit for today’s assignment. #77 (_______________________) Distribution: Sell sunglasses (Unsold sunglasses) __________:_________________ (Sunglasses for sale) Production: Manufacturing Sunglasses (Raw Materials) Distribution: Purchasing raw materials (___________________) (____________________) Return to Table of Contents

404 Let’s review what you’ve learned…

405 Review!! For the following questions, select whether the statement is either TRUE or FALSE. Click to go back to your previous slide Return to Table of Contents

406 The OUTPUT is the ultimate goal of the organization; it is what the organization is trying to accomplish. #78 A.TrueTrue B.FalseFalse Return to Table of Contents

407 The OUTPUT is the ultimate goal of the organization; it is what the organization is trying to accomplish. A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents Back to the question! Sorry, that’s not it.

408 The OUTPUT is the ultimate goal of the organization; it is what the organization is trying to accomplish. A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Keep it up!!!

409 The PROCESS depicts how to accomplish the ultimate goal (the output). #79 A.TrueTrue B.FalseFalse Return to Table of Contents

410 The PROCESS depicts how to accomplish the ultimate goal (the output). A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents Back to the question! Sorry, try once more.

411 The PROCESS depicts how to accomplish the ultimate goal (the output). A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Great work!!!

412 A way of sequencing organizational goals is to first select the ultimate goal of the organization (the output), then select how to achieve that goal (the process), and finally select what is required to accomplish that goal (the input). #80 A.TrueTrue B.FalseFalse Return to Table of Contents

413 A way of sequencing organizational goals is to first select the ultimate goal of the organization (the output), then select how to achieve that goal (the process), and finally select what is required to accomplish that goal (the input). A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents Back to the question! Sorry…give it another shot!

414 A way of sequencing organizational goals is to first select the ultimate goal of the organization (the output), then select how to achieve that goal (the process), and finally select what is required to accomplish that goal (the input). A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Correct!!!

415 The final output of your outline should be defined as activities or process. #81 A.TrueTrue B.FalseFalse Return to Table of Contents

416 The final output of your outline should be defined as activities or process. A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents Back to the question! Sorry…let’s give it another shot!

417 The final output of your outline should be defined as activities or process. A.True B.False Return to Table of Contents On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Great job!!!

418 Review!! For the following questions, use the provided sheet of paper entitled “Review” to fill in the answers.

419 You will create an Input-Process- Output Model for the following example…. Review!!

420 Analyze the United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery.

421 Review!! First… define the final output. Then… make an outline of the goals for this organization.

422 Review!! Hint: You need only two subsystems for this: First they collect packages from pickup sites… Then they deliver the packages to the individuals.

423 Review!! You will be given a short amount of time to respond to the first part of the model…

424 Review!! Then, you will have another opportunity to continue filling out the model on your paper form before you’ll have the opportunity to click on a hint

425 Review!! Finally, you will have one final opportunity to continue filling out the model on your paper form before you’ll have the opportunity to see the final completed model Click to start the activity!!

426 Analyze the United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. Start here!! Write your answer on the provided form titled “Review” Click here to see the 1 st answer

427 Analyze the United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. What’s next??? Click here to see the next hint

428 Analyze the United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. What’s next??? Click here to see the FINAL completed input- process-output model

429 This is the FINAL OUTPUT of the organization Analyze the United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. Is this what you wrote down on your form? Yes B. NoYesNo

430 HINT: Input-Process-Output Model United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. Is this what you wrote down on your form? Yes B. NoYesNo

431 COMPLETED Input-Process-Output Model: United Parcel Service with a primary function of package delivery. Is this what you wrote down on your form? Yes B. NoYesNo

432 Outline for Organizational Goals When making the outline of organizational goals, ask yourself the following questions: (1 st ) What do you want to accomplish? Identify the final output in terms of things or conditions. Do not identify the final output in terms of a process or activity. (2 nd ) How do you accomplish it?Identify process(es) that accomplish the goal. (3 rd ) What do you need for the process? Identify the main resources for the process. Don’t put other resources, such as line workers and tools used in the process. These other kinds of resources are analyzed later. Don’t forget customers as one of the main resources for any selling process. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

433 Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals The final output of the organization must be placed on the top. Outputs and inputs consist only of main resources. Outputs and inputs are put in parentheses. Processes must be labeled. Lower level must be indented to the right and connected with a line. Multiple resources or multiple processes must be located at the same level and connected with a line. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

434 Input-Process-Output Chain

435 Outline for Organizational Goals When making the outline of organizational goals, ask yourself the following questions: (1 st ) What do you want to accomplish? Identify the final output in terms of things or conditions. Do not identify the final output in terms of a process or activity. (2 nd ) How do you accomplish it?Identify process(es) that accomplish the goal. (3 rd ) What do you need for the process? Identify the main resources for the process. Don’t put other resources, such as line workers and tools used in the process. These other kinds of resources are analyzed later. Don’t forget customers as one of the main resources for any selling process. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

436 Rules in outlining the structure of organizational goals The final output of the organization must be placed on the top. Outputs and inputs consist only of main resources. Outputs and inputs are put in parentheses. Processes must be labeled. Lower level must be indented to the right and connected with a line. Multiple resources or multiple processes must be located at the same level and connected with a line. Return to Table of Contents Click to go back to your previous slide

437 Input-Process-Output Chain

438 Return to Table of Contents Thank you for your time!!! Please provide any feedback on the sheet handed out in class.


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