2 Dr. David Dockterman My problems with failure The notion is to get the audience to personalize that this means for them a bit and have the participants generate some of our framing content. Something like perseverance inevitably comes up.Dr. David Dockterman
3 What do good learners do? Think: When are you a good learner? When, not so good?Turn & Talk: Share stories. Come up with 2-3 shared behaviors of good learners.Stand & Share: Let’s hear from you.The notion is to get the audience to personalize that this means for them a bit and have the participants generate some of our framing content. Something like perseverance inevitably comes up.
4 Why? Surrender Persevere These are actually images from research at the Univ of Memphis reflecting curiosity (on the left) and frustration (on the right) Why do we sometimes persevere and sometimes give up? Why are we good learners sometimes and poor learners other times?
5 Knowledge & Skills Beliefs Task I believe I can learn what I need.I believe this is worth doing.I believe I can do it.Knowledge & SkillsBeliefsOur beliefs – Can I do it now or eventually? Do I care? Will it improve my status? – combine with our knowledge and skills, our learning strategies, to direct our efforts. What’s true for you (the audience) is also true for the students we service. Scholastic has focused especially on building the knowledge and skills students need to succeed. But we’ve also known that affect, how students feel, also matters. Now we have the research and knowledge to really nail that part too.Task
6 Curriculum & Professional Learning Janna PeskettCurriculum & Professional Learning
7 VanessaWhat drives some students to succeed while others are devastated by even the smallest setback?Hi Janna, You have my permission to use the photograph for your presentations. If possible, please credit thank you again for asking permission! Let me know if I can help in any other way, Bill Bill McCullough Austin, TXPhoto credit:
8 Neuroscience + Psychology <1 min: In the past few decades, findings from 2 strands of research—in psychology and neuroscience—have converged to provide this new paradigm for education—one that supports the understanding that all children can learn, not as a form of dogma or groupthink, but based in a scientific understanding of how the brain learns and develops, and how people are motivated to do what it takes to achieve highly.Taking on challenges can accelerate learning.Psychological barriers can interfere with learning.
9 Mindset by Dr. Carol Dweck Fixed Mindset Growth Mindset 1 min This idea that our beliefs mater has been coined “mindset” and has been pioneered by Dr. Carol Dweck, who is one of the world’s leading researchers in the field of motivation. She is a Psych professor at Stanford who has been leading the research into implicit theories of intelligence – that is, how our basic beliefs drive our motivation and achievement.
10 Fixed Mindset: Intelligence is a fixed trait. Growth Mindset: Intelligence can be developed.Effort is PositiveEffort is NegativeLooking Smart is Most ImportantLearning is Most ImportantImages: Microsoft clip artAvoids ChallengesEmbraces ChallengesHelplessResilient
11 Beliefs Behaviors Outcomes “I can’t improve.” “I don’t try.” “I don’t improve.”<1 minThe idea is that our underlying belief structure drives our behaviors, which determine the outcomes.If every kid on this team gave up, and said “I can’t be like him – why bother?” then they wouldn’t even try, and therefore they would never improve. Therefore, fulfilling the prophesy of “I’ll never be good at that.”
12 Beliefs Behaviors Outcomes “I can improve.” “I will try.” “I do improve.”<1 minThis is the growth mindset. Now this guy knows he’s never going to be 7 feet tall, or have it as easy as his opponent there, but he still believes he can improve. As a result, his behaviors are to work hard, with lots of effective effort, seeking out those who will help him improve. Then the outcome is that he is able to improve significantly.
13 How do mindsets impact ACHIEVEMENT? A look at the research<1 minHaving a growth mindset is like greasing up the cognitive wheels so they can turn. You can try to cram all the content into a student’s brain, but if students don’t believe they can learn, the wheels won’t turn. These are the two basic mindsets, but how does this affect student performance? Let’s look at the research, which is very compelling.
14 Math Achievement in Junior HS Growth2 min: Then they watched their math grades over 4 terms. The students with a fixed mindset had that normal downward trajectory that all of us are used to seeing in MS. The GM students however did not. There were fewer of the growth minded students, but they actually increased their math ability with effort over time.Fixed
15 How do you think a fixed mindset might have held you back? sportsperforming artsrelationshipscareer growthacademicsfine artsexercise2 min turn and talkIn 1 minute, tell your neighbor a story about an area where you have hada fixed mindset and what the effectof that has been.
16 So we know mindsets matter… …but can we change them?<1 min So the research tells us that a growth mindset leads to academic achievement. But can we change them?
18 Praise study: Each student worked on a puzzle. Image – MW internal
19 SUCCESS!!! Intelligence Praise Effort Praise “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard.”1 minEach student was given one kind of praise. “Wow, that’s a really good score, you must be smart at this.” “Wow, that’s a really good score, you must have tried really hard.” Or “wow, that’s a really good score.”
20 % Choosing a Challenge After Success 255075100Intelligence PraiseEffort Praise1 minThen the researchers said “ok, you got that first one right. Do you want another puzzle just like the first one, or do you want one a little more challenging?” Overwhlemingly, the students who had been told they were smarts said “no thank you, I’ll take the easy one please.” Whereas the students who had been told they worked hard said “ok, hard work is good – I’ll take the one that makes me work hard.”
21 Now try this one!1 minThen they were given a very difficult puzzle; in fact, so difficult that they all failed it.
22 Number of puzzles solved by each group before failure You tried hard.# of Easier Problems SolvedEffort PraiseIntelligence Praise< 1 minIn the first trial, the scores were all right around the same.You are smart.
23 Number of puzzles solved by each group after failure You tried hard.Total # of Problems SolvedEffort PraiseIntelligence Praise2 minIn the third trial, the students who were told they were smart, couldn’t even solve the easy puzzles anymore. The psychological barrier of trying to hold on to that label had actually prevented them from doing the task they knew how to do. Whereas those who were told they tried hard, kept trying hard, and kept achieving more and more.You are smart.Failure
24 Can YOU relate?2 minutes – parenting story – turn and talk
25 Changing mindsets Intelligence and abilities are malleable. Struggle is normal.Your contributions matter.You belong.
26 [Let’s be more expansive here] Mindset is big. And it’s not just in schools.
27 A GROWTH MINDSET means you believe that intelligence can be developed and you have a passion for learningwhich means you embrace challengesand keep going when things get toughsee effort as the path to masteryand learn from criticismA growth mindset will give teachers these skills.AND WE CAN TEACH IT
28 The Mindset CommunityThis is a transition back to me to talk about how others – peer groups, teachers, parents – influence how we see ourselves and what we value. I’ll do a quick transition to Karen to talk about the 4 Cs – capability, connection, cognition, and confidence -- of capacity building in the community, including establishing a growth mindset among parents and educators.
32 Essential Core Beliefs Core Belief One All parents have dreams for their children and want the best for them.“…I believe that all parents hold big expectations for the role that schools will play in the life chances of their children. They all harbor a large wish list of dreams and aspirations for their youngsters. All families care deeply about their children’s education and hope that their progeny will be happier, more productive, and more successful than they have been in their lives.” (Lightfoot, 2003)It is vital for educators to understand that the families who send their children to them each day want their children to succeed in school and in life. Yes, families may say or do things that lead us to wonder if they respect the importance of education. But these actions and behaviors often are triggered by other stressful factors in parents’ lives, and do not reflect their innermost feelings.
33 Core Belief TwoAll parents have the capacity to support their children's learning.Regardless of how little formal education they may have, or what language they speak, all parents can contribute to their children's learning. Parents’ knowledge, talents, and experiences in life give them plenty of capacity for assisting their children with school skills – but school staff may need to help parents understand and use that capacity. All parents have “funds of knowledge” about their children and the community that should be respected and tapped by school staff. (Moll, Amanti, Neffi and Gonzalez, 1992)Luis Moll, an expert in bilingual literacy at the University of Arizona, has studied barrio schools in the Southwest. Moll is troubled by two things that he has routinely observed. Teachers gave students lessons that are filled with drills on facts and rules but have little connection to their home life. And they consistently underestimated their students' and families' "intellectual fund of knowledge." When Moll visited students’ homes, he found that most Latinos he met had a "formidable understanding" of many topics, including agriculture, mining, medicine, religion, biology, and math. 4The expression, “parents are their children’s first teachers,” is so widely used it is almost a cliché. If we believe it, we should view and treat parents as the experts that they are.
34 Core Belief Three Parents and school staff should be equal partners. I am suggesting that power should be mutual. Every person who is interested in supporting children’s development should have equal status, value and responsibility. That means starting from the premise that everyone has something to offer, and that everyone should get something positive out of the relationship. In contrast to lop-sided power relationships, Richard Elmore suggests a principle of reciprocity.Every increase in pressure on schools for accountability for student performance should be accompanied by an equal investment in increasing the knowledge and skills of teachers, administrators, students, and their families, for learning about how to meet these new expectations. (Elmore, 1997) 6This means that no one should be expected to do something well – or worse, be punished for not doing it well – if they haven’t been properly prepared. A school should not be labeled as “failing” if teachers haven’t been offered high quality professional development. If students haven’t been taught effectively, or parents shown how to support learning at home, they can’t be considered as “failures” either. In a reciprocal system, they have a right to demand access to high-quality learning opportunities in return for being held accountable. In other words, their accountability will increase as their capacity is strengthened.
35 Core Belief FourThe responsibility for building and sustaining partnerships between school, home, and community rests primarily with school staff, especially school leaders.To create a climate and culture that supports partnership with parents, strong leadership is essential from both the principal and teachers. The principal plays the key role, but teachers also have to step up as advocates for family involvement. Leadership from both sets the tone for all school staff.That lop-sided power dynamic we were just discussing also plays out here. Many families see schools as powerful and forbidding institutions. Reaching out to parents is easier for educators than “reaching in” to teachers and other staff is for parents. The principal and teachers must take the first step, especially when parents already feel intimidated by school staff. Certainly, there is a responsibility on both sides, and parents must continue to connect with teachers and other school staff on behalf of their children.Everyone who works in the school, especially the principal, must “walk the walk,” not just “talk the talk,” of mutual partnership. This means exhibiting a real passion for partnership.
36 Why has it been difficult to cultivate and sustain effective family-school partnerships that support student achievement and school improvement?
37 The various stakeholders (families, district/school leaders and staff) have not had the opportunity to develop the knowledge and skills, in other words, the capacity to engage in effective partnerships. Example: Title One, section 1118 requirement for families to be engaged family engagement policy development for schools and districts.