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Slide 1 www.kostic.niu.edu Some Challenges in Thermoscience Research and Application Potentials Energy Ecology Economy Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering.

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1 Slide 1 Some Challenges in Thermoscience Research and Application Potentials Energy Ecology Economy Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY Tsinghua University, XJTU, and HUST China 2013: Beijing, Xi’an, Wuhan, June 14-28, 2013

2 Slide 2 Some Challenges in Thermoscience Research and Application Potentials Energy Ecology Economy Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY Institute of Engineering Thermophysics Tsinghua University Tsinghua University Beijing, China, June 17, 2013 Beijing, China, June 17, 2013

3 Slide 3 Some Challenges in Thermoscience Research and Application Potentials Energy Ecology Economy Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY School of Energy and Power Engineering Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an, China, June 24, 2013 Xi’an, China, June 24, 2013

4 Slide 4 Some Challenges in Thermoscience Research and Application Potentials Energy Ecology Economy Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY School of Energy and Power Engineering Huazhong University of Science and Technology Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China, June 26, 2013 Wuhan, China, June 26, 2013

5 Slide 5 5 Hello: Thank you for the opportunity to present a holistic, phenomenological reasoning of some challenging issues in Thermoscience.

6 Slide 6 Among distinguished invites were five keynote speakers from China and seven international keynote speakers: three from the USA and one each from Japan, United Kingdom, Singapore, and Spain; including four Academicians and six university Presidents/vice-presidents. It has been my great pleasure and honor to meet Profs. ZY Guo, WQ Tao and other distinguished colleagues, and even more so to visit again and meet friends now!

7 Slide 7 Thank you for invitation … my pleasure and honor to share to learn about …It is my pleasure and honor to share my knowledge and experience and to learn about the Chinese people, research, education and culture

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11 Slide 11 Electrical Engineering Industrial and Systems Engineering Mechanical Engineering Technology & Eng. Tech.

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15 Slide 15 Some Challenges in Thermoscience: More details in my following lectures/discussions Nature of Thermo-Mechanical energy transfer (Electro-magnetic …Photons, Phonons, Thermons)Nature of Thermo-Mechanical energy transfer (Electro-magnetic …Photons, Phonons, Thermons) Thermal energy concept as property (decoupling from thermo-mechanical internal energy): Caloric, Exergy, EntransyThermal energy concept as property (decoupling from thermo-mechanical internal energy): Caloric, Exergy, Entransy Back to Caloric (Thermal Energy), caloric processes (conserved caloric regardless of irreversibility if complete)…Heat is Unique (all else is Work) and Universal (all works ultimately dissipate/convert to heat)Back to Caloric (Thermal Energy), caloric processes (conserved caloric regardless of irreversibility if complete)…Heat is Unique (all else is Work) and Universal (all works ultimately dissipate/convert to heat) Reversible adding work or heat results in different final states (different types of internal energies). However, reversible work between two states path is independent!Reversible adding work or heat results in different final states (different types of internal energies). However, reversible work between two states path is independent! Entropy is dimensionless ratio (!) since temperature is a micro-particle kinetic energy!Entropy is dimensionless ratio (!) since temperature is a micro-particle kinetic energy! Isentropic processes conserve entropy, thus when a work is extracted the remaining thermal energy at lower temperature is at constant (conserved) entropy.Isentropic processes conserve entropy, thus when a work is extracted the remaining thermal energy at lower temperature is at constant (conserved) entropy. Produced entropy cannot be “destroyed” by any means, it could only be transferred with thermal energy, thus entropy production is irreversible!Produced entropy cannot be “destroyed” by any means, it could only be transferred with thermal energy, thus entropy production is irreversible! Entropy is increasing with irreversible conversion of any work-potential (including thermal work potential) the latter due to non-equilibrium, thus terminal and maximum at equilibrium.Entropy is increasing with irreversible conversion of any work-potential (including thermal work potential) the latter due to non-equilibrium, thus terminal and maximum at equilibrium. Carnot principle defines the both: work potential and reversible heat transferCarnot principle defines the both: work potential and reversible heat transfer Useful or Available Energy - Exergy is additive state function for a given reference (dead state of surrounding-ultimate equilibrium: Po, To, MUo), just like other state functions (energy, etc.).Useful or Available Energy - Exergy is additive state function for a given reference (dead state of surrounding-ultimate equilibrium: Po, To, MUo), just like other state functions (energy, etc.).

16 Slide 16 Energy and Environmental Landscape … improved efficiencydiversification … could be substantially enhanced with improved efficiency and diversification of energy sources, devices and processes. We are now in transitional era more challenging than what we anticipate now We are now in transitional era where further progress cannot be continued with existing technology. The difficulties that will face every nation and the world in meeting energy needs over the next several decades will be more challenging than what we anticipate now.

17 Slide 17 Challenges are many … but so are potentials for innovative solutions … but so are potentials for innovative solutions based on further development of science and technology. new paradigms are to be developed thermoscience the heart and soul vision check-and-balance methods As new paradigms are to be developed, the thermoscience (thermodynamics and heat transfer), being “the heart and soul” of all energy sciences, holds the key to provide vision and check-and-balance methods for optimizations and further innovations.

18 Slide 18 From Fundamentals to Innovations themosteffective innovative The fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics and comprehensive analysis and optimization are the most effective way for the improvements and could lead to innovative development. … our objective is to motivate young researchers/students to be excited and be persistent to reason and value fundamentals in order to innovate

19 Slide 19 The Fundamental Laws of Nature exceptionally simple many different forms unity of simplicity and complexityThe fundamental Laws of Nature are exceptionally simple but they appear in exceptionally many different forms, which explain universality and unity of simplicity and complexity, but also difficulties to recognize simplicity in complex diversity

20 Slide 20 Cause Is Adequate to the Effect … causa aequat effectum the most universal and fundamental law of natureThe philosophic axiom " causa aequat effectum," [the cause is adequate to the effect] is traced to ancient philosophers and represents the most universal and fundamental law of nature, including existence and future, i.e. past and future transformations.

21 Slide 21 Phenomenological Laws have much wider, including philosophical significance and implication they are the Fundamental Laws of NatureFurthermore, the phenomenological Laws of Thermodynamics, and in general, have much wider, including philosophical significance and implication, than their simple expressions based on the experimental observations – they are the Fundamental Laws of Nature. They are defining and unifying our comprehension of all existence in universe and all changes in time (all processes, including life). Einstein stated that, “After mathematicians invaded (and explained) my Theory of Relativity, I do not understand it any more.”

22 Slide 22 The Fundamental Laws of Nature: The Laws of Thermodynamics have much wider, including philosophical significance and implication, than their simple expressions based on the experimental observations, they are: The Fundamental Laws of Nature: The Zeroth (equilibrium existentialism),The Zeroth (equilibrium existentialism), The First (conservational transformationalism),The First (conservational transformationalism), The Second (forced-directional, irreversible transformationalism),The Second (forced-directional, irreversible transformationalism), The Third (unattainability of emptiness).The Third (unattainability of emptiness). The Laws are defining and unifying our comprehension of all existence and transformations in the universe. Solving practical problems helps "really" understand theory, so that one can then solve other problems more effectively. If we can not solve a problem, that "proves" we do not "truly" understand theory -- the key is integration/synergy of theory and practice, the "true" UNDERSTANDING! If one thinks theory is boring, that means one is not really interested in understanding to solve practical problems.

23 Slide 23 Thermal energy versus Internal energy concepts in Thermodynamics: The T, C th, Entropy are related to internal thermal energy, not any internal energy (the latter obvious for incompressible substances), but is more subtle for compressible gases due to coupling of internal thermal energy (transferred as heat TdS) and internal elastic-mechanical energy (transferred as work PdV). Entropy is NOT related to any other internal energy type, but thermal (unless the former is converted/dissipated to thermal in a process).

24 Slide 24 Mechanical and Thermal Energies Are Distinguishable Within Internal Energy!  U 12s =  U 12v U 2s =U 2v U=U th +U mech(elastic) T 2s =T 2v (for Ideal Gas) BUT! 2s≠2v P s >P v ; S s U mech,v Ex s >Ex v etc January © M. Kostic or HEAT applied FORCE applied

25 Slide 25 Thermal and Mechanical energies © M. Kostic 1 kJ heating is NOT the SAME as 1 kJ compressing! Thermal and Mechanical energies are distinguishable, NOT the same Internal energy (as argued by some)!

26 Slide 26 Heat Is Transfer of Thermal Energy Philosophically, you cannot transfer something that does not exist. For example, you cannot transfer water unless you have water. You cannot transfer energy (type) without having it somewhere (stored) to transfer and store it somewhere else. In the process (while transferring) you may convert/reprocess (modify the "original structure") while conserving the underlying substructure (true elementary particles): existential conservationism. Denying existence of thermal energy is the same as denying existence of heat transfer! © M. Kostic

27 Slide 27 Useful Energy: Work potential, Exergy (and Entransy) concept(s) Two systems in non-equilibrium have potential of extracting work (useful energy). The maximum work potential is if they are reversibly brought to mutual equilibrium while the work is extracted (entropy is conserved, thus over-all isentropic), otherwise part or in-whole that work potential will dissipate via heat to thermal energy and generate entropy. If one system is fixed, an infinite thermal reservoir and taken as a reference (like environment at T o & P o ) then that maximum work potential depends on the other system state, i.e., it is independent of the process path, thus the system property, called Exergy. Note that there will be a need to reversibly exchange heat (and entropy) at the reference temperature or reversibly regenerate heat internally, except for isentropic processes.

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29 Slide 29 reversible processes are over-all isentropic All reversible processes are “ over-all isentropic ” (entropy conserved)! Exergy analysis to minimize and optimize irreversibility Entransy analysis to maximize and optimize heat transfer

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31 Slide 31 The Concept of "Entransy" May Be More Important Than What It Appears at First … but it has to be "properly" related to existing concepts of Thermal energy (not precisely defined yet, see elsewhere), Exergy and Entropy, as well as irreversibility and reversibility. Entransy concept and analysis have some unique advantages over other approaches. There is a need to define Entransy as a property (how it relates to other thermodynamic properties) and as process energy flux (how it relates to heat & work transfer and entropy transfer & generation). We also could advance and synergize your "Thermomass" concept with my work in that area.

32 Slide 32 What is Energy ? If one could expel all energy out of a physical system … … then empty, nothing will be left … … so ENERGY is EVERYTHING … E=mc 2 Mass (m) and energy (E) are manifestation of each other and are equivalent; they have a holistic meaning of “mass-energy” More important than what it appears to be

33 Slide 33 What is Energy ? “From the Sovereign Sun to the deluge of photons out of the astounding compaction and increase of power-density in computer chips … Mass-Energy represents motion of a system structure, i.e., its representative particles at different space and time scales, and ultimately motion of photons.

34 Slide 34 Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for next 40 years 1.ENERGY (critical for the rest nine) 2.Water 3.Food 4.Environment 5.Poverty 6.Terrorism & War 7.Disease 8.Education 9.Democracy 10. Population 2013: Over 7 Billion People : ~ 10 Billion ( ) People

35 Slide 35 The two things are certain even if man-made Global Warming is debatable (1) the world population and their living-standard expectations will substantially increase (over 7 billion people now, in 50 years billion - energy may double)(1) the world population and their living-standard expectations will substantially increase (over 7 billion people now, in 50 years billion - energy may double) (2) fossil fuels’ economical reserves, particularly oil and natural gas, will substantially decrease (oil may run out in years)(2) fossil fuels’ economical reserves, particularly oil and natural gas, will substantially decrease (oil may run out in years)

36 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities We are in 'energy transition era' from fossil fuels to alternative (including nuclear) and renewable energy sources (including solar, biomass, hydro, wind, and geothermal).

37 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities In this transitional era, the energy CONSERVATION and EFFICIENCY (including energy storage) is the most “effective" and thus the most viable/profitable option in initial and mid-range period, until alternative and renewable energy infrastructure is developed and matured, and even more so beyond.

38 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities Global/National Urgency: Energy issue is among the highest global and national priority: (economical, ecological and security). Funding/Stimulus for education, research, development and applications.

39 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities Other Institutions and Existing Activities: Many educational and other institutions and industry have been positioning their strategic and development activities in energy related area Campus Green Sustainable Initiatives Energy-related Educational Programs Energy-related Research, Development and Application

40 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities 134 Million

41 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities

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44 Slide 44 Prof. Kostic ’s Research & Scholarly Interests and Activities Fundamentals and Application of Energy Prof. Kostic ’s Research & Scholarly Interests and Activities Fundamentals and Application of Energy

45 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities

46 … economically

47 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities … economically

48 Efficient and Sustainable Energy Energy/Economy/Ecology Challenges and Opportunities Thermodynamic Efficiency: Integration and Optimization

49 Nanofluids Research: Critical Issues & Application Potentials Advanced Flow and Heat Transfer Fluids Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY University of Hawaii at Manoa Presented at: University of Hawaii at Manoa and ASME Multifunctional Nanocomposite 2006 Int. Conference M. Kostic and Sir Harry Kroto, Nobel Laureate Follow-up and update Follow-up and update from original ASME Presentations in Honolulu, Hawaii

50 50 Advanced Flow and Heat Transfer Fluids Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY Royal Institute of Technology - KTH Presented at: Royal Institute of Technology - KTH Nanocharacterization Center – Functional Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, 21 May 2012 Critical Issues in Nanofluids Research and Application Potentials Norwegian University for Science and Technology - NTNU Presented at: Norwegian University for Science and Technology - NTNU NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Trondheim, Norway, 16 May 2012

51 One-Step Nanofluid Production Improvement NIU in Collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory S. Choi J. Hull, and others Rotating drum with moving nanofluid film Insulated and vertically-adjustable boat- heater evaporator Nitrogen cooling plate with coils and fins FIG. 2: Proposed improvements for the one-step, direct-evaporation nanofluid production apparatus

52 Best Paper for the 6th WSEAS International Conference on HEAT and MASS TRANSFER (HMT'09) Ningbo, China, January 10-12, 2009 Computerized, Transient Hot-Wire Thermal Conductivity (HWTC) Apparatus for Nanofluids, pp M. Kostic, Kalyan C. Simham Clients: Aegis Technologies Advanced Cooling Technology Applications

53 Nanofluid Flow & Heat Transfer Apparatus

54 Premature Judgment … The nanofluids were hyped-up in the past, but it would be a mistake to hype-down nanofluids now and make premature judgments based on inconsistent and incomplete research to-date.The nanofluids were hyped-up in the past, but it would be a mistake to hype-down nanofluids now and make premature judgments based on inconsistent and incomplete research to-date. 54

55 Slide 55 Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY International Forum on Frontier Theories in Thermal Science Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, December 18-20, 2011

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57 Slide 57 © M. Kostic “ The Second Law of Thermodynamics is considered one of the central laws of science, engineering and technology. “ The Second Law of Thermodynamics is considered one of the central laws of science, engineering and technology. For over a century it has been assumed to be inviolable by the scientific community. For over a century it has been assumed to be inviolable by the scientific community. Over the last years, however, more than two dozen challenges to it have appeared in the physical literature - more than during any other period in its 150-year history.” Second Law Conference: Status and Challenges Second Law Conference: Status and Challenges with Prof. Sheehan in Sun Diego, CA June 2011

58 Slide 58 The Second Law Symposium has been a unique gathering of the unorthodox physicist and inventors (to avoid using a stronger word)

59 Slide 59 Fig. 8: Significance of the Carnot’s reasoning of reversible cycles is in many ways comparable with the Einstein’s relativity theory in modern times. The Carnot Ratio Equality is much more important than what it appears at first. It is probably the most important equation in Thermodynamics and among the most important equations in natural sciences. The “Key Fundamental Concepts” are much more important than what they appear to be

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61 Slide 61 Entropy, the thermal displacement property, dS=dQ rev /T (or dQ cal /T) with J/K unit, is “ a measure” of thermal dynamic-disorder or thermal randomness, and may be expressed as being related to logarithm of number of “all thermal, dynamic-microstates”, or to their logarithmic-probability or uncertainty, that corresponds, or are consistent with the given thermodynamic macrostate. Note that the meanings of all relevant adjectives are deeply important to reflect reality and as such it has metaphoric description for real systems. Q cal =Q rev +W loss =Q rev +Q diss

62 Slide 62 A system form and/or functional order/disorder: A system form and/or function related order or disorder is not thermal-energy order/disorder, and the former is not the latter, thus not related to Thermodynamic entropy. Entropy is always generated (due to ‘energy dissipation’) during production of form/function order or disorder, including information, i.e., during any process of creating or destroying, i.e., transforming any material structure. Expanding entropy to any type disorder or information is unjustified, misleading and plain wrong.

63 Slide 63 Entropy refers to dynamic thermal-disorder of its micro structure (which give rise to temperature, heat capacity, entropy and thermal energy. It does not refer to form-nor functional- disorder of macro-structure: For example, the same ordered or piled bricks (see above) at the same temperature have the same entropy (the same Thermodynamic state)! Entropy and Disorder … S=S(T,V) not of other type of disorder: If T left =T right and V left =V right  S left =S right

64 Slide 64 : The Boltzmann constant is a conversion factor : 2009 January © M. Kostic

65 Slide 65 S gen Entropy Generation (Production) is always irreversible in one direction only, occurring during a process within a system and stored as entropy property. Entropy cannot be destroyed under any circumstances, since it will imply spontaneous heat transfer from lower to higher temperature or imply higher efficiency than the ideal Carnot cycle engine Entropy Generation (Production)

66 Slide 66 YES! Miracles are possible ! It may look ‘ perpetuum mobile ’ but miracles are real too … … we could not comprehend energy conservation until 1850s: (mechanical energy was escaping “without being noticed how”) … we may not comprehend now new energy conversions and wrongly believe they are not possible: (“cold fusion” seems impossible for now … ?) …….Let us keep our eyes and our minds ‘open’ ……….. Things and Events are both, MORE but also LESS complex than how they appear and we ‘see’ them -- it is natural simplicity in real complexity … but, the miracles are until they are comprehended and understood !

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68 Slide 68 EEE-Global & Physics articles More Encyclopedia ArticlesMore Encyclopedia Articles

69 Slide 69 Global Energy and Future: Importance of Energy Conservation and Renewable and Alternative Energy Resources 2000 kcal/day  100 Watt USA over 0.3 billion 10,000 Watt/c 1,500 W el /c World over 7 billion 2,400 Watt/c 350 W el /c Solar 1.37 kW/m 2, but only 12% over-all average 165 W/m 2 freepublications * Key World Energy StatsKey World Energy Stats

70 Slide 70 Source: OTT Analytic Team World automobile population is expected to grow substantially

71 Slide 71 Vehicle Energy Efficiencies … from MPG Classical … to 50 MPG Hybrid It is possible !!!

72 Slide 72 Coal Energy Must Be Efficient to be competitive … from 30% Classical … to 60% Combined Cycle Gas/Steam Turbine Power Plant or even 85% Combined Power-Heat Plant

73 Slide 73 Efficient: do MORE with LESS Improve true (2 nd Law) efficiency by conserving energy potentials: REGENERATE before “diluting” and loosing it! Power “Waste” Heat & CO 2 Low efficiency Indirectly Regenerated Heat & CO 2 Directly Regenerated Heat & CO 2 High Efficiency

74 Slide 74 About 20% About 0.2 % … also first steam engine

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80 Slide 80 The energy “difficulties” … (1) will be more challenging than what we anticipate now(1) will be more challenging than what we anticipate now (2) NO traditional solutions(2) NO traditional solutions (3) New knowledge, new technology, and new living habits and expectations will be needed(3) New knowledge, new technology, and new living habits and expectations will be needed

81 Slide 81 What Are We Waiting For? Another Energy Crisis ?Another Energy Crisis ? A Global Environmental Problem?A Global Environmental Problem? or Leadershipor Leadership

82 Slide 82 The biggest single challenge for the next few decades by 2050 (1) ENERGY for people(1) ENERGY for people (2) At MINIMUM we need additional 10 TeraWatts (150 Mill. BOE/day) from some new clean energy source(2) At MINIMUM we need additional 10 TeraWatts (150 Mill. BOE/day) from some new clean energy source We simply can not do this with current technology! We simply can not do this with current technology! We need LeadershipWe need Leadership

83 Slide 83 How To “Use” Energy ?

84 Slide 84 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

85 Slide 85 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

86 Slide 86 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

87 Slide 87 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

88 Slide 88 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

89 Slide 89 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

90 Slide 90 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

91 Slide 91 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

92 Slide 92 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

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94 Slide 94 More information at: kcal/day  100 Watt World Prod. 2,200 Watt/p 275 W elec /p USA Prod. 12,000 Watt/p 1500 W elec /p Solar 1.37 kW/m 2, but only 12% over-all average 165 W/m2 However, regardless of imminent shortages of fossil fuels, the outlook for future energy needs is encouraging. Energy conservation “with existing technology” (insulation, regeneration, cogeneration and optimization with energy storage) has real immediate potential to substantially reduce energy dependence on fossil fuels and enable use of alternative and renewable energy sources. There are many diverse and abundant energy sources with promising future potentials, so that mankind should be able to enhance its activities, standard and quality of living, by diversifying energy sources, and by improving energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, while at the same time increasing safety and reducing environmental pollution. After all, in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a blip on a human history radar screen), the life may be happier after the fossil fuel era! More at:

95 Slide 95 Thank you! Any Questions ?

96 Slide 96 Appendices Stretching the mind further …

97 Slide 97 Stretching the mind further … Mass may be a special tensor-like quantity due to "over-all- isotropic in all-directions" motion of elementary particles (that make up its structure) and thus give rise to inertia if accelerated in any direction, i.e., resisting change of motion in any and all directions with equal components (the isotropic mass inertia). There may be anisotropic masses, with bulk linear or rotational motion, being the extreme cases. Note that fundamental particles (without inertial mass, like photons and similar, but with relativistic masses E/c^2) has to always move with ultimate speed of light in vacuum, and such particles (some yet to be discovered) might be moving (orbiting with twisting, string-like vibration and rotation) within virtually infinitesimal spaces and thus making-up other "massive" so-called elementary particles

98 Slide 98 Force and Forcing … Force or Forcing is a process of exchanging useful-energy (forced displacement) with net- zero exchange at forced equilibrium. The Second Law provides conditions and limits for process forcing (energy exchange direction Second Law

99 Slide 99 Deterministic vs. Probabilistic All interactions in nature are physical and based on simple cause-and-effect conservation laws, thus deterministic and should be without any exceptional phenomenon. Due to diversity and complexity of large systems, we would never be able to observe deterministic phenomena with full details but have to use holistic and probabilistic approach for observation; therefore, our observation methodology is holistic and probabilistic, but phenomena have to be deterministic, not miraculous nor probabilistic

100 Slide 100 Elementary Particles: Electron? There is no proof that an electron, or any other elementary particle, has or does not have a structure. The concept of elementary particle is intrinsically problematic (just because we cannot observe or reason a structure which exhibits certain phenomena, does not mean it does not exist). Past and recent history proved us to be wrong every time. Particularly problematic is the current theory which requires elementary particle annihilation/creation (“miraculous creationism”) while using conservation laws. At the very least (in phenomenological view) the elementary particles should be conserved and be the building structure for other particles and systems. Note that many concepts (in modern physics) are "virtual" entities that are part of the mathematical theory, but are not directly observable.

101 Slide 101 Boundary Forces … There is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body (no imaginary boundary vector- forces). Put it very simply: a forcing (force-flux cause-and-effect phenomena) acts between an interface of pair of objects (forced interaction: action-reaction, including process-inertial forces), and not on a single object. The Newton Laws and the Laws of Thermodynamics imply that all forces are mass- energy interactions (forced displacements with momentum and energy transfer and conservation) between different particulate bodies due to non-equilibrium (available energy or work potential, cause of forcing) towards the equilibrium.

102 Slide 102 No Perfect Rigidity … All matter must be somewhat elastic (can be compressed or stretched). If bodies could be perfectly rigid we'd have infinite forces acting with infinite speeds for infinitesimal times (if you pushed on one end of a perfectly rigid stick, the other end would move instantaneously). System components (bodies) that exert forces have to be massive (2nd Newton Law) and with accompanying reaction forces (3rd Newton Law).

103 Slide 103 Energy is bound by forced motion … Energy is possessed (thus equilibrium property) by material systems and redistributed (transferred) between and within system(s), due to systems' non-equilibrium, via forced- displacement interactions (process) towards the equilibrium (equi-partition of energy over mass and space); thus energy is conserved (the 1st Law) but degraded (the 2nd Law). Effects are consequences of Causes except at Equilibrium they are equal (reversible). The existence in space and transformations in time are manifestations of perpetual mass-energy forced displacement processes: with net-zero mass-energy transfer in equilibrium (equilibrium process) and non-zero mass-energy transfer in non- equilibrium (active process) towards equilibrium. System components (particles and bodies) that exert forces have to be massive (2nd Newton Law) and with accompanying reaction forces (3rd Newton Law).

104 Slide 104 Processes … Miracles "Nothing occurs locally nor in the universe without mass-energy exchange/conversion and irreversible entropy production. It is crystal-clear (to me) that all confusions related to the far-reaching fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics, and especially the Second Law (Abstract), are due to the lack of their genuine and subtle comprehension." to meSecond LawAbstract The miracles are until they are comprehended and understood.

105 Slide 105 The Concept of "Entransy" May Be More Important Than What It Appears at First … but it has to be "properly" related to existing concepts of Thermal energy (not precisely defined yet, see elsewhere), Exergy and Entropy, as well as irreversibility and reversibility. Entransy concept and analysis have some unique advantages over other approaches. There is a need to define Entransy as a property (how it relates to other thermodynamic properties) and as process energy flux (how it relates to heat & work transfer and entropy transfer & generation). We also could advance and synergize your "Thermomass" concept with my work in that area.

106 Slide © M. Kostic For further Info you may contact Prof. Kostic at: or on the Web: Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY

107 Slide 107 Thank you! Any Questions ?


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