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Motivation and Emotion 8A: Motivation. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION O Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion 8A: Motivation. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION O Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Emotion 8A: Motivation

2 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION O Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal

3 Instinct theory O Based on instincts – fixed action patterns that are not learned and occur in most members of a species O Bird migration, mating rituals O Failed to explain motives – named rather than described behavior O Today psychologists taking the evolutionary perspective focus on evolutionary history on eating, selection of mates, expression of emotions, etc.

4 Drive-reduction theory O 1930s: replaced instinct theory O Based on biological concept of homeostasis – body seeks to maintain a stable internal state O If any need is unmet, body creates drive or a state of tension O Still used to explain motivated behaviors that have a clear biological basis O Can’t account for many behaviors – buying newest cell phone, giving to charity, skydiving

5 Arousal theory O Motivation serves to achieve and maintain a certain level of arousal O Yerkes-Dodson law – an optimal level of psychological arousal helps performances O Too low = boredom; too high = anxiety

6 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs O Needs are ordered from basic survival to psychological needs O Safety, belongingness, esteem, self- actualization, and transcendence O Each level of the hierarchy is addressed only after the preceding level’s needs have been met O Has been criticized for its vague definition of self-actualization

7 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

8 Self-determination theory O We have three basic organismic (psychological needs that are innate and exist in every person) needs: O Competence – we can bring about desired outcomes O Relatedness – forming positive relationships with others O Autonomy – being in control of our own life O Provide intrinsic motivation O Emphasizes we do things because we have freely chosen to – not a drive-reduction theory

9 Hunger motivation

10 Food% Males Indicating Dislike% Females Indicating Dislike Calves’ brains7090 Celery328 Clam dip4674 Eggs418 Hominy2852 Kidney stew8094 Lamb2038 Leftovers2444 Nuts214 Oysters2664 Tripe6496 Turtle soup6088 Waffles418 Watermelon212

11 Biological bases of hunger O Glucose – form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues O Blood glucose drops = hunger O Hypothalamus is involved in hunger O Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus causes an animal to eat O Stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus causes an animal to stop eating O Set-point theory – humans and other animals have a natural/optimal body-fat level O Criticism: slow, sustained changes in body weight can alter one’s set point O Psychological factors sometimes drive feelings of hunger O Now use term settling point

12 Appetite Hormones InsulinSecreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose LeptinSecreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger OrexinHunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus GhrelinSecreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain ObestatinSecreted by the stomach; sends out “I’m full” signals to the brain PYYDigestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” signals to the brain

13 Psychology of hunger O Eating disorders O Anorexia nervosa – eating disorder with diagnosis based on O Significantly underweight (usually below 85% of “normal” body weight) O Distorted view of body size or shape O Intense fear of gaining weight O Cessation of menstruation (amenorrhea)

14 O Bullimia nervosia – eating disorder with diagnosis based on O Repeated episodes of overeating followed by vomiting, laxative use and/or exercise O Undue concern with body size or shape O Family influences on eating disorders O Mothers of girls w/eating disorders tend to focus on their own weight and on their daughters’ weight O Families of bulimia patients have a higher-than -usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self- evaluation O Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high achieving and protective

15 O Obesity O 2/3 of adult Americans are officially overweight and about half of them are obese O 1/6 Americans aged 6-19 are overweight O Contributes to heart disease, diabetes, kidney failure and many forms of cancer O Causes: O Abundant, easily obtainable high-fat, high-calorie food O Sedentary lifestyle O Lack of adequate sleep O Genetic predisposition

16 O Physiology of obesity O Once we gain a fat cell, we keep the fat cell O Once we become fat we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it O Lean people naturally fidget more than overweight people O Sleep deprivation increases vulnerability to obesity O People are more likely to become obese when a friend becomes obese

17 Weight loss tips O Chew cinnamon gum O Factor out calories of “fluff” from your diet O Be creative with your snack foods O Don’t eat while you read, watch TV, talk on the phone or work at your desk O Wait 20 minutes before eating after getting home from school/work O Schedule snacks every 2 hours and plan out what you’re going to have

18 Physiology of sex O Sexual response cycle – four stages of sexual responding described by William Masters and Virginia Johnson O Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution O Refractory period – resting period after orgasm, during which a man can’t achieve another orgasm O Hormones and sexual behavior O Estrogens – female sex hormones O Testosterone – male sex hormone

19 Psychology of sex O Sexually explicit materials can increase male willingness to hurt women and may lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships

20 Adolescent sexuality O Teen pregnancy – causes: O Ignorance O Minimal communication about birth control O Guilt related to sexual activity O Alcohol use O Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity O Predictors of teenage sexual restraint O High intelligence O Religious engagement O Father presence O Participation in service learning programs

21 Sexual orientation O 3-4% of men and 1-2% of women are exclusively homosexual O Homosexuality is more fixed for men than women O Psychologists view homosexuality as neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed O Not linked to O Problems in a child’s relationships with parents O Fear of hatred of people of the other gender O Levels of sex hormones in the blood O Childhood molestation by an adult homosexual O Genetic influence: O Gay men and straight women: brain hemispheres are the same size O Lesbian women and straight men: right brain hemisphere is larger

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23 Motivation and Emotion 8B – Emotions, Stress and Health

24 O Emotions are a mix of O Physiological arousal O Expressive behaviors O Consciously experienced thoughts and feelings O Psychologists agree that emotions include physiological, cognitive and behavioral components but disagree on how we become emotional and which component of emotion received the most emphasis

25 James-Lange theory of emotion O Named after William James and Carl Lange O Argues that emotions follow a three-part sequence O Perceive a stimulus (see a shadowy figure in your yard) O Stimulus triggers physiological arousal (heart rate jumps and you begin to tremble) O You interpret the bodily changes as a specific emotion (I’m afraid!) O Arousal immediately precedes emotion

26 James-Lange Theory: “I’m afraid because I am shaking” Person sees a spider Begins to shake Interprets shaking as fear

27 Cannon-Bard theory O Named after Walter Cannon and Philip Bard O States that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers O Physiological responses and O The subjective experience of emotion

28 Cannon-Bard Theory “The spider makes me shake and feel afraid.” Person sees a spider Begins to shake Experiences fear Interprets Shaking as fear

29 Schacter-Singer two-factor theory O Stanley Schachter and James Singer agreed that physiological arousal is a key element in emotion but pointed out that physiological arousal is similar for different emotions O Proposes that our emotions depend on physical arousal and the cognitive labeling of that arousal 1. You perceive a stimulus 2. The stimulus triggers both physiological arousal and a cognitive label that makes the best sense of the arousal

30 Two-Factor Theory “I label my shaking as fear because I appraised the situation as dangerous.” Person sees a spider Begins to shake Experiences fear Decides the situation is dangerous

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32 Opponent-process theory O Every emotion triggers an opposing emotion that fights it O We will feel a negative emotion after we feel a positive emotion

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34 Physiological differences among emotions O Fear and joy increase heart rate but stimulate different facial muscles O Watching a fearful face activates the amygdala O Some tendency for negative emotions to be linked to the right hemisphere and positive emotions linked to the left O Left frontal lobe has more dopamine receptors

35 Lie detectors O Problems with lie detectors: O Our physiological arousal is similar from one emotion to another (anxiety, irritation, guilt) O Tests are wrong at least 33% of the time O Guilty knowledge test – assesses a suspect’s physiological responses to crime-scene details known only to the police and the guilty person

36 Cognition and emotion O Spillover effect – our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event O Some emotions (especially simple likes, dislikes and fears) require no conscious thought O Some emotions bypass the cortex and go straight to the amygdala O Results in a speedy emotional response before our intellect has time to process

37 Expressed emotion O We aren’t very good at detecting deceiving expressions (for example, detecting truth over lies) O Women generally surpass men at O reading emotional cues O spotting lies O emotional literacy O emotional responsiveness O Happiness and anger translate across cultures but cultures differ in how much emotion they express

38 Effects of facial expression O Facial feedback – effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions O People induced to smile tend to feel happier and recall happier memories

39 Fear O We learn fear from experience and observation O Identical twins have similar levels of fearfulness, even when raised apart O Amygdala is involved in human fear

40 Anger O Catharsis – emotional release O Catharsis hypothesis – “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges O Is temporarily calming if it does not produce guilt or anxiety O In general, expressing anger breeds more anger O How to handle anger: O Wait O Channel energy into something productive

41 Happiness O Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood O We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our capacity to adapt O Once one has enough money for comfort and security, money matters less and less O Today’s happiness predicts tomorrow’s income better than today’s income predicts tomorrow’s happiness

42 Happiness -cont- O Adaptation-level phenomenon - tendency to judge stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced O We feel an initial surge of pleasure w/pay increase, but then adapt to it O Relative deprivation - perception that we are worse off than those we compare ourselves to O Lebron’s salary makes other players disappointed w/their own

43 Happiness -cont- O Happy people tend to O Have high self-esteem O Be optimistic, outgoing and agreeable O Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage O Have work and leisure that engage their skills O Have meaningful religious faith O Sleep well and exercise O Happiness is not much related to O Age O Gender O Parenthood O Physical attractiveness

44 How to be happier O Realize that lasting happiness may not come from money O Take control of your time O Act happy O Seek work and leisure that engage your skills O Exercise O Get enough sleep O Give priority to close relationships O Focus beyond self O Count your blessings and record gratitudes O Nurture your spiritual self

45 Stress  Stress: process by which we perceive and respond to certain events (stressors) that we appraise as threatening or challenging  General adaptation syndrome (GAS):  Alarm - sudden activation of sympathetic nervous system  Resistance - temperature, blood pressure and respiration stay high and if persistent, stress may deplete body’s reserves  Exhaustion - more vulnerable to illness

46 Friedman and Rosenman’s study  Type A: people who are reactive, competitive, driven, impatient, time conscious, supermotivated, verbally aggressive and easily angered  Type B: more easy going and relaxed  Type A people are more susceptible to stress related disease

47 Effects of stress  Surgical wounds heal more slowly  Makes body more susceptible to cold virus  Stress does not make us sick but it does alter our immune functioning

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