Presentation on theme: "Outline 3 Introduction: The ethics of raising purebred dogs has been questioned for years, and those involved in the process often wonder if the benefits."— Presentation transcript:
Outline 3 Introduction: The ethics of raising purebred dogs has been questioned for years, and those involved in the process often wonder if the benefits outweigh the risks. Body – B. Opposing Claim: Responsible Breeders – C. Mine: Genetic Mutations – D. Refutation using mutts as example – E. Opposing: Personality is inherited genetically – F/G. Mine + Refutation: Traits are conditioned Conclusion: Mutts have more likelihood of being happier and healthier in life because of 1) genetic issues, 2) behavior conditioning, 3) reason for adoption. Others’ arguments against 1) genetic issues, 2) behavior conditioning, 3) adoption not better are ill-founded because they do not acknowledge the darker side of human nature.
INTRODUCTION -Attention getter -Introduce background of raising purebreds— what does it mean and who does it? -Thesis/Main Claim: The ethics of raising purebred dogs has been questioned for years, and those involved in the process often wonder if the benefits outweigh the risks. The simple truth is that the genetic hazards the animals could be exposed to renders the practice of breeding purebreds unethical.
Purebred-Definition 5 bred from members of a recognized breed, strain, or kind without cross-breeding over many generations Merriam-webster.com
Body B Opposing Claim: A responsible breeder will look out only for the welfare of the animal.
Responsible Breeders (opposing) 1 "A responsible breeder of purebred dogs not only breeds for results that adhere to a written standard but knows the value of a well-bred animal and pays close attention to health concerns, proper nutrition, housing and everything else that affects the lives of those beloved dogs."
Responsible Breeders (opposing) 1 "Most breeders of purebreds support research regarding the genetic health of their breeds and plan their matings carefully to insure that the offspring will be healthy. It would make little sense to put time, effort, money and passion into breeding unhealthy dogs."
Responsible Breeders (opposing) 2 "For this reason, we breed and train Labrador and golden retrievers, breeds that we feel best meet the needs of our clients. We rigorously health and temperament test all of our dogs. We maintain data records on all the dogs we breed. We spay or neuter any dogs that don’t make it as a guide dogs and place them in other careers such as medical alert dogs for diabetics, therapy work, hearing dogs, companions for bind children and as loved and loving pets."
I conclude… Those who believe themselves to be responsible breeders believe they are doing everything in their power to create healthy animals.
Body C My Claim: Breeding purebreds often results in inbreeding, which can cause severe health issues for the dogs.
Genetic Disorders (mine) GENERAL 4 "Selective breeding with small numbers of champion sires lead to genetic defects. Breeding in outside traits is a cure that is shunned."
Genetic Disorders (mine) HOW THEY ARE CREATED 4 "First, in order to produce dogs that met the standard, breeders employed breeding practices that inevitably resulted in inbreeding. Not only were the original gene pools of many breeds very small to begin with, but breeders have also accentuated the problem by selectively breeding from relatively small numbers of "champion sires" and/or by mating together closely related individuals."
Genetic Disorders (mine) GENERAL 3 "Reliance on inbreeding and over use of favored sires to fix desirable traits have also concentrated life threatening or debilitating conditions in particular breeds."
Genetic Disorders (mine) DEFECTS 4 "Nowadays, many breeds are highly inbred and express an extraordinary variety of genetic defects as a consequence: defects ranging from anatomical problems, like hip dysplasia, that cause chronic suffering, to impaired immune function and loss of resistance to fatal diseases like cancer."
Genetic Disorders (mine) BREED SPECIFIC 4 "Consider, for example, the written standard for the English bulldog’s face and muzzle: “the face, measured from the front of the cheekbone to the tip of the nose, should be extremely short, the muzzle being very short, broad, turned upward and very deep from the corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth"...Is it any wonder then that bulldogs can no longer breathe properly?"
I conclude… Breeders are trying to play God for their own benefit by creating a “franken-dog” that will do nothing but hurt the animal.
Genetic Issues (mine) GENERAL 3 "Many breeding standards have led to the creation of dogs with severe problems, especially among those certified by the American Kennel Club."
Genetic Disorders (mine) GENERAL 4 "This tendency for the primary distinguishing features of dog breeds to become more and more accentuated over time is extremely widespread, and in almost every case it has been detrimental to the health and welfare of the dogs."
Genetic Disorders (mine) GENERAL-ISH 3 "In more than a few cases, A.K.C. breeds are characterized by physical extremes or deformities of the legs, back and skull that can bring the dogs constant suffering."
Genetic Disorders (mine) HOW TO STOP THEM 4 "The only sensible way out of this genetic dead-end is through selective out-crossing with dogs from other breeds, but this is considered anathema by most breeders since it would inevitably affect the genetic "purity" of their breeds."
Body D My Refutation (the conclusions I’ve drawn)
I conclude… There are two options to ensure dogs do not have to go through this genetic hardship: either the AKC and other organizations need to relax/change their requirements or inbreeding must no longer be allowed.
I conclude… Mutts have a higher resistance to these issues because they have more altered genes
Body E Opposing Claim: One of the main reasons people want a purebred dog is because they will know what to expect in terms of the dog’s temperament and personality.
Why People Breed (opposing) 1 "Breeding dogs that fit a written standard isn’t just about appearance. Dogs are bred for certain tasks and certain personalities."
Why People Breed (opposing) 1 "Different breeds have different traits. It’s like choosing a vehicle. In many cases a two-door sedan will suffice, but sometimes a truck is needed. "
Shelter Dogs (mutts) (opposing) 2 "Unfortunately, attempts by our organization to use shelter dogs to be guide dogs did not work. Even with much observation and evaluation, the dogs that we received from shelters did not offer us the reliability that we need in a guide dog."
Breed Personality Traits (opposing) 1 "Some breeds are laid back while others tend to be very active. Some are barkers. Others are relatively quiet. A few breeds are close to being hypo-allergenic, which makes it possible for a family that has a member with allergies to still have the pleasure of canine companionship."
Specific Breed Traits (opposing) 2 "Although there are outliers on the edges of any breed, generally Chihuahuas can be counted on to look and act like Chihuahuas; terriers can be counted on to look and act like terriers; and Labrador retrievers can be counted on to look and act like Labrador retrievers."
Specific Breed Traits (opposing) 2 "Terriers can’t duck hunt, and Chihuahuas can’t be guide dogs for the blind. They do not have the physical or temperament traits to do so."
Specific Breed Traits (opposing) 2 "Dogs with greyhound shapes were faster; dogs with a better sense of smell were better hunters; dogs that were more territorial were better watch dogs."
Specific Breed Traits (opposing) 2 "We have found that Labrador and golden retrievers have the physical and temperament traits that make ideal guide dogs. We, and most important, our blind or visually impaired clients, depend on that consistency."
Breeding Traits (opposing) 2 "A dog’s performance at a function was often better than another’s because he or she had physical or personality traits that provided for excellence at that particular function."
I conclude… Breeders believe their dogs will be more likely to fit within a certain personality mold if they are purebred.
Body F My Claim and Refutation: Putting together two laid-back champion dogs is like asking Uriah Bolt to have a child with Flo-Jo and expecting to get the world’s next fasted runner. You cannot guarantee the results.
Personality Traits (mine) 3 "No one knows to what degree behavior and personality are related but they know those traits can be lost without constant attention."
Personality Traits (mine) 3 "So too a dog's adult temperament -- whether it is overly aggressive, for example, or shy or fearful or anxious or bold and eager to work -- cannot be predicted when it is a puppy."
I conclude… Just like humans, nurture has a key role in the way a dog turns out. Nature cannot account for 100% of a dog’s personality.
CONCLUSION -Mutts have more likelihood of being happier and healthier in life because of -genetic issues -behavior conditioning -reason for adoption. -Others’ arguments against genetic issues, behavior conditioning, and adoption not being better are ill-founded because they do not acknowledge the selfishness or inattentiveness of the breeders or the standards-setters.
Source Card 1 Barber, Lilian. "It's Not Just About Competitions." nytimes.com. The New York Times Co., 12 Feb Web. 25 Mar
Source Card 2 Ruppel, Brent. "Good Reasons for Some Purebred Traits." nytimes.com. The New York Times Co., 12 Feb Web. 25 Mar
Source Card 3 Derr, Mark. "Stricter and Better Criteria are Needed." nytimes.com. The New York Times Co., 12 Feb Web. 25 Mar
Source Card 4 Serpell, James. "Cross-Breed to Avoid Inbreeding." nytimes.com. The New York Times Co., 12 Feb Web. 25 Mar
Source Card 5 “Purebred.” Merriam-Webster: Word Central. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Web. 30 March 2013.