Presentation on theme: "Evaluating the effectiveness of a therapeutic parenting programme Alison Prowle Rosie Walker Centre for Early Childhood University of Worcester Evaluating."— Presentation transcript:
Evaluating the effectiveness of a therapeutic parenting programme Alison Prowle Rosie Walker Centre for Early Childhood University of Worcester Evaluating the effectiveness of a therapeutic parenting programme Alison Prowle Rosie Walker Centre for Early Childhood University of Worcester
Welcome to our presentation “it is a professional privilege when we are invited to ‘enter’ the world of the parent in order to work collaboratively.” Claire Majella Richards
Introduction: This presentation underlines the importance of professional collaboration between parents, carers and early years services and suggests this is an essential part of quality improvement. It provides a brief overview (a summary paper of this overview with full references is available) and moves on to report a specific research project exploring an evaluation of a parent support programme.
Transformation and change The sheer diversity of family life now rules out ‘one size fits all’ approaches. Giving families access to information, advice and support of various kinds that they can use as and when they think best is much more likely to be effective (Page 5) Department for Children, Schools and Families Support for All (Green Paper) Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families January 2010
Hallmarks for successful and sustained engagement with families: practitioners work alongside families in a valued working relationship; practitioners and parents are willing to listen to and learn from each other; practitioners respect what families know and already do; practitioners find ways to actively engage those who do not traditionally access services; parents are seen as decision-makers in organisations and services; families’ views, opinions and expectations of services are raised; there is support for the whole family; there is provision of universal services but with opportunities for more intensive support where most needed; there is effective support and supervision for staff, encouraging evaluation and self-reflection; there is an honest sharing of issues around safeguarding. The Principles for Engaging with Families(NQIN, 2010).
Context Growing policy emphasis on working with parents Growing recognition that parenting intervention can be effective as part of an approach to support/empower families. Financial austerity and value for money
Purpose The research aims to review the impact of an existing parenting programme within one English Local Authority This programme is one strand of an existing comprehensive programme of parenting support provided by the Local Authority. The research aims to review the impact of an existing parenting programme within one English Local Authority This programme is one strand of an existing comprehensive programme of parenting support provided by the Local Authority.
Supporting Parents through Parenting Programmes Behaviourist Approaches Strong evidence base Longitudinal studies Therapeutic Approaches Emerging evidence base. Limited research available Strongly valued by practitioners and parents
Key features of programme: Focused on enabling parents to improve their emotional wellbeing and parenting practices by addressing the emotional determinants of behaviour and relationships. The programme addresses the following issues: Promoting emotional literacy ; Raising self-esteem; Developing communication and social skills; Teaching positive ways to resolve conflict; Providing effective strategies to encourage cooperative; responsible behaviour and manage; challenging behaviour in children; Offering insights into the impact of feelings on behaviour; and Encouraging adults to take time to look after themselves.
Aims of research To consider the value of therapeutic parenting programmes as part of a wider package of parenting support To consider the experiences of practitioners and parents within the programme To evaluate the outcomes from the parenting programme both in relation to parents and their children To consider the value of therapeutic parenting programmes as part of a wider package of parenting support To consider the experiences of practitioners and parents within the programme To evaluate the outcomes from the parenting programme both in relation to parents and their children
Research approach Considers interface between practice and theory Mixed methods approach interconnecting both qualitative and quantitative data Ethicality observed throughout Research involved a number of stakeholders: local authority officers with responsibility for parenting and family intervention; parents who had participated within programme multi- agency practitioners with responsibility for delivering programme a local head teacher
Review of the published literature Desk based analysis of data from previous groups ( 200+ parents) A case study of two cohorts from starting point to conclusion of the groups and beyond including situational interviews (24 parents) “Turning the curve” exercise, considering progress against agreed outcomes Focus groups with parent group facilitators Focus group with parents who had completed less than six months prior to research. Data collection methods
Research findings: Impact on parents Quantitative Data For vast majority of parents, overall wellbeing had increased, in many cases very significantly. In the remaining parents overall wellbeing scores had remained static or decreased very slightly. Across the entire cohort, the average overall wellbeing score rose from 2.83 pre intervention to 3.35 post intervention, representing an increase in wellbeing of more than 20%. Qualitative data Almost all parents reported benefits Most commonly reported benefits were increased confidence, feeling calmer, better coping strategies, improved understanding of own and child behaviour. Improvements appear to be sustainable in short and medium term
I am a lot happier and feel I am becoming a better mum. Me and (husband) talk about situations and plan strategies together. We are a lot more constructive and co-operative. I am much more self aware and practising lots of the techniques. Feel more confident and in control! Our home is a happier, kinder place to be. We are all more aware of each other’s feelings. I am actively getting off the sofa and dealing with problems
Measures of wellbeing Using Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale
Research findings Visible impact on child outcomes Practitioners said…… SDQ- scores for 75 parents suggest that overall, their perception of child strengths had improved slightly and their perception of difficulties had decreased more significantly. Practitioners said….. the programme delivers improved outcomes for children One child with multiple exclusions in a previous school has avoided any exclusions since parent attended the programme SATS results for five children in year 6 show marked improvement against earlier predictions; One family avoided Child Protection involvement, and voluntarily engaged with Common Assessment Framework following programme One child from Traveller Community has increased attendance from 23% to 98% following programme, and is making very good progress in all curriculum areas
Research findings: turning the curve ( Friedman, 2005) Improvement in : Ability to manage children’s behaviour; Children’s behaviour at home and school; Ability to enhance relationships and nurturing skills within the family; Child meeting appropriate expectations; Confidence and empathy in relation to managing children; Child’s attitude towards parents, peers and others; Circumstances e.g. Child’s improved attendance at school, child protection registration, common assessment framework take up; and Physical health. Some early evidence of disruption of intergenerational cycles of sub- optimal parenting;
Analysis and Implications: implementation issues Research highlighted ways in which value for money could be improved by addressing implementation issues: Data Collection Referral Pathways Initial Engagement Retention of Parents on Programmes Workforce Development
Analysis and Implications: value for money Unit cost for a family accessing the programme with crèche provision relatively low There is anecdotal evidence from the research that programme can play a vital role in preventing costly higher tier intervention, thus offering the potential for substantial savings in both professionals’ time and foster and residential care provision.
Value for Money Care type Cost per child per annum (£) Basis Residential care130,000Cost of £2000/£3000 per child per week Foster care36,000Foster care per child per week (excluding London) 0f £694 Social services support 3000 Social Service support £305 per child per annum FSW – 2 hours per child per week Assessment costs - £500 FLNP programme155 Including crèche Assuming a once-off intervention per annum
Research Summary Key findings Strong early evidence that the programme is delivering improvements in wellbeing for parents, and that these improvements may be sustainable at least in the medium term (i.e. 6 months to 2 years after the end of the programme); Some early evidence that the programme is delivering improvements in outcomes for children; The programme is meeting the indicators of positive intervention outcomes as identified from the literature review and analysis; Small improvements to the overall implementation of the programme could further enhance the effectiveness of the programme.
Key messages Programme appears to have much merit in allowing parents to understand their own and their children’s behaviour Early evidence that such improvements are sustainable at least in the short to medium term There is some merit in therapeutic programmes as part of a package of parenting support
Key messages cont’d. Initial engagement of parents is crucial. Parental ownership of the programme is vital. Introducing mechanisms for measuring readiness to change, motivational interviewing and keeping in touch approaches could all potentially support improved parent engagement. Need for further research, including longitudinal study.
Slide references Allen, G. & Duncan Smith, I. (2011) Early Intervention:, Good Parents,Great Kids, Better Citizens. [Online] Available from: http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/client/downloads/EarlyInterventionpaper FINAL.pdf http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/client/downloads/EarlyInterventionpaper FINAL.pdf Desforges, C & Abouchaar, A (2003) The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievements and Adjustment: A Literature Review. London, Department for Education and Skills. Friedman, M. (2005) Trying Hard is not Good Enough. Canada, Trafford Publishing. Goodman, R. (1997) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. [Online} Available from: www.sdqinfo.com/b1.html Harris, A. and Goodall, J. (2007) Engaging Parents in Raising Achievement – Do Parents Know They Matter? DCSF Research Report RW004. [Online] Department forChildren, Schools and Families. Available from: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publicationdetail/page1/DCS F-RW004 https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publicationdetail/page1/DCS F-RW004 Cultivating communities of practice: a guide to managing knowledge. Etienne Wenger, Richard McDermott, and William Snyder, Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
Slide references cont’d. Reed, M and Canning, N (eds) (2010) Reflective Practice in the Early Years London, SAGE Reed, M. (2011) 2 nd Edition. ‘Reflective Practice and Professional Development’ In Page- Smith, A and Craft, A (eds) Developing Reflective Practice in the early years. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Paper: an adapted version of the full text with references from, Reed, M and Murphy, A. (2012) Parental partnership and professional support In: Reed, M and Canning, N. (eds) Implementing Quality Improvement and change in the Early Years. London: Sage publications, pp 156-171 (Also available as an ebook from Sage Publications) Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., Parkinson, J., Secker, J., and Stewart- Brown (2007) The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health Quality of Life Outcomes, 5: 63, 21. The Young Foundation. (2011) Sinking or Swimming, Understanding Britain’s Unmet Needs. [Online] Available from: http://www.youngfoundation.org/general-/-all/news/sinking-and-swimming-understanding-britains- unmet-needs Winnicott, DW. The maturational process and the facilitative environment. New York: International Universities Press, 1965.