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Unit 9 Additional Notes Physical and Social Development Adolescence through Late Adulthood.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 9 Additional Notes Physical and Social Development Adolescence through Late Adulthood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 9 Additional Notes Physical and Social Development Adolescence through Late Adulthood

2 Adolescence - Adulthood

3 Physical Development Adolescence through Adulthood Adolescence – period from sexual maturity to adulthood, starting with puberty and ending with adulthood Emerging Adulthood – 18 to mid 20s when still somewhat dependent on parents until fully independent Adulthood – full independence and responsibility

4 Adolescence Puberty – sexual maturation, capable of reproducing Primary sex characteristics – body structures that make reproduction possible – Ex. Female ovaries Secondary sex characteristics – non-reproductive sexual characteristics (see examples below) Menarche – first menstrual period Widening of the Hips Deeper Voice Facial Hair Body Hair

5 Adolescent Brains Selective pruning of unused neurons Frontal lobes responsible for judgment, impulse control and ability to plan for the long term are still developing until 25 – Lags limbic system = impulsiveness, risky behaviors, (weigh benefits more strongly than risks), emotional highs Myelin Sheath grows – speeding communication to other areas of brain Heavy drinking can slow development

6 Early Adulthood Physical abilities reach their peak - muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output

7 Middle Adulthood Physical changes in middle adulthood – Physical performance begins to decline and accelerates – Women Menopause – reduction in estrogen ending menstrual cycles within a few years of age 50 – Men Reduction in sperm count and reduction in testosterone levels

8 Late Adulthood Physical changes in later life – Life Expectancy More men born than women, but women live ave. of 4 years longer Cells stop reproducing – Telomeres (chromosome tips) wear down Death-Deferral Phenomenon – increase in death rates when reach a milestone – more American’s die the two Day’s after Christmas than the two days before, after their birthday. – Sensory Abilities Visual sensitivity diminishes Muscle strength, reaction time, stamina diminish Sense of smell declines Need more light to see – Health – Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

9 Late Adulthood Physical changes in later life – Health Immune system weakens – more susceptible to pneumonia and cancer More resistant to short-term ailments(colds, flu) due to accumulation of antibodies Slowed information processing speed Net loss of brain cells – Brain weight reduction (5%) – Hippocampus and Frontal lobe atrophy – Exercise stimulates cell development, neural connections, and telomeres

10 Late Adulthood Physical Changes in Late Adulthood – Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia – gradual destruction of mental abilities caused by ailments such as Alzheimer’s, small strokes, alcoholism Alzheimer's - irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of one's normal reasoning and memory skills – Early signs – difficulty naming people or familiar objects, decreased sense of smell – Progression – no affect, disoriented, disinhibited, incontinent, mentally vacant – Cause- loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons than produce Ach – Physically active non-obese are at less risk

11 Late Adulthood Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood – Aging and Memory Recall – Decline Recognition - minimal decline Prospective Memory – “Remember to do something” remains strong when triggered by event, time based more difficult for aging, habitual tasks especially challenging Meaningful information is easier to remember, but may take more time Skills – learning and remembering declines

12 Late Adulthood Aging and Intelligence – Cross Sectional Studies Early studies showed fewer correct answers for older people on intelligence tests – Longitudinal Studies Intelligence remained stable, increased in some areas increased – Crystallized Intelligence - Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills increases – Ex. Facts, vocabulary, literature, history philosophy – Fluid Intelligence – ability to reason speedily and intelligently decreases – Ex. Solving puzzles, math, science – Last 3-4 years of life cognitive ability declines rapidly

13 Social Development Midlife transition – transition to middle adulthood in 40’s – Midlife crisis is unfounded More likely to get a divorce in 20s than 40s, more likely to commit suicide at 70 Emotional stability is similar in adults of all ages Social Clock – the culturally preferred time to leave home, marry, have children, and retire. – Ex. Marriage = 20s, Retirement = 65

14 Adulthood Commitments Love – more likely to last if over 20 and well educated, share similarity in interests, values, emotional and material support – Cohabitation before engaged = higher divorce rates – Best predictor of marital satisfaction = number of positive to negative interactions (5:1) Children – Happy event when born and when leave (:

15 Well Being Teens to mid-life people experience an increasing sense of identity, confidence and self-esteem Younger and older are slightly happier than middle aged Positive and negative moods become less extreme and last longer

16 Death Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’s Stages of Death/Grief. 1.Denial 2.Anger 3.Bargaining 4.Depression 5.Acceptance

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