Do now: What motivates you in life? Why? What’s the difference between inspiration & motivation? DQ: Why do people go to college? (Write in logbook w/o talking to others.) Motivation: A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal
Instinct or Evolutionary – genes produce species- specific behavior. (Instincts = unlearned fixed patterns) Drive-reduction – Needs create drives (aroused, motivated states); we work to reduce those needs and restore homeostasis. Push = need for drive reduction; pull = incentives (+ or – stimuli) to get there. Arousal theory: We seek optimal arousal by pursuing stimulation and information Needs theory: Good old Maslow
Complete the Exploration Index Scores can range from 18-144 Why do we feel driven to stimulation? Why is there such a variation? Attachment connection? (Green & Campbell)
As stress increases, performance increases, but there is a peak at a moderately high level. If stress continues to rise, performance falls.
Four forms of sensation-seeking Thrill-and Adventure-Seeking: Risky but socially acceptable activities (sky diving, race-car driving, etc.) Experience-Seeking: Sensation through the mind, senses and nonconforming lifestyle Disinhibition: Life is boring = escape through social drinking and partying Boredom susceptibility: low tolerance for experiences that are repetitious or constant
It’s a teensy bit controversial, and not always fixed or always sequential There’s something new on top
Do now: Write a reflective paragraph on the bottom of your Exploration survey – what does your number tell you about you? What goals might you set as a result? Discuss your answer from Monday How do your answers relate to the four theories? Video Clip: Intrinsic motivation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyaWxz6bp F4&list=PL26D1FB9BC3F53B78 (start at 1:52) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyaWxz6bp F4&list=PL26D1FB9BC3F53B78 Maslow self assessment & Measure of Self- Actualization (assignments) How is homeostasis like cognitive dissonance?
Viktor Frankl – Man’s Search for Meaning Three years in Auschwitz and Dachau Calculated a 1 in 28 chance of survival Concluded a critical factor in survival was finding meaning or purpose His approach to psychotherapy = logotherapy The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (assignment)
Hunger http://viooz.co/movies/4232-alive-1993.html (start at 53:45) http://viooz.co/movies/4232-alive-1993.html Do now: What would you do in the Alive scenario you watched yesterday? Can you really know what you would do? Sex The need to belong Do Now: Vocab Quiz (pre-test)
Throwback – freshman health (Hunger vs. Appetite, reasons we eat) Diet anecdote (the response of others) All sorts of environmental cues everywhere Far more access to junk food; toxic food environment Huge portions Motivation to Eat Scale (Assignment) Do now: What “junk” foods are hardest for you to avoid? What motivates you to eat them? To avoid them? Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) – When stimulated, we eat, even if we’re full (Large Hunger) Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) – When stimulated, we won’t eat, even if empty (Very Minute Hunger)
Insulin – secreted by pancreas, controls bloods sugar Leptin – secreted by fat cells, increases metabolism, reduces appetite Orexin – secreted by hypothalamus, triggers hunger Ghrelin – secreted by empty stomach, tells brain “I’m hungry” Obestatin – secreted by stomach, tells brain, “I’m full.” PPY – secreted by digestive tract, tells brain, “I’m not hungry.” Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia
Calories in/Calories out? Set point vs. settling point Basal metabolic rate Psychological considerations How does a biopsychosocial approach relate to the issue of hunger and obesity?
Taste preferences vary from culture to culture What is a supertaster? Handout: Taste Preferences Learned or Genetic? Are you an internal eater or an external eater? What cultural factors influence your eating habits?
Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Binge-eating disorder Pro-ana DQ: Should cheer, dance and wrestling coaches have discussions with individual team members about their weight? Why or why not? Where to Turn King County helpline: 866-833-6546 (teen link 6-10 p.m.)
Are we turning into Wall-E? CDC Slides Is BMI a good measure (measure yours) How much body fat should we have? Is there such a thing as too little? Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes The dilemmas of weight discrimination and airline seats Given the info covered here and in the book, write a one-page plan for accomplishing a fit and healthy lifestyle over the next 20 years.
Do now: Where does sex fit into Maslow’s Hierarchy, and why? Objective: Understand the biopsychosocial aspects of sex Masters & Johnson Alfred Kinsey – The Kinsey Reports (more controversial than M&J) 4 stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Similar to Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), the body’s stress response, which you learned in 9 th grade health as Alarm, Resistance and Fatigue
Two main purposes – direct development of sex characteristics and activation of sexual behavior. Yes, girls make testosterone, too. Important why? There is a long list of sex hormones the book doesn’t mention. Good reads: The Male Brain and The Female Brain by Louann Brizendine Weird fact: About 100 years ago, girls used mature sexually at about 15; now it’s about 12. People used to marry about 22, now it’s 25 or later. Abstinence until marriage = waiting about 12 years instead of 7.
1. Does media portrayal of violence toward women impact interactions? If so, how? 2. Where do we see sexual cues in the media, and what is their impact on society? 3. Is viewing sexually explicit material harmful? 4. What are some key differences between men and women in terms of how they behave sexually? 5. How does culture impact how people behave sexually?
You can get every STI/STD from oral sex (oral sex IS sex) Anal sex is riskier than oral or vaginal sex Several STIs can cause infertility (forever) You can die from untreated gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, HPV, Hepatitis B and, of course, AIDS. The HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against all strains of the virus, and it sometimes has significant, even life- threatening side effects Media promotes unprotected promiscuity? (Watch 2 hours of primetime television and record instances -- Homework!) CDC study showed 39.5 sexually active US females have STIs
Teen Pregnancy: Ignorance Minimal communication about birth control Guilt related to sexual activity Alcohol use Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity Teen abstinence High intelligence Religious engagement Father presence Participation in service learning programs
Do now: A common stereotype is that women are emotional and men are logical. Please express your thoughts and opinions on this topic. Is it true that women are more emotional, or is it true that men and women experience and express emotions differently? Or both? Definition of Emotion: A response of the whole organism involving a) physiological arousal, b) expressive behaviors, c) conscious (cognitive) experience
Embodied Emotion -- physiological body responses) Expressed Emotion -- what we can see; facial expressions, body language, etc.) Experienced Emotion – What we consciously feel -- positive vs. negative
James-Lange: Physiological response comes before emotional experience. Cannon-Bard: Physiological response and subjective experience of emotion happen simultaneously upon exposure to arousing stimulus and are separate. Schacter-Singer: Physiology + Cognitive label = emotion
Zajonc (ZI-yence): Emotional reactions apart from or before our interpretations of a situation LeDoux: High-road/low-road theory – some emotions go straight to the amygdala without visiting the cortex Lazarus: Work on preparing people for emotional response, either to heighten or lessen the emotional effect of a stimulus.
The smile The frown DQ: How do texting and emailing affect emotional communication?
Have you ever felt the same physiological response for different emotions? Describe! Who can remember what happens in the Autonomic Nervous System when arousal occurs? (Two parts) Another theory: Richard Solomon – opponent-process theory. Every emotion triggers an opposing one. (Pleasure-pain)
Thumbs up means “up yours” in Iran “Come on” gesture in America is a romantic solicitation in Latin America And the “OK” symbol in the U.S. is a reference to your back end in Brazil and Argentina
Shaking hands or handing something with your left hand is insulting in Muslim countries Touching someone’s head in Buddhist countries is a grave insult In Qatar and Saudi, men and women are forbidden from publicly embracing one another. Take your shoes off in the South Pacific and East Asia, but don’t show the soles of your feet in Muslim countries Flowers – colors symbolize different things in different cultures and even the number of stems can seem lucky or unlucky It’s insulting to talk during meals in China and Japan and some African countries Refusing coffee or tea is offensive in Arab cultures Refusing a lei is offensive in Hawaii Text messages and emails lose emotional context. Emoticons can help. The smiley face is just a way to demonstrate you’re friendly and not hostile
Detecting Emotion (we can on average detect lies about 54% of the time) Culture and emotion Gender and emotion (book details) Changing your state of mind with facial expressions Key ideas about fear, anger and happiness Good news: Emotions don’t last long (even when we think otherwise) How to be happier (this is a common trend, and there are websites, blogs and even apps for it) Gratitude!
Not just a stimulus and response, but the WAY we cope Stress response (sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous system again) GAS – Alarm, resistance, fatigue Type A & B Personalities Stress and illness