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OHT 2.1 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software Quality assurance (SQA) SWE 333 Dr Khalid Alnafjan
OHT 2.2 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 What is software? Definition of quality Software errors, faults and failures Classification of the causes of software errors Software quality – definition Software quality assurance – definition and objectives Software quality assurance and software engineering
OHT 2.3 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software is: Computer programs, procedures, and possibly associated documentation and data pertaining to the operation of a computer system.
OHT 2.4 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 What is quality ? Quality popular view: – Something “good” but not quantifiable – Something luxury and classy Quality professional view: – Conformance to requirement (Crosby, 1979) The requirements are clearly stated and the product must conform to it Any deviation from the requirements is regarded as a defect A good quality product contains fewer defects – Fitness for use (Juran, 1970): Fit to user expectations: meet user’s needs A good quality product provides better user satisfaction 4
OHT 2.5 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 What is quality ? What you see of high quality others do not see it like that. I depends on your requirements. For example a university perfect registration system is not necessarily suitable to a schools. 5
OHT 2.6 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 ISO Definition of Quality ISO 8402 definition of QUALITY: The totality of features and characteristics of a product or a service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs 6 ISO 9216 Model: Quality characteristics 1.Functionality 2.Reliability 3.Usability 4.Efficiency 5.Maintainability 6.Portability
OHT 2.7 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Other definition and concept Four Absolutes: – Quality Means Conformance to Requirements. Both functional and non functional - Quality Comes from Prevention - Quality is never ending improvement – Quality is Zero Defects
OHT 2.8 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Benefits of software quality Decreased number of defects and errors in software Less rework as a result of less software defects Reduced development and maintenance cost Increased software reliability Increased customer satisfaction Happier software practitioners
OHT 2.9 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software Engineers and quality Software engineers strive to control the – process applied: What is the best process (i.e SDLC) to be used for the development of software –resources expended: Make sure software development is finished in expected time and also using the estimated budget –end product quality attributes: Make sure that the software it self is of a high quality and contains all features and requirements (functional and non functional)
OHT 2.10 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 The nine causes of software errors are: 1.Faulty requirements definition 2.Client-developer communication failures 3.Deliberate deviations from software requirements 4.Logical design errors 5.Coding errors 6.Non-compliance with documentation and coding instructions 7.Shortcomings of the testing process 8.User interface and procedure errors 9.Documentation errors
OHT 2.11 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software quality is: (1)The degree to which a system, component, or process meets specified requirements. (2)The degree to which a system, component, or process meets customer or user needs or expectations.
OHT 2.12 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software quality assurance is: A systematic, planned set of actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the software development process or the maintenance process of a software system product conforms to established functional technical requirements as well as with the managerial requirements of keeping the schedule and operating within the budgetary confines.
OHT 2.13 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 (1)Assuring an acceptable level of confidence that the software will conform to functional technical requirements. (2)Assuring an acceptable level of confidence that the software will conform to managerial scheduling and budgetary requirements. (3)Initiation and management of activities for the improvement and greater efficiency of software development and SQA activities.
OHT 2.14 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software quality perspectives Software quality can be seen from different perspectives: - Customer : Complete requirements (Functional and non functional) - Project manager: Cost and schedule - Maintenance engineer: Detection and correction times
OHT 2.15 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 This software is of high quality because. ?
OHT 2.16 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Software quality should be considered in: Infrastructure and tools Staff Contract SDLC ( Requirements, design, implementation,.. and etc Budget Schedule Maintenance
OHT 2.17 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Prevention Versus Detection Detection : - Identify - Correct Prevention – Train –Do it right from the first time
OHT 2.18 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Several disasters because of inadequate software quality !!
OHT 2.19 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Patriot Missile System On February 25, 1991, the Patriot missile battery at Dharan, Saudi Arabia had been in operation for 100 hours, by which time the system's internal clock had drifted by one third of a second. For a target moving as fast as an inbound TBM, this was equivalent to a position error of 600 meters. The radar system had successfully detected the Scud and predicted where to look for it next, but because of the time error, looked in the wrong part of the sky and found no missile. With no missile, the initial detection was assumed to be a spurious track and the missile was removed from the system. No interception was attempted, and the missile impacted on a barracks killing 28 soldiers.
OHT 2.20 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Denver International Airport The opening of the new Denver International Airport (DIA) in February 1995 was a day of celebration for Colorado citizens but it was certainly the end of a traumatic period for the information technology industry. DIA was planned to be the largest airport in the United States, to serve passengers annually by 2020, to handle 1750 flights daily through 200 gates and 12 operating runways. Operations at DIA were delayed by 16 months, mainly due to the failure of the software-based baggage handling system, causing estimated total losses of $2 billion. Moreover, the baggage handling system finally
OHT 2.21 Galin, SQA from theory to implementation © Pearson Education Limited 2004 Denver International Airport put into service was substantially downscaled in comparison to the system originally specified. Although several other colossal failures of software systems unfortunately have been recorded since 1995, the failure of IT technology at DIA was especially traumatic to the profession, whether due to the scale of the losses or the public interest and criticism it raised.Many SQA professionals, including the author, believe that had appropriate software quality assurance systems been applied to the project at its start, a failure of this scale would not have occurred or, at least, its losses would have been dramatically reduced.
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