Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology “We cannot live for ourselves alone… our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threats”"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Psychology“We cannot live for ourselves alone… our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threats”
2Questions that Social Psychology aims to answer: What causes a group of people to perform a genocide?What drives terrorists to commit acts of hatred?What factors influence the decision making of public leaders?How do we form our attitudes about people and situations?
3Introduction Social Psych studies… How we think about one another How we influence one anotherHow we relate to one another
4Do we attribute behavior to people or situations? Is he absent because he is sick or lazy?Does her smile signify romantic interest or does she smile at everyone?Is he “snapping” because he is a short-tempered person or because he has had a stressful week?
5Attribution Theory Fritz Heider (1958) The Theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s dispositionMany times our attributions are correctFundamental Attribution Error- At times we overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situationsExample?
6Fundamental Attribution Error Happens more so in Western CulturesWe attribute behavior of ourselves and people we know to situation more than we do with “strangers”We are better at understanding the situation when we see the perspective of the “actor”; We can understand our own disposition when we see things from the “observer’s” perspective
7Example: Napolitan and Goethals (1979) Experiment: Group of subjects spoke to an actressActress acted warm and friendly to some students, critical to the others*half were told that her behavior was situational (i.e. that she was told to act that way)Regardless, the students attributed this behavior to her disposition, not the situation
8Why is this so important? Juries have to decide whether behavior was situational or the product of a person’s dispositionInterviewsBosses and ManagersCouplesWhy are you such a negative person? vs. You must be stressed at workPolitics: Liberals (situation) vs. Conservatives (disposition)
9Attitudes and Actions What we do affects what we do? Vs. What we think affects what we think?Attitudes are feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.If we believe like someone is malicious, we may act unfriendly and feel dislike
10Attitudes Affect Actions Central Route PersuasionWhen interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughtsHappens when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issueMore durablePeripheral Route PersuasionWhen people respond to incidental cues, such as attractiveness or familiarity with a face (celebrity endorsements)
11Actions affect Attitudes Foot-in-the-door phenomenonA person who complies to perform a small action will later agree to a larger onei.e. do a small favor for someone today and you’re more likely to do a larger favor for them in the futureTo get someone to do something for you, “start small and build”Doing a favor for someone you dislike may actually cause you to feel more positive about them
12Evidence17% of people agreed to put a large, hideous “drive carefully” sign in their front yardWhen other homeowners were approached with a 3-inch sign first, 76% later consented to the large, ugly sign
13Food for ThoughtYou are driving on Rt. 17 South towards the Garden State Plaza to pick up some sweet kicks to wear this Saturday. The car behind you is flying at approximately 85 miles per hour. He is practically kissing your bumper when he maneuvers around you and swiftly passes you, only to get off the Ridgewood exit on two wheels less than a mile down the road. You think to yourself “what an impatientWhat error are you committing??? What could be the “situation”?
14Role-playing affects attitudes When adopting a new role, a person strives to meet the expectations or social prescriptions of that roleRole will feel false until it “becomes” you.“Fake it until you make it.”- AAZimbardo and the Stanford Prison Experiment (1972)What we do, we gradually become.Stanford Prison Experiment full video
15Cognitive DissonanceWe experience tension our attitudes and actions do not coincideAccording to the cognitive dissonance theory, we tend to bring our attitudes into line with our actionsWas there ever something that you did that you weren’t 100% okay with but “convinced” yourself that it was the right thing or what you wanted?Defense mechanism?
16Why does behavior or talk therapy work??? Attitude-follows-behavior explains why therapies that emphasize talking in a more positive way may change the way people think and feel about themselves and situations
18Social PhenomenaWe are chameleons who seek to blend with what’s natural around usWe follow dress codes, yawn together, laugh when others laugh, etc.Mood linkage- we feel happier around other happy peopleEmpathetic people mimic more and are liked more- prone to unconscious mimicryCopycat violenceClusters of bomb threats, suicides, etc.
20Group Pressure and Conformity Adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standardAsch experimentMore than 1/3 of the time, college participants went along with the groupIndividualistic countries have lower conformity rates during social experiments
21Conditions that Strengthen Conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecureOne has made no prior commitment to any responseThe group has at least three peopleOthers in the group observe one’s behaviorGroup is unanimousOne’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standardsOne admires the group’s status and attractiveness
22Why do we conform? Normative Social Influence Influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapprovalInformational Social InfluenceInfluence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality“Those who never retract their opinions love themselves more than they love truth”- JoubertSometimes we need to assume others are right
23Baron et alWhen our decisions are important and are difficult, we are more likely to conform than if the task is easy
24Obedience Milgram’s Obedience Experiment 63% complied fully to deliver the final voltageEven when told that the learned had a heart condition and displayed more agony, 65% compliedObedience highest when:Person given orders was close and was legitimateThe authority figure was supported by a prestigious institutionVictim was depersonalized or at a distance (another room)There were no role models for defiance against experimenter
25Group Influence Social facilitation People swim faster when they compete than when they are alone (time trials)Drivers will accelerate faster at a green light when there is someone next to themDefinition: Stronger responses are seen on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of othersHowever, when the task is difficult, people perform less well when observers or others are watchingConclusion: This phenomenon predicts that when around others, the most likely response will be facilitated (right on easy task, wrong on difficult)
26Group Influence Social Loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountableGroup case reading quizzes?!?!Especially common in individualistic cultures
27Social Influence Deindividuation Abandoning normal restraints and self-awareness occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymityi.e. food fights, senior cut day, flash mobPeople are less self-conscious ad restrained when in a group situation
28Social Influence Broken Window Theory Broken windows (perceived destruction) open the door for further graffiti, crime, etc.Zero tolerance would produce lower crime rates?Northern Highlands Policies?
29Group Interaction Group Polarization Enhancement of a group’s prevailing tendenciesIf a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens pre-existing opinionsIs this positive or negative?
30Group Interaction Groupthink When the desire for harmony and “good feelings” trumps realistic dissent among members of a groupNo one steps in to give the reality checki.e. The Perfect StormFueled by overconfidence, conformity, self-justification, and group-polarization
31Can an individual or minority shape the majority? Although people often follow the majority publicly, they may privately develop sympathy for the minority viewPowers of the committed individual can sway the majority if the position is held unswervinglyPopularity vs. influence
32Social Relations Prejudice ‘Prejudgment” An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its membersUsually involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory actionMay be blatant or subtle (saying you’re not racist but being uncomfortable dating someone of the other race)
33PrejudiceBlack motorists are often the majority of those pulled over, even in states where they are the minority1115 landlords received letters of interest from would-be tenants (fake)Tyrell Jackson- 56%Said Al-Rahman- 66%Patrick McDougall- 89%If you believe your father is more intelligent than your mother (without evidence), you have a gender prejudice!!More people express wanting male babies, but “prefer” traits of women
34“Automatic Prejudice” Researchers believe that most of our prejudices are implicit and automaticImplicit racial associationsUnconscious patronizationLower standardsRace-influence perceptionsMore likely to perceive a wallet as a gun in a simulated crime scene when person was black“Seeing black”The more stereotypical the features, the more “criminal” blacks areReflexive bodily responses in amygdala and facial muscles when exposed to a black face
35Social Roots of Prejudice Social inequalitiesStereotypes rationalize inequalities (i.e. slavery)Blame-the-victim dynamicPoverty may increase crime level, which provides new grounds for prejudiceIngroup and OutgroupWe often reserve intense dislike for outgroup rivals who are most like us (Portuguese and Spanish…. Highlands and ?)
36Emotional Roots of Prejudice Implies “us” and “them”, breeding ingroup bias, or favoring one’s own groupScapegoat TheoryFinding someone to blame when things go wrongOur society’s scapegoat? History’s scapegoat?Temporary frustration, failure, or insecurities intensify prejudice (need to boost self-esteem)
37Cognitive Roots of Prejudice CategorizationWe overestimate the similarity of those within other groupsOther race-effect, or own-race biasWe can better recognize our own faces and tend to think other ethnicities act and look more alike than they doVivid CasesMore intense crimes lead us to remember them, so if we have been exposed to one race committing more violent crimes we tend to over exaggerate the number of them in our mindsExample?
38Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Just-World Phenomenon“People get what they deserve”The good are rewarded and the bad are punished?Victims should be blamed (i.e. AIDS)AggressionGeneticNeuralBiochemical
39Aggression: Influences GeneticIdentical twins are similar in levels of aggressionAnimals are bred to be aggressive (pitbulls)Y chromosomeNeuralAmygdala facilitates aggression, frontal lobe inhibitsBiochemicalHormones (i.e. testosterone), alcoholActivities can enhance testosterone (handling gun)Frustration-aggression principleFrustration creates anger, which generates aggressionPain, insults, foul odors, hot temperatures, smokeRejectionVideo Games?
40AttractionWe do we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others?Proximity- “familiarity breeds content”Mere-Exposure Effect- repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of themWe like computer-generated faces that are morphed with our ownPhysical Attractiveness- rated as happier, healthier, sensitive, successful, socially skilled (not honest or compassionate, though)Women spend more $ on cometics than education“love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind”- people w/ good qualities become more attractive
41Attraction (cont.) Similarity More likely to marry someone w/ similar sounding nameOpposites retract“Lovers should love many things together, not merely each other”Reward Theory of AttractionWe will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and less costly (i.e. long distance, etc.)
42Romantic Love Passionate vs. companionate love Passionate Companionate Aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationshipTwo-factor theory of emotion?Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonderCompanionateDeep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
43Key to Relationships Equity Self-disclosure Both partners receive in proportion to what they giveSelf-disclosureRevealing intimate details about ourselves
44Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others Bystander Effect Diffusion of responsibilityThe more people that are around, the less willing we are to helpWe are more likely to help if:Person appears to need and deserve helpPerson is similar to usWe have observed someone being helpfulWe aren’t in a hurryWe are in a small town or rural areaWe are feeling guiltyWe are focused on others and not preoccupiedWe are in a good mood
45Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory Reciprocity Norm Our social behavior is an exchange process in which we maximize benefits and minimize costsReciprocity NormWe should return help, not harm, to those who helped usSocial Responsibility NormWe should help those who need our help (elderly, children, ill)Subway incident?
46Social Traps: Prisoner’s Dilemma Two men are arrested, but the police do not possess enough information for a conviction. Following the separation of the two men, the police offer both a similar deal—if one testifies against his partner (defects/betrays), and the other remains silent (cooperates/assists), the betrayer goes free and the cooperator receives the full one-year sentence. If both remain silent, both are sentenced to only one month in jail for a minor charge. If each 'rats out' the other, each receives a three-month sentence. Each prisoner must choose either to betray or remain silent; the decision of each is kept quiet. What should they do?
47Conflict and Peacemaking perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideasSocial TrapsSituation in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behaviorOption 1Option 2Option 1$5-$5Option 1$5$10$10$0-$5$0Option 2
48Real life examples of the social traps? i.e. costs more money to “go green” and buy a fuel efficient carCollective cost = everyone suffers from greenhouse gassesSolve these problems with regulations, communication, and awareness
49Enemy Perceptions Mirror-image perceptions Mutual views held by conflicting people, when each side sees itself and ethical and peace and views the other as evil and aggressiveExamples?
50Peace-building Contact Cooperation Communication Conciliation Work closely with other races, sexual orientations, and you will develop acceptance and reduce prejudiceCooperationSuperordinate goalsShared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperationRemember the Titans?CommunicationMediators replace win-lose mentality with win-winConciliationGRIT- Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-ReductionArms race: “I reduce, you reduce”