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Lecture 3: Teams John Haymaker, PhD, AIA, LEED ap.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 3: Teams John Haymaker, PhD, AIA, LEED ap."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 3: Teams John Haymaker, PhD, AIA, LEED ap

2 Agenda MACDADI-IN-AN-HOUR debrief How things are: How things could be:
Informal definition and management of project teams and goals. How things could be: Goals Environmental Economic Equitable Formal models of: Teams Stakeholders Designers Decision Makers But information is project-specific each team needs to define and manage Methodology: We explain methods (Represent, Define, Saturate, Partition, Weight, …) to make more comprehensive, transparent, systematic, and precise models of Teams and Goals:

3 Reflection on MACDADI in an Hour

4 Reflection on MACDADI in and Hour

5 Narratives : Dependencies

6 Who? Did What?



9 In about three hours, we:
Established teams, generated goals, prioritized goals, generated options, analyzed options, evaluated tradeoffs, selected an option. We also communicated all of this in formal models that can be broadly accessed and interpreted by a third party, and potetnially a computer.

10 Models All Models are … Wrong Some Models are … Useful

11 How things are: Informally defined and communicated Orgs

12 Teams

13 How teams are: Decision Makers
Decision Makers create the opportunity for designers to satisfy stakeholders, and select the options “We’re building a hospital at this site, even if the neighbors would be happier with having an amusement park.”

14 How teams are: Many Designers Participate
Designers pose and analyze options that affect building performance “We engineer heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.” Acoustics Electrical Parking Architecture Estimating Plumbing Architectural Detailing Fire Structural Engineering Audio Visual Interiors Sustainability Civil Engineering Lighting Waterproofing Construction Mechanical Engineering Workplace Planning

15 How teams are: Many Stakeholders are affected
Gatekeepers are individuals and teams with the power to constrain the range of viable options “You may not place waterless urinals in public bathrooms.” Board of Directors Labor Union Building Department Occupational Health Authority (OSHA) Chief Financial Officer Planning Commission Environmental Review Commission Specialty Equipment Supplier Fire Marshal Specialty Material Supplier Insurance Inspector An all-powerful Stakeholder

16 Student Non-Occupants
Stakeholders “As a student, I want the building to be filled with natural light, but not to be so expensive that my tuition goes up” Stakeholders are groups of people the design might affect. Builders Maintenance Staff Student Occupants Donors Neighbors Staff Designers Press Suppliers Faculty Residents Utility Companies Insurers Student Non-Occupants World population

17 How teams are: Roles get muddled
People daily serve as stakeholder, designer, and owner, for many decisions. People therefore: Understandably try to serve in all roles during design Aren’t the most expert at all roles We require discipline and guidance to work together best

18 Breakdown structures in VDC
Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) Major types of components Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS) Major types of organization components Process (Work) Breakdown Structure (WBS) Major types of tasks Breakdown structures Hierarchical Relate to each other Types, than instances CEE 143/243 Jan 29

19 How Teams Could Be: Project Team models Project Team
List (until saturated), Define (until clear), Group (until balanced), then Weight (until authentic) Improve the model iteratively

20 Saturate a List of Affected Team Members (Here Stakeholders)

21 Three-tier Organization of Stakeholder Groups for Hospital

22 Define Representatives of Stakeholder Groups

23 In process Narrative describing team modeling

24 Team Model (less gatekeepers)

25 Advanced Organizational Modeling
Beyond the scope of MACDADI, Narratives, and this class

26 Virtual Design Team: Big Ideas
Organization analysis allows predicting the volume and distribution of hidden work: the coordination and rework that make projects late and participants overworked and frustrated How “good” is this Organization – Process design? Simulation predictions: Gantt chart Risks, …

27 Conceptual underpinning: Model
Programs Projects Tasks Organization Precedence Exception reporting Coordination Rework Meetings

28 SimVision Programs or projects have attributes

29 SimVision tasks have attributes

30 SimVision actors (“positions”) have attributes

31 Important to manage complexity

32 Project’s Process Information
The organization processes exceptions “Actors”: Do direct work Do hidden work Coordinate Rework Wait Tasks: Have direct work Have hidden work

33 Comparing Project Schedule Risks

34 Evaluation of Schedule goal
To achieve feasible schedule Most staff available Full time Do 50% design review by meetings, vs. tasks

35 Evaluation of Budget goal
To achieve feasible budget Cases with acceptable schedule

36 Evaluation of risk goal
To achieve feasible organization process quality Cases with acceptable schedule budget

37 Backlog = work left to do at the end of the day
Facility Program Backlog = work left to do at the end of the day Risks Schedule Coordination Product, process quality control Principals need to manage workload

38 Executive Dashboard Shows evaluation of predicted behavior (finish date, revenue, cost, quality, backlog) | Goals

39 Any two goals look attainable
Organization Options Any two goals look attainable Duration; Cost (staff); Organization process quality

40 Possible Interventions – Change:
SimVision methods Possible Interventions – Change: Task definition Task precedence Task Start-to-start lag Actor size Actor – task assignment Actor skills Goals Cases

41 Big idea: “Design organizations”
Design organizations as we design bridges Set objectives and measure performance Product Organization Process Function Scope (…) Quality (…) Design + Construct Cost (…) Backlog (…) Cost Schedule (…) Schedule risk (…) Form Deliverables Actors Tasks Behavior Scope Quality Work (direct, hidden) volumes Backlog Start, Finish, Duration Schedule risk

42 Looking ahead to the next week(s): Goals

43 How goals are: Owner state goals
(Cleary, 2004) Slide of Jack Cleary, Director of Project Management, Stanford University

44 How goals are: Designers State Goals
Delightfully Diverse Safe Healthy Just Clean Water Air Soil Power Economically Enjoyed Equitably Ecologically Elegantly “Our goal is a delightfully diverse, safe, healthy and just world, with clean water, clean air, clean soil and clean power – economically, equitably, ecologically and elegantly enjoyed.”

45 How goals are: Public and Non-profits State Goals
USGBC – LEED-NC 2.2 Sustainable Sites 14 Water Efficiency 5 Energy & Atmosphere 17 Materials and Resources 13 Indoor Environmental Quality 15 Innovation 5

46 How goals are: Theorists State Goals
1. Walkability 2. Connectivity 3. Mixed-Use & Diversity 4. Mixed Housing 5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design 6. Traditional Neighborhood Structure Increased Density 8. Smart Transportation 9. Sustainability 10. Quality of Life THE PRINCIPLES OF NEW URBANISM

47 Looking Ahead

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