Presentation on theme: "Meeting the Needs of Patients with Complex Problems"— Presentation transcript:
1Meeting the Needs of Patients with Complex Problems Ed Wagner, MD, MPH, MACPMacColl Center for Health Care InnovationGroup Health Research InstituteJanuary 2013
2The challenges of caring for the patient with multiple chronic conditions Limited evidence base – < complex, older patients excluded from trials, hints of poorer outcomes when treated according to disease-specific guidelines.Added care complexity <multiple guidelines, multiple registries, difficult co-morbidities such as psychiatric disorders and substance abusePolypharmacyMultiple physicians and a poor care coordination culture and mechanisms.
3Percent of patients reporting problems in care by number of doctors seen Base: Adults with any chronic conditionPercent reported any errors in past 2 years*Data collection: Harris Interactive, Inc.Source: 2008 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Sicker Adults.
4What do Patients with Chronic Illness Need to Optimize Outcomes Drug therapy and medication management that gets them safely to therapeutic goals.Effective self-management support so that they can manage their illness competently.Preventive interventions at recommended times.Evidence-based monitoring and self-monitoring to detect exacerbations and complications early.Follow-up tailored to severity, and more intensive management for those at high risk.Timely, well-coordinated services from medical specialists and other community resources.
5But, the multi-problem problem patient likely increases the need for: Full implementation of the patient-centered medical home with “whole-person” knowledge of the patient and clearer accountability for the totality of care.Primary care clinicians able to integrate input from multiple specialties/agencies into a coherent, patient-centered treatment plan.Clinical care management services integrated with medical homes.More assertive and effective care coordination.Access to mental health and substance abuse services.Greater sharing (interactive communication*) of care planning and care management between primary and specialty care.* Foy et al. Ann Int Med 2010; 152:
6Successful practices really understand the critical functions that lead to high quality Population managementPlanned, proactive careSelf-management supportCare management/Follow-up/Care CoordinationTO “really understand” a function means hard wiring it into your care system.
7Care Coordination “Don’t doctors talk to each other?” Kamil SwiatekOakville, Ont.
8Primary Care Doctors’ Receipt of Information from Specialists Percent said after their patient visits a specialist they always receive:AUSCANFRGERNETHNZNORSWESWIZUKUSReport with all relevant health information322651134112593619Information about changes to patient’s drugs or care plan3024475442216Information that is timely and available when needed11411582718Source: 2012 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Primary Care Physicians.
9After Hospital Discharge, Primary Care Doctor Receives Needed Information to Manage the Patient Within 48 HoursPercentSource: 2012 Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey of Primary Care Physicians.
10Patients experience and clinicians operate in “silos” of care. Who is responsible for connecting the silos????
11Care coordinationCare coordination is “the deliberate integration of patient care activities between two or more participants involved in a patient’s care to facilitate the appropriate delivery of health care services.”.McDonald, et al. Closing the Quality Gap, Vol. 7. AHRQ, 2007.
12Successful practices monitor and support their patients when they leave the practice. Many patients need monitoring beyond what can be done in office visits.Many patients need services beyond what can be provided in the clinic.A few patients need clinical management beyond what can be done in office visits.
13Why make care coordination a priority? Patients and families hate it that we can’t make this work.Happier patientsPoor hand-offs lead to delays, lapses in care, adverse drug effects, and other problems that may be dangerous to health.Fewer problemsEnormous waste is associated with duplicate testing, unnecessary referrals, unwanted specialist-to-specialist referrals, and failed transitions from hospitals, EDs, & nursing homes.Less wasteClinical practice will be more rewarding.Happier physicians & staff
14The goals of care coordination: high quality referrals and transitions SafePlanned and managed to prevent harm to patients from medical or administrative errors.EffectiveBased on scientific knowledge, and executed well to maximize their benefit.TimelyPatients receive needed transitions and consultative services without unnecessary delays.Patient-centeredResponsive to patient and family needs and preferences.Supports important provider-patient relationships.EfficientLimited to necessary referrals, and avoids duplication of services.EquitableThe availability and quality of transitions and referrals should not vary by the personal characteristics of patients.
15How to improve care coordination: findings from study of literature and best practices 1.Assume accountability2.Provide patient support3.Build relationships & agreements4.Develop connectivity
17Steps for improving care coordination 1. Assume accountabilityInitiate conversations with key consultants, EDs, hospitals, and community service agencies.Set up an infrastructure to track and support patients going outside the PCMH for care—referral coordinator and tracking system, care manager for transitions.
18Steps for improving care coordination (cont.) 2. Provide patient supportHelp patients identify sources of service—especially community resources.Help patients make appointments.Track referrals & help resolve problems.Ensure transfer of information.
19Steps for improving care coordination (cont.) 3. Build relationships & agreementsPractice leaders initiate conversations with key partners in care to share their expectations.Specialists have legitimate concerns about inappropriate or unclear reasons for referral, unclear expectations.Agreements are sometimes put in writing or incorporated into e-referral systems.
20Steps for improving care coordination (cont.) 4. Develop connectivityEvidence indicates that standardized info. and interactive communication improves outcomes.Develop ways to enable standardized information: and interaction: shared EHR, e-referral, and/or agreements.
21What would one see in a practice that coordinates care well? 1.Assume accountability2.Provide patient support3.Build relationships & agreements4.Develop connectivity
22Works best when the care manager: Care managementProviding follow up, clinical management, and self-management support to patients outside of clinic visits.Services and intensity of services vary with the severity of the illness.Provided by a staff person for lower risk patients and by a nurse or other health professional for high-risk patients.Works best when the care manager:Is an integral member of the practice teamCan influence drugsHas access to clinical support.
24Will care manager interventions be effective for multi-problem patients? Care manager interventions improve outcomes in diabetes, depression, bipolar disorder, CHF, etc.TEAMcare study and Geisinger evaluation suggest effectiveness across conditions.Evidence much less convincing for multi-morbid, geriatric patients. Cost savings elusive.Integration of the care manager with primary care appears critical.
25How to implement care management which populations are to be managed.Decideclinical priorities for care management—for example: monitoring, medication managementDeterminea systematic case identification strategy.Develop & usecare managers.Identify & trainthe care manager to be a member of the practice team.Enablea support structure for the manager.Create25
26Will greater sharing of care between primary and specialty care improve care for complex patients? Recent meta-analysis* of interventions to increase collaboration between primary and specialist physicians found consistently positive effects on patient outcomes in mental illness and diabetes.<Effect sizes lager than those seen in drug trials (e.g., average HbA1c reduction of 1.4%).Effective interventions include: < interactive communication—telephone, , videoconference < quality of information—structured information, pathways to improve information qualityIt is not clear how this might work with the multi-problem patient.* Foy et al. Ann Int Med 2010; 152:
27New roles for Medical Specialists Population perspective – increase the reach of specialist expertisePolicy perspective -- while reducing specialist visits/evaluationsBy supporting medical homesTeaching/supporting primary care providersVirtual consultationsCo-location arrangements and telehealthSupporting care managersLimiting practice to patients that primary care is ill-equipped to manageConsult on multi-morbid patients, but don’t provide primary care.
28Complex Patients and the Future Complex patients will increase in prevalence.Their management will become increasingly complex.They will account for a greater and greater percentage of the healthcare dollar, especially if primary care is unable to play a significant role in their care.Governments have been looking for quick fixes that may undermine medical practice.