2Organizational Behavior How people act and react in organizationsAnd an understanding of why people behave the way they doOrganizations are social entitiesCombine management, psychology, & sociology
3Why is OB Important?Helps you influence the behavior of others (subordinates, managers, coworkers, etc.)Helps you understand and influence your own behaviorTechnical expertise will only get you so farNeed to be able to accomplish things through othersEmployee behaviors impact financial performance
4Historical Perspective of OB Human Relations MovementQuality MovementE-BusinessHuman & Social Capital
5Human Relations Movement The Hawthorne StudiesPeople’s attitudes about management affect their performanceRecent re-analysisElton Mayo & Mary Parker FollettPeople aren’t machines – human factors should be consideredMotivation, attitudes, emotional state, etc.
6Human Relations Movement Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory YTheory XMost people dislike work and want to avoid itPeople require close directionPeople want to avoid responsibility and have little ambitionTheory YWork is a natural activityPeople can be self-directed if they are committed to the objectiveRewards help commitmentMost employees accept and seek responsibilityEmployees have imagination, ingenuity and creativity
7Quality Movement Began in 1980s in US in response to Japan Total Quality Management (TQM)Continuous improvementCustomer focusedEmployee driven*W. Edwards DemingEarly leader of quality movementExpert in statistical process control techniquesClaimed importance of employees in TQM
8E-Business Internet changed communication Easier to communicate more information to more peopleNet GenerationValue freedom, want customization, skeptical of info., value integrity, good collaborators, like speed and innovation.
9Human & Social Capital Human Capital Social Capital An individual’s talents & skillsImportant to all “knowledge workers”Must be grown & developedSocial CapitalAn individual’s professional social networkGood relationships with boss, co-workers, subordinates, etc.Helps you get things done & move career forward
1021st Century ManagementManagement: working with & through others to achieve organizational objectivesIndividual TeamsCommand & Control Participative Mgt.Ego-centered Customer CenteredCentralized Decentralized
11Clark Wilson Management Skills Research Dealing effectively with people is the cornerstone of effective managementMore skilled managers have more productive and happier employeesFailed managers tend to overestimate their skill set
12Contingency Theories There is no one best way to do something The appropriate managerial action depends on the specifics of the situationNo universal rules or laws
13Roberta received her first managerial assignment, after completing the management training program, to be the new supervisor of the Customer Complaints department. Friday afternoon, she talked to several managers she had worked with in the training program, and they confirmed what she had heard elsewhere – the department had a terrible reputation, and it was deserved.Monday Roberta arrived early to familiarize herself with the office before the staff arrived. Much to her surprise, over half of them were already there. Within fifteen minutes, the rest had arrived. This seemed like a good time for an informal meeting. Roberta walked out of her office and addressed the group as they sat at their desks.“Good morning, I'm Roberta James, your new supervisor. I’m looking forward to getting to know all of you and to working with you to develop and maintain a good Customer Complaint department.” Suddenly the phone started ringing, but no one answered it. “Why doesn't someone answer the phone?” Roberta asked. One staff member replied, “It's not 9:00 yet, we're not open.” “They'll call back,” said another.
14Corporate Social Responsibility Corporations have an obligation to constituent groups in society other than stockholders and beyond that prescribed by law or union contract.
16Is Business Ethics Really a Problem? 62% occasionally observe unethical behaviorSenior managers think their companies are more ethical than lower level employees64% mislead about finances41% of applicants lied about their education
177 Moral Principles for Managers Dignity of human lifeAutonomyHonestyLoyaltyFairnessHumanenessThe common good
18Ethical ClimateIn order to create an ethical climate, managers should:Behave ethically themselvesScreen job applicantsHave a code of ethicsProvide ethics trainingReward ethical behaviorAssign responsibility for ethical climate to someone (chief ethics officer)
19Jonica Gunson is the environmental compliance manager for a small plastics manufacturing company. She is currently faced with the decision whether or not to spend money on new technology that will reduce the level of a particular toxin in the wastewater that flows out the back of the factory and into a lake. The factory's emission levels are already within legal limits. However, Jonica knows that environmental regulations for this particular toxin are lagging behind scientific evidence. In fact, a scientist from the university had been quoted in the newspaper recently, saying that if emission levels stayed at this level, the fish in the lakes and rivers in the area might soon have to be declared unsafe for human consumption. Further, if companies in the region don't engage in some self-regulation on this issue, there is reason to fear that the government — backed by public opinion — may force companies to begin using the new technology, and may also begin requiring monthly emission level reports (which would be both expensive and time consuming). But the company's environmental compliance budget is tight. Asking for this new technology to be installed would put Jonica's department over-budget, and could jeopardize the company's ability to show a profit this year.
20The Performance of Ethics Ethical companies outperform unethical ones by % in market value (Business and Society Review)$30K invested in 30 ethical companies over 30 years would yield 4.7x to the Dow Jones Industrials (Johnson & Johnson Research Study)40% of consumers would boycott an unethical company, 20% have done so (Conference Board)Workers in ethical companies are 6x more loyal (Hudson Institute)