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Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment ( )

2 Section 1: The Scientific Revolution

3 Causes of the Scientific Revolution ◦“Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists – Aristotle ◦Impact of the Renaissance  Greek and Latin languages ◦ Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato  New Technology and Mathematics ◦ Ships - trade  New instruments ◦ Telescope and microscope ◦ Printing press  Searching for scientific discoveries  James Cook ◦ chronometer ◦ scurvy  Francois Viete  foundation for the invention of Trigonometry  Simon Stevin  decimal system  John Napier  table of logarithms  Study of mathematics  Nicolas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton Scientific Revolution ◦ With the development of algebra, geometry and trigonometry

4 Scientific Breakthroughs  Ptolemaic System ◦ Geocentric ◦ “prime mover”  Nicolas Copernicus ◦ On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres ◦ Heliocentric  Johannes Kepler ◦ Kepler’s First Law  Galileo Galilei ◦ The Starry Messenger  Isaac Newton ◦ Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia) ◦ “World Machine” ◦Breakthroughs in Medicine  Galen – Greek Physician  Revolution in Medicine: ◦ Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey ◦Breakthroughs in Chemistry  Robert Boyle  Antoine Lavoisier

5 Women’s Contributions ◦Margaret Cavendish  Received a traditional female education – no science  Wrote a number of works on scientific matters ◦Maria Winkelmann  Astronomer - her husband Gottfried Kirch  Discovered a comet  University of Berlin

6 Philosophy and Reason ◦Descartes and Rationalism  Rene Descartes  Discourse on Method ◦ “I think therefore I am” ◦ Separation of mind and matter ◦ Father of Modern Rationalism ◦Bacon and the Scientific Method  Creation of the Scientific Method ◦ Francis Bacon  Believed the scientific method would benefit science that would benefit industry, agriculture, and trade – and help to control and dominate nature

7 Section 2: The Enlightenment

8 Path to the Enlightenment ◦Enlightenment was a philosophical movement Scientific Revolution  Reason was the key word for the philosophers ◦ Reason, natural law, hope, progress ◦John Locke ◦Essay Concerning Human Understanding  tabula rasa ◦Isaac Newton  “World Machine  Enlightenment thinkers

9 Ideas of the Philosophers ◦Intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known as Philosophe ◦Role of Philosophy ◦ “applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier” ◦ Use reason and facts ◦Montesquieu ◦ Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu  The Sprit of the Laws ◦Scientific Method ◦3 basic kinds of governments: ◦Three Branches ◦Separation of Powers ◦Checks and Balances  Francois-Marie Arouet – simply know as Voltaire ◦ Treatise on Toleration ◦ “all men are brothers under God” ◦ Promoted Deism  Denis Diderot ◦ Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades

10 New Social Sciences ◦Social Sciences ◦Smith on Economics  Physiocrats ◦ individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, ◦ Laissez-faire – (to let people do what they want)  Adam Smith ◦ The Wealth of Nations – the state should not interfere in economic matters  Role of government  Cesare Beccaria ◦ On Crimes and Punishment ◦ “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?”

11 The spread of Ideas ◦The social Contract  Jean-Jacques Rousseau ◦ Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind ◦ The Social Contract ◦ Emile ◦Women’s Rights  Mary Wollstonecraft ◦ A Vindication of the Rights of women ◦The Growth of Reading  18 th century growth of publishing and the reading public  Development of magazines and newspapers ◦ First daily newspaper was printed in London in 1702 ◦The Salon  Salons – drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class’s houses ◦Religion in the Enlightenment  Europeans remained devoutly Catholic  Protestant Churches developed but were weak  Methodism- John Wesley  Gave the lower and middle class

12 Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment

13 Enlightenment and Absolutism ◦Philosophes believed in Natural rights for all people:  Equality before the law  Freedom of Religious worship  Freedom of speech  Freedom of the press  Right to assemble, hold property and to pursue happiness ◦Enlightened rulers ◦Enlightened Absolutism  New type of monarch ◦ But did they really change?

14 ◦Prussia: Army Bureaucracy  Fredrick William I ◦ Highly efficient Bureaucracy ◦ Civil Servants ◦ Nobility  Fredrick William II (Fredrick the Great) ◦ Educated ◦ Voltaire ◦ Dedicated ruler ◦ Nobility ◦ Limited reforms ◦ Enlightenment reforms

15 ◦The Austrian Empire  largest and most powerful Empires  Difficult to rule  Maria Theresa ◦ Inherited the throne in 1740 ◦ Worked to control the empire  Joseph II ◦ Most of the reforms failed ◦Russian Empire  Catherine the Great ◦ Peter the Great  Six successors  Peter III ◦ Catherine II Catherine the Great ◦ Enlightenment reforms  Denis Diderot  Nobility  Rebellion led by Yemelyan Pugachov

16 The Seven Years’ War ◦Austrian Succession  Charles VI  Maria Theresa  Fredrick II of Prussia  Austrian Silesia  France - Prussia and Great Britain - Austria  The war of Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748) ◦ 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle(1748) ◦ Silesia ◦The War in Europe  Change of alliances  1756 – 1763 The Seven Years’ War: ◦ War – Europe, India and North America ◦ Silesia ◦The War in India  Great Britain and France  Treaty of Paris 1763 ◦The War in North America  British and French Colonies – Trade  French and Indian War  Treaty of Paris

17 Enlightenment and the Arts ◦Architecture  Versailles (Louis XIV)  Unique Architectural Style  Balthasar Neumann  Church of the Fourteen Saints  Palace of Prince-bishop Wurzburg ◦Art ◦ Baroque and neoclassical styles ◦ 1730’s – Rococo ◦ Rococo Style  Emphasized  Highly secular ◦ Antonie Watteau  Embarkation for Cythera ◦ Giovanni Battista Tiepolo  Fresco painting  Allegory of the Planets and Continents

18 ◦Music ◦ Johann Sebastian Bach  Mass in B Minor ◦ George Frederic Handel  Messiah ◦ Franz Joseph Hayden  The Creation and The Seasons ◦ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ◦The Marriage of Figaro ◦The Magic Flute ◦Don Giovanni ◦Literature  Henry Fielding – English writer ◦ The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling


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