2The Scope of Positive Psychology, continued Defining positive psychology and its brief historyPositive psychology – “is a social and intellectual movement within the discipline of psychology that focuses on human strengths and how people can flourish and be successful”.
3The Scope of Positive Psychology, continued History, continuedIdentified in 1998 by Martin Seligman, positive psychology serves as a counterweight to the field’s negatively-oriented history.Since WWII, psychology has adhered to the “disease model” to treat stress and disorders associated with the modern world.Seligman argues people should learn to see their lives as fulfilling, rather than stress-ridden and dysfunctional.
4The Scope of Positive Psychology, continued Reconsidering older research in light of the new positive psychologyPositive psychology does represent a turning point for the fieldHowever, many of the main ideas are similar those of humanistic psychology, which has been present since the 1950s.
5The Scope of Positive Psychology, continued Introducing positive psychology’s three lines of inquiryPositive psychology pursues three main “legs” on which the field stands:Positive subjective experiences (good moods, happiness, and love).Positive individual traits (character strengths and virtues).Positive institutions (families, schools, & supportive work environments).
6Figure 16. 1. The three legs of positive psychology Figure The three legs of positive psychology. Research in positive psychology stands on “three legs” or lines of empirical, scientific inquiry: positive subjective experiences, positive individual traits, and positive institutions.
7Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive moodsMoods are “global, pervasive responses to experiences”.Being in a good mood has several beneficial effects, includingMaking people more agreeable.Making people more helpful.Making people better decision-makers.7
8Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive moods, continuedPositive moods can promote creative solutionsIsen et al (1987) found that participants who watched a funny film were better able to solve the “candle task” (see Figure 16.2).8
9Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive moods are linked with quick thoughtsFaster thinking is associated with more positive mood, whereas slower thinking is associated with more negative mood (Pronin, Jacobs, and Wegner,2008).See Figure 16.4 for study details.Variability of thought also affects mood.Varied thoughts are associated with positive mood; repetitive thoughts are associated with negative mood.9
10Figure Results of the self-generated ideas, speed of thought, and mood experiment. Participants in the fast-thinking condition of the experiment generated more ideas in the allotted time than did their peers (see the graph on the far left). And as expected, the fast-thinkers also reported thinking faster than those in the slow-thinking group. The crucial results are shown in the two graphs on the right. As you can see, those in the fast-thinking group also reported having a more positive mood and high levels of energy than those in the slow-thinking group.Adapted from Pronin, E., & Jacobs, E. (2008). Thought speed, mood, and the experience of mental motion. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, , Figure 3.
11Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive emotionsEmotions – “are powerful, largely uncontrollable feelings, accompanied by physiological changes”.Positive emotions – “consist of pleasant responses to events that promote connections with others, including subjective states like happiness, joy, euphoria, gratitude, or contentment”.11
12Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive emotions, continued.Negative emotions – “consist of unpleasant responses to potential threats or dangers, including subjective states like sadness, disgust, anger, guilt, and fear”.Historically, negative emotions have been studied more than positive ones becauseThey are of evolutionary significance.They are part of the “fight-or-flight” response.There are so many of them.12
13Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive emotions, continuedBarbara Fredrickson developed the broaden-and-build model of positive emotions to explain how they benefit us.Positive emotionsElicit nonspecific action tendencies that lead to adaptive responses (e.g., helping people in need when we are happy).Broaden cognitive processes by promoting thought-action tendencies (e.g. children become imaginative when feeling joy).13
14Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive emotions, continued.Fredrickson an Branigan (2005) showed that joy increased participants’ thought-action tendencies (see Figure 16.5).Thus, “the broaden-and-build model proposes than positive emotions broaden people’s outlooks and then builds on subsequent learning in order to develop future emotional and intellectual resources”.14
15Figure The broadening effects of positive emotions compared to neutral or negative emotions. Experiencing an emotional state of joy or contentment led research participants to list a greater number of activities they might like to engage in at that moment in time compared to individuals experiencing a neutral or negative emotional state.Adapted from Fredrickson, B. L. (2002). Positive emotions. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press, Figure 9.2, p. 125.
16Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Positive emotions, continuedFredrickson has developed the undoing hypothesis, which posits that “positive emotions aid the mind and the body by recovering a sense of balance and flexibility following an episode experiencing negative emotion”.When stressed, positive emotions undo the aftereffects of the stressor more quickly, for example.16
17Positive Subjective Experiences, continued FlowFlow – “the state of being wherein a person becomes fully involved and engage in the present time by some interesting, challenging, and intrinsically rewarding activity”.When in this state, people becomeLess self-aware and lose all track of time.Focus all their energies and attention on an activity where skill and challenge are in balance.17
18Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Flow, continuedFinding flowAccording to Csikszentmihalyi, we find flow when engaged in activities that have the ideal balance of challenge and skill level (see Figure 16.8).Once these criteria are met, the activity becomes intrinsically rewarding, produces positive emotions, and promotes goal attainment and achievement.18
19Figure 16. 8. The revised model of flow state Figure The revised model of flow state. According to the revised model, flow is experienced when a person’s perceived challenges and skills are above the person’s average levels; when they fall below, the individual experiences apathy. The intensity of the experience increases as the distance from the person’s average levels of challenge and skills grows greater (illustrated here by the concentric rings).Adapted from Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow. New York: Basic Books.
20Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Flow, continuedDoes everyone find flow?Csikszentmihalyi finds that about 20% of respondents in American and European samples say they experience flow several times a day.Around 15% have never reported this experience.20
21Positive Subjective Experiences, continued MindfulnessMindfulness – refers “to a cultivated perspective wherein people are sensitive to context and focused on the present”.When mindful, weResist the impulse to control uncertainty.Are less prone to evaluate ourselves.Are in a more flexible state of mind.21
22Positive Subjective Experiences, continued Mindfulness, continuedWe can become more mindful byMeditating (especially if attention is directed in a nonanalytical and nonemotional way).See Figure 16.9 for a list of mindfulness qualities that can enter one’s consciousness during meditation.Experiencing natural surroundings.22
23Figure 16. 9. Some qualities associated with mindfulness meditation Figure Some qualities associated with mindfulness meditation. People who learn mindfulness meditation can expect to derive some benefits from the activity. As you can see, the qualities listed here that are associated with mindfulness meditation fit well with established themes in positive psychology.Adapted from Shapiro, S. J., Schwartz, G. E. R., & Santerre, C. (2002). Meditation and positive psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press. Table 46.1, p. 640.
24Positive Individual Traits, continued Positive individual traits “refer to dispositional qualities that account for why some people are happier and psychologically healthier than other people”.Four traits have been the focus of much study:Hope.Resilience.Gratitude.Spirituality.24
25Positive Individual Traits, continued Hope: achieving future goalsHope is “people’s expectations that their goals can be achieved in the future”.Synder argues it has two components:Agency – “a person’s judgment that his or her goals can be achieved”.Pathways – “realistic roadmaps to achieving the goal”.The Trait Hope Scale assesses each and indicates a person’s degree of hope (see Figure 16.10).25
26Figure 16. 10. Synder’s Trait Hope Scale. According to C. R Figure Synder’s Trait Hope Scale. According to C. R. Snyder, as a trait, hope has two characteristics: agency and pathways. To determine your Agency subscale score, sum items 2, 9, 10, and 12: the Pathways subscale score is derived by adding items 1, 4, 6, and 8. The total Hope Scale Score is derived by summing the four Agency and the four Pathway items. A higher total score (Agency items added to Pathways items) reflects a greater degree of hope for the future. Scores can range from 8 to 64. In six samples of college students studied by Snyder et al. (1991), the average score was 25.From Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holeran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60,
27Positive Individual Traits, continued Hope, continuedHopeful people reap many benefits:Experience more positive emotions.Expect to be better off in the future.Believe that they will be able to handle stress better.Are more likely to be flexible thinkers.Are more likely to have social support.27
28Positive Individual Traits, continued Resilience: reacting well to life’s challengesResilience – is “a person’s ability to recover and often prosper following some consequential life event”.Some people even display posttraumatic growth, or “enhanced personal strength” following trauma.While resilience helps people rebound to pre-trauma levels, posttraumatic growth actually causes enhanced functioning, post-trauma.28
29Positive Individual Traits, continued Gratitude: the power of being thankfulGratitude – “entails recognizing and concentrating on the good tings in one’s life and being thankful for them”.Psychological consequences of gratitude areEnhanced social connections with others.Extended positive affect.Feelings of joy and contentment.29
30Positive Individual Traits, continued Spirituality: seeking a deeper meaningSpiritual individuals possess a strong desire to search for the sacred and usually describe themselves as religious.However, religion (or religiosity) and spirituality are distinct concepts.Religion refers to activity in organized communities (such as churches or temples).Spirituality refers, generally, to the human need for a deeper truth or meaning.30
31Positive Individual Traits, continued Spirituality: seeking a deeper meaningReligion, continuedParticipating in a religious community appears to enhance well-being (Myers, 2000).Religious peopleHave higher levels of optimism, which is linked to well-being.Enjoy the benefits of social support from their religious community.31
32Positive Institutions, continued Positive institutions – “are those organizations that cultivate civic virtue, encouraging people to behave like good citizens while promoting the collective good”.Positive workplacesThere is a new movement known as “positive organizational behavior” (POB), dedicated to improving worker performance.
33Positive Institutions, continued Positive workplaces, continuedWrzensniewski (1997) found that workers view their occupations in one of three ways:Just a “job”.Career.Work as a “calling”.This group view their work as a means for personal fulfillment and social purpose.
34Positive Institutions, continued Positive schoolsSchool satisfaction, or “students’ judgments about their holistic school experiences” is comprised ofCognition – what students believe about their educational experiences; andAffect – students’ positive and negative emotions in educational settings.School satisfaction is a good predictor of academic progress as early as kindergarten.
35Positive Institutions, continued Positive familiesA new approach, called family-centered positive psychology (FCPP), maintains thatThe family is the constant in a child’s life.Practitioners should promote healthy family functioning.Families themselves are better at determining their needs than are professionals.
36Problems and Prospects, continued Positive psychology has been criticized on the following grounds:Some question whether its ideas are really new.Is it truly a paradigm shift?Some question whether it is merely a passing fad.
37Problems and Prospects, continued However, positive psychology will be best judged byThe research findings that are uncovered.The successful applications that emerge.
38Problems and Prospects, continued Linley and colleagues (2006) suggest its future will be brightest if positive psychology canBorrow knowledge from humanistic psychology.Examine positive phenomena by integrating knowledge from cultural, social, and neuroscience fields.Admit that its findings prescribe a certain lifestyle.
39Application: Your Own Happiness, continued Counting your blessings for a weekLook on the bright side by – literally – counting the good things that happen to you.Peterson (2006) suggests these guidelines:Limit to three a day.Write your list at the end of the day.Write down the reasons why your choices constitute good things for your life.People who do this have fewer depressive symptoms.
40Application: Your Own Happiness, continued Writing and delivering a gratitude letterExpressing gratitude to people who have helped us in life can be a very meaningful experience.To get the most out of it, you shouldWrite an actual letter (no texts or s!).Deliver it in person, if possible.Follow up with a phone call or talk to the individual in person.
41Application: Your Own Happiness, continued Sharing a story illustrating the best in youHave you ever “done the right thing” but didn’t want to brag?Let this be one of the rare times that you disclose your private good deed.You couldWrite an essay that is shared with the rest of the class.Post your story online.
42Application: Your Own Happiness, continued Sharing good news and capitalizing with othersCapitalizing – “refers to telling other people about whatever good things are happening in our own lives.Others’ reaction to our good news boosts positive emotions in us, which capitalizes on the good feelings we already have.