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Smiling Makes Us Happier: Enhancing Positive Mood and Communication with Smile- Encouraging Digital Appliances Hitomi Tsujita, Jun Rekimoto UbiComp’11.

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Presentation on theme: "Smiling Makes Us Happier: Enhancing Positive Mood and Communication with Smile- Encouraging Digital Appliances Hitomi Tsujita, Jun Rekimoto UbiComp’11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Smiling Makes Us Happier: Enhancing Positive Mood and Communication with Smile- Encouraging Digital Appliances Hitomi Tsujita, Jun Rekimoto UbiComp’11

2 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

3 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

4 Motivation William James said “We don’t laugh because we’re happy—we’re happy because we laugh.” [2] Facial movement can influence one’s emotional experience[12][13] – A person who feels compelled to smile during a social event will actually come to find the event more enjoyable In [3], participants experienced an increase in positive mood when they created positive facial expressions, and a decrease in positive mood when they created negative facial expressions – These effects were enhanced when participants viewed themselves in a mirror Designed for people who may not always realize when they are in low spirits and/or have difficulty with smiling – 31 million one-person household in the US, which amounts to 27% of all households

5 Introduction “HappinessCounter” facilitates the act of smiling in one’s daily life and thus promotes a more positive mood Providing feedback to users about their smile in combination with other tools – LED matrix display, Digital frame, twitter,….etc the system may help to improve relationships with other family member by increasing their positive mood and enhancing communication

6 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

7 Happiness Counter A digital camera, an LED matrix display, and a light sensor inside the box Attached the HappinessCounter box behind a one-way mirror It detects a user’s smile, counts the number of smiles, and records the user’s mental state Display visual feedback – “Smile” or “Sad” icon Use this system in two modes – Smile Awareness – Smile Gateway

8 Smile Awareness Provide a supportive method that encourages smiles – Put the device in a commonly used locations, such as vanity mirror or refrigerator – Combining it with some following applications Sound feedback – After the system detects a smile and displays the smile icon, the system will provide audio feedback with happy music or the user’s favorite music Send the smile picture to a digital photo frame – Automatically send it to family member’s digital picture frame and/ or – Prompt other forms of contact, such as a phone call – Children living apart from their parents can reassure their parents about their well-being without much hassle

9 Smile Awareness Display the smile results on a calendar – # of smiles per day are recorded and display on a web-based calendar application – Happy(>10) 、 Normal 、 Unhappy(<5) Post on SNS(e.g., Twitter) – “Alice laughed 20 times today!” – “Alice seems to be feeling blue.” – Compare the # of her smiles to friend – For elderly people living alone, their family members can feel more reassured

10 Smile Gateway Disallowing use of a daily appliance or piece of furniture without first smiling – Make door, refrigerator, cabinet, and TV harder to use – The system control them until the user smiles – Doesn’t make these things completely unusable, as it could make the user feel sadder or even angry – When user can’t use items easily, he will be made aware of his feelings and the fact that he is not smiling enough on his own Usage Scenario 1 Usage Scenario 2

11 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

12 Smile Awareness System Sony Cyber Shot digital camera – Built-in smile-recognition engine – Smile shutter mode LED matrix display – To show the happy or sad icon Light sensor – Detect when the system takes a picture in real time – Attach the sensor behind the camera display to monitor the brightness of the display Servo motor – Enable constant use of smile shutter mode – Smile shutter mode timed out automatically over a certain period Eye-fi card – Transmit the image wirelessly to a PC, which is then uploaded to Flickr

13 Smile Gateway System Develop a system that can control the refrigerator door using an electric magnet X10 controller is uses the power line as a means of communication – Room lights, fans, and air filters can be potentially controlled using this method

14 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

15 Field Test with a Person Living Along 39-year-old male, for 2 days Attached the HappinessCounter Box and an electric magnet to a refrigerator door number of recognized smiles -> 33 He was surprised by the number of smiles because he thought he usually did not smile that often

16 Field Test with a Couple Living Together Participant A(male, 64-year-old) Participant B(female, 62- year-old), for 10 days, rarely at home during the day because they work ouside Attached the HappinessCounter Box and an electric magnet to a refrigerator door Installed the smile calendar system so they could check how many smiles they made during the day on the web

17 Field Test with a Couple Living Together A(3.4 on av.) B(8.4 on av.) B cooked everyday, A used it for drinks On day1 and day7 – A stayed all day – A sometimes used the refrigerator intentionally like a game On day6 and day8 – They ate out Both A&B on day1 forced an artificail smile expression. By the end of trial, they made smile expression naturally

18 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

19 Discussion How did the system work for a person who lives alone? – “I tried to make more smiles than usual because I felt happy when I heard the smile sound and saw the smile icon after making a smile.” How did the system work for a couple who lives together? – They were a little surprised because they thought they had made more smiles than the number of recognized smiles – They may have smiles in the general vicinity without actually standing in front of the refrigerator – B-> ”When I felt a bit down, not in a good mood, or was busy with things to do, I stood up in front of the refrigerator and found myself trying to feel good. I then changed my feeling by making a smile and recovered my presence of mind and could continue cooking.”

20 Discussion B-> “Early in the field test, I didn’t know how I should smile and therefore made smiles intentionally. However, by making a lot of smiles in front of the refrigerator, I became used to making smiles and learned how I should make a smile. Eventually, when I stood up in front of the refrigerator, I could make smiles naturally. Therefore, I began to associate the refrigerator as a place to feel relieved.” Did the system prompt other forms of communication? – A-> “I was happy to hear the smile sound when my wife made smiles and therefore started talking to her.” – when the system failed to recognize B’s smile, A then said “I can do that instead of you.” – B-> “ when we used the system together we had fun, like a sense of playing a game together.”

21 Discussion(Other) In the field test involving a person living alone – System took a little longer to recognize the smile, and thus he had to wait before seeing the smile icon and hearing the chime – He felt a little stressed by this delay In the field test involving a couple living together – A->”I want to get feedback about how I am smiling, such as with a mirror, because I don’t know what kind of facial expression I am making now.” – Smile calendar was not used very often – Privacy issue—using the refrigerator after taking a bath

22 Discussion(Other) “Smile Awareness” and “Smile Gateway” mode – Smile gateway may not always have a positive effects on user’s mood – When users are having a bad day, they may not make smiles and the system may lead to the user feeling worse – Having the refrigerator door open automatically Potential Applications – Built-in HappinessCounter system into a digital photo frame – Using the camera on a tablet or mobile phone – PC-based interaction – Smile before entering the meeting room

23 Outline Motivation Introduction Happiness Counter Implementation Field Test Discussion Conclusion and Future Plan

24 Propose a system called “HappinessCounter”, which facilitates smiling and improves positive mood After detecting the user’s smile, it provides visual and auditory feedback Field tests were small in scale Currently, it can only detect a user’s smile in a specific location Hope to detect smiles non-intrusively, automatically, and combine the system with various potential applications


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