5 Examples of GUIs (1) The First Commercial GUI: “Xerox’s Star workstation was the first commercial implementation of the graphical user interface. The Star was introduced in 1981 and was the inspiration for the Mac and all the other GUIs that followed.”This and following screen shots are from the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia.Used with permission.
9 Topics Introduction User-Interface Design Principles User Interaction Information PresentationUser Support
10 User-Centered Design This chapter / lecture focus: Design philosophy and issuesNot on implementation of UIsUser-centered designNeeds of user are paramountUsers involved in design processDesign UI through prototypes
12 UI Design Principles Determinants: learn about system users’ Needs ExperienceCapabilitiesConstraints: physical and mental limitationsLimited short-term memory7±2 concepts in mind at one timeMistakes are normal and expectedPeople fall into habits
13 Design Principles: Overview User familiarityConsistencyMinimal surpriseRecoverabilityUser guidanceUser diversity
15 Consistency Display appropriate level of consistency Commands and menus should have sameFormat / appearanceCommand punctuationLayoutAbbreviations / keyboard shortcutsError-messagesSame styles / formats from place to placeSame location on screen when they appear
20 User Diversity Plan for different types of user Experience Casual/novice vs experiencedEase-of-use vs efficiency & speedPhysical disabilitiesPoor eyesightConfigurable font sizesBlindnessAutomated reading programsUS: Americans with Disabilities Act
21 US ADA & GUI Design Americans with Disabilities Act of 1992 Widespread implications for employment, architectural design and servicesApplies to private employers with >15 employees, state and local governments, employment agencies & labor unionsWeb designers have been grappling with requirementsResources
22 Topics Introduction User-Interface Design Principles User Interaction Information PresentationUser Support
23 User-System Interaction Key issuesInfo from user to computer system?Info from computer system to user?UI metaphor helps to make sense of functions“Desktop” for operating system“Space invaders game” for typing tutor“3D universe” for dataspace (e.g., TRON, Matrix, other sci-fi movies)
34 Natural Language Interfaces User types command in natural language.Vocabulary usually limitedConfined to specific application domains; e.g.,Timetable enquiriesMedical systemsExperienced users: too much typingSee ASK JEEVES
40 Data VisualizationConcerned with techniques for displaying large amounts of informationVisualization can reveal relationships between entities and trends in dataExamples of data visualization applications:Weather information collected from number of sourcesState of telephone network as linked set of nodesChemical plant visualized by showing pressures and temperatures in linked set of tanks and pipesModel of molecule displayed in 3 dimensionsWeb pages displayed as hyperbolic tree
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