Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Emotion"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Emotion Physiological Arousal:Comes before emotion (James-Lange theory)Comes with emotion (Cannon-Bard theory)Becomes an emotion when cognitive appraisal/label is added (Shacter-Singer two-factor theory)Emotions and the brain: Sometimes cognition is bypassed in emotional reactionsEmotions and the body: The Autonomic Nervous systemEmotions with different brain and body response patternsNo animation.
2Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition Conscious experience: Someone cuts you off on the road. You may feel the emotion of anger. Emotions are a mix of:How do these components of emotion interact and relate to each other?Do our thoughts trigger our emotions, or are they a product of our emotions?How are the bodily signs triggered?How do we decide which emotion we’re feeling?Expressive behavior:yelling, acceleratingBodily arousal:sweat, pounding heartClick to show three boxes and text on the right.Instructor, this definition of emotion may not seem to say much. However, it differentiates an emotion from a mood, which is NOT a response to a situation, and an attitude, which is a predisposition to act in a certain way in a situation. It also differentiates an emotion from one’s affect, which are the outwardly expressive signs, especially facial expression and other nonverbal behaviors, that seem to be related to emotions.Students may need a reminder that “arousal” means a wide range of energetic bodily responses, and not just sexual arousal. As we’ll review later, this arousal refers to activation of the sympathetic nervous system, including pounding heart, increased breathing, energy, sweating, etc.Conscious experience:(thoughts, especially the labeling of the emotion)What a bad driver! I am angry, even scared; better calm down.An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation.
3Theories of Emotion: The Arousal and Cognition “Chicken and Egg” Debates James-Lange Theory:body before thoughtsCannon-Bard Theory:body with thoughtsSinger-Schachter/Two- factor theory:body plus thoughts/labelZajonc, LeDoux, Lazarus:body/brain without conscious thoughtsWhich came first, the chicken or the egg? Or did they evolve together?Which happens first, the body changes that go with an emotion, or the thoughts (conscious awareness and labeling of an emotion), or do they happen together?Click to reveal bullets.
4James-Lange Theory: Body Before Thoughts William James ( ): “We feel afraid because we tremble, sorry because we cry.”The James-Lange theory states that emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli.Our body arousal happens first, and then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: “I’m angry.”According to this theory, if something makes us smile, we may then feel happy.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the last bullet is a preview of the facial feedback hypothesis presented later in this chapter under the topic of expressed emotion.The James–Lange theory is one of the earliest theories of emotion, developed independently by the William James ( ) from the United States and Carl Lange ( ) from Denmark.
5Adjusting the Cannon-Bard Theory Cannon-Bard Theory: Simultaneous Body Response and Cognitive ExperienceThe Cannon-Bard theory asserts that we have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding, not afterward.Adjusting the Cannon-Bard TheoryEmotions are not just a separate mental experience. When our body responses are blocked, emotions do not feel as intense.Our cognitions influence our emotions in many ways, including our interpretations of stimuli: “Is that a threat? Then I’m afraid.”Click to reveal bullets.Walter Cannon ( ) and Philip Bard ( ) developed their model of emotion in the first half of the 20th century.Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them.
6Schachter-Singer “Two-factor” Theory: Emotion = Body Plus a Cognitive Label The Schachter-Singer “two-factor” theory suggests that emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling.In a study by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer in 1962, subjects experienced a spillover effect when arousal was caused by injections of what turned out to be adrenaline. The subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling; the emotional label “spilled over” from others.Click to reveal bullets.Stanley Schachter ( ) and Jerome Singer (d. 2010) developed the “two-factor” theory of emotion in 1962.I face a stranger, and my heart is pounding. Is it fear? Excitement? Anger? Lust? Or did I have too much caffeine? The label completes the emotion.
7Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, and Richard Lazarus: Emotions without Awareness/Cognition Theory: some emotional reactions, especially fears, likes, and dislikes, develop in a “low road” through the brain, skipping conscious thought.In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images (above, left) without being aware of the image or their reaction.Click to reveal bullets.Richard Lazarus ( ) notes that some “top-down” cognitive functions such as threat-appraisal can be involved, but these emotional responses can still operate without conscious thought.Joseph LeDoux (b. 1949) and Robert Zajonc ( ) proposed their ideas in the second half of the 20th century.
8When Appraisal Affects Emotion Schachter and Singer highlighted the role of appraisal in labeling emotions: “this agitation is fear.”Richard Lazarus noted “top-down” cognitive appraisal of stimuli (is that a threat, or something I would enjoy?) influences emotion.No animation.
10 Emotion can include the appraisal of the stimulus such as, is it a threat or not? Theories of EmotionNo animation.Avoiding the highway today without identifying or explaining any fear is an example of the “low road” of emotion.
12Embodied Emotion: The role of the autonomic nervous system The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers activity and changes in various organs.Later, the parasympathetic division calms down the body.Click to reveal bullets and example.
13Physiological Similarities Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar.OBJECTIVE 4| Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.M. Grecco/ Stock BostonExcitement and fear involve a similarphysiological arousal.
14Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking? Cognition and EmotionWhat is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
15Embodied Emotion: How Do Emotions Differ in Body Signs? It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration.There is also a large overlap in the patterns of brain activity across emotions.There are some small differences; for example, fear triggers more amygdala activity than anger.A general brain pattern: hemispheric differencesPositive “approach” emotions (joy, love, goal-seeking) correlate with left frontal lobe activity.Negative “withdrawal” emotions (disgust, fear, anger, depression) correlate with right hemisphere activity.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the labels “approach” and “withdrawal” are not from this text, but are included here to help make sense of the correlation. The left hemisphere is good for analyzing details (up close, approaching) and the right hemisphere is good for understanding the big picture.
16Physiological Differences Physical responses, like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some physiological and brain pattern indicators of specific emotions.The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.
17Expressed and Experienced Emotion See if you can tell what emotions others are feeling, showing, and expressing about these topics:Detecting emotions in othersGender, emotion, nonverbal behaviorCulture and expressed emotionsUsing context to read emotionsAre there universally recognized emotions?Do facial expressions affect feelings?No animation.
18Emotional ExpressionAre there universal forms of emotional expression seen on human faces across all cultures?Are there differences by individual, culture, or gender in how emotions are expressed?What is the relationship between emotional expression and the inner experience of emotion?What emotion do we see in these faces and body positions?If these emotions are hard to read, is it because it’s a different culture from your own, or because it’s a performance?Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: another term for expressed emotion (the emotional signs of emotion that we can detect in others) is “affect” (pronounced with the first syllable stressed).
19Culture and Emotional Expression Facial expression such as happiness and fear are common throughout the world. (Universal language)Americans are more likely than Asians to openly display their feelings by their facial expressions.Children’s facial expressions – even those of blind children who have never seen a face– are also universal.To effectively manage emotions, people would be best advised to control their facial expressions.
20Detecting Emotion in Others People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes (“the window to the soul”) and the faces.Introverts are better at detecting emotions; extroverts have emotions that are easier to read.We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions, and even negative emotion words.Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry, as in the test below.These faces morph from fear to anger.Raise your hand when you first see anger under the red box.Click to reveal bullets. Then, when you see the red box appear, the next click starts the animation.
21Detecting Lies and Fakes Brain signs of lying:Polygraphs (detecting physiological arousal) fail sometimes at correctly identifying when people are lying.Visible signs of lying: eye blinks decrease, and other facial movements change.In which image is Paul Ekman “lying” with a fake smile? A real smile uses involuntary muscles around the eyes.Click to reveal bullets.
22Emotion-Lie Detectors Polygraphmachine commonly used in attempts to detect liesmeasures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotionperspirationcardiovascularbreathing changes
23Emotion--Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good?Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees285 will be wrongly accusedWhat about 95% accuracy?Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees (including 999 innocents)50 wrongly declared guilty1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (~2%)
24Emotion--Lie Detectors Guilty knowledge test--typically used to assess a suspect’s responses to details of a crime.
25Gender and Emotional Expression and Detection We also see some emotions as being more “male,” changing our perception of a gender-neutral face based on the emotion (below):Women seem to have greater and more complex emotional expression.Women are also more skilled at detecting emotions in others.However, this is an overgeneralization. People tend to attribute women’s emotionality to their dispositions, and attribute men’s emotions to their circumstances.Click to reveal bullets.Male or female?How about now?
26Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Females are better at reading people’s emotional cues.Women are also far more likely than men to describe themselves as empathic (identifying with others).Women also react more visibly to films displaying emotions.Women and men also differ in the emotions they express best.Women recalled being happy nearly 2/3's of the time, but they were able to spot it less than half the time when observing men.Men, however slightly surpassed women in conveying their anger.
27Culture and Emotional Expression: Are There Universally Recognized Emotions? There seem to be some universally understood facial expressions.People of various cultures agree on the emotional labels for the expressions on the faces on the right.People in other studies did have more accuracy judging emotions from their own culture.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: you can challenge students by asking them to make quicker judgments about similar images. “Which one in the first row is closer to “joy”? [left is happy, right is surprise]. Which one in the second row is “sad”? [left is sad, right is afraid]Which one in the last row is “angry”? [left is anger, right is disgust]. See if students can see the differences in the nose and eyes in the image on the right.
28Emotion Detection and Context Cues What emotions do you see below?How can you tell what emotions he is feeling?Because the faces are exactly the same, our detection of emotion must be based on context: the situation, gestures, and the tears.No animation.
29Linking Emotions and Expressive Behaviors: Facial Feedback The facial feedback effect: facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel.In one study, people whose faces were moved into smiling or frowning positions experienced a change in mood.Fake a relaxed smile, and you might feel better!It’s not just about faces. In one experiment, extending a 1) middle finger or 2) thumb while reading led to seeing characters with 1) hostility or 2) positive attitude.Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: here are some introductory comments before the bullets appear.We seem biologically ready for emotional experience (sadness) to trigger a related facial expression (drooping eyes, frown).How connected are these feelings and expressive behaviors? Does the connection work in the other direction? Will frowning make me sad?(The images from the book have labels removed. You can remind students of the bandages/rubber band placement.)Exercise you can do with students: with a box of straws, have students alternately 1) hold the end of the straw pursed in their lips only, head tipped down, and 2) hold the straw sideways in their mouths, in gritted teeth, pushed back so that lips are stretched and pushed back, head held back. In each case, ask them to think about a person 1) who lives in the room/house next door, and 2) who lives across the hall/street. Take a poll to see if people felt more negatively about 2) and more positively about 1).About the man at the top feeling happier, you can ask your students: was this because of the facial feedback effect, or because the guy at the bottom was more uncomfortable?The guy at the top, though forced into a smiling position, ended up feeling happier than the other guy.
30The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowingbrows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the facial feedback and behavior feedback phenomena, and give an example of each.Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
31The Effects of Facial Expressions When peoplemimickedexpressions ofemotion,they experiencedthose emotions.
32Analyzing EmotionAnalysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
33Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from injury and harm.
34Learning FearWe learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning and/or through observation.OBJECTIVE 14| State two ways we learn our fears.
35The Biology of FearSome fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations.OBJECTIVE 15| Discuss some of the biological components of fear.
36The Biology of Fear The amygdala plays a key role in associating various emotions,including fear,with certainsituations.
37The Biology of FearRabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to the amygdala
38AngerAnger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato B.C.).OBJECTIVE 16| Identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of openly expressing anger, and assess the catharsis hypothesis.
39Causes of AngerPeople generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
40Anger (Rage)Anger is most often evoked by events that not only are frustrating or insulting but also are interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable.Blowing off steam may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce anger.Expressing anger can actually cause more anger.
41Catharsis HypothesisVenting anger through action or fantasy ----achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”Catharsisemotional releasecatharsis hypothesis“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesOpposing Theory-- Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
42Cultural & Gender Differences Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior.Wolfgang Kaehler
43Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.
44Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.OBJECTIVE 18| Discuss some of the daily and longer-term variations in the duration of emotions.
45Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt.Courtesy of Anna Putt
46Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
47Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
48Wealth and Well-beingMany people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy temporarily.OBJECTIVE 19| Summarize the findings on the relationship between affluence and happiness.
49Wealth and Well-beingIn affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries.A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
50Does Money Buy Happiness? Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
51Experienced Emotion The Adaptation-Level Principle: Happiness is Relative to Our Prior ExperienceIf our current condition– income, grade point average, or social prestige, for example– increases, we feel an initial surge of pleasure. We then adapt to this new level of achievement, come to consider it as normal, and require something even better to give us another surge of happiness.
52Experienced Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” levelbrightness of lightsvolume of soundlevel of incomedefined by our prior experience
53Relative Deprivation Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
54HappinessPeople who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe how the feel-good do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance of research on subjective well-being.
55Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractivenessMoney
56How to be Happier1. Realize that enduring happiness doesn’t come from financial success.2. Take control of your time3. Act happy4. Seek work and leisure that engages your skills.5. Join the “movement” movement6. Give your body the sleep it wants7. Give priority to close relationships8. Focus beyond self9. Be grateful10.Nurture your spiritual self
57Close Up: Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion Opponent process theory--every initial emotional reaction triggers an opposing emotion that diminishes the intensity of the initial emotional reaction.