Presentation on theme: "Global Patterns of Urbanization. Two hundred years ago, less than 5 percent of the world’s 980 million people lived in urban communities. In 2007, the."— Presentation transcript:
Global Patterns of Urbanization
Two hundred years ago, less than 5 percent of the world’s 980 million people lived in urban communities. In 2007, the world reached a milestone - 1st time ever, more people were living in urban areas than rural ones. But what caused (and is causing) this enormous migration from the countryside to cities - the largest migration in history!
Rural to Urban Migration in Developing Countries Migration of pop first began in Britain during mid-18th century. A gradual, but direct, result of industrialization and the mechanization of agriculture caused this urban movement. Explain... This pattern of rural to urban migration has spread worldwide as industrialization has become a global phenomenon.
What are the Push vs. Pull factors
PushPush Government policies may favour urban rural areas. Rural areas of most developing countries offer a poor living. The UN estimaates 60% of Dev world’s poorest people live in rural areas. Government policies both at home and in other countries, may create problems for farmers. Swine flu impact? Subsistence farms do not provide enough food or income to support grown children
Rural poverty in Bolivia
PullPull Urban areas offer more employment opportunities, in a wider range of economic activities Provide significant economic and social empowerment for women compared to traditional lifestyles in rural areas Educational opportunities and medical care Wider range of lifestyles and opportunities, more exciting
Today...Today... Urbanization (where?) is occurring at light speeds compared to what took place in Old Core countries. What took 200 years (18th-19th centuries) has taken half a century in many of today’s developing countries. What is the result?
Creation of informal urban areas
The creation of informal urban areas like Kibera in Kenya (p.128), Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro.
Women migration... Over past 50 years, the number of women migrating to the cities has been increasing. In countries like the Philippines and Thailand more women than men are moving to urban areas.
Positives...Positives... The growth of labour-intensive industrialization and the development of service industries in cities are providing many job opportunities that did not exist in the past for women. Money earned from these new jobs gives them potential of an increased level of independence.
Downside?Downside? Many of the jobs are temporary, unsafe, poorly paid, and provide little security. Some may be sexually harassed in the workplace or even forced into prostitution.
Mega-citiesMega-cities Special urban settlements which have at least 10 million residents. 100 years ago, London was the only city in the world with a population of even five million. By 2005, there were 20 cities with more than 10 million people
London had extensive subway systems in operation before World war 1
What makes some cities desirable places to live A strong economy - ensures more available tax money for services and relief of poverty. Good government - Beneficial effects of good government can be seen at all levels of society including a fair and respected legal system and a well-educated population An active democratic process - People feel involved in making decisions that affect them everyday.
Urban changes worldwide Decentralization: The movement of people from central city areas to suburban locations. Recentralization: The movement of the population from surburban areas to the central city, after decentralization has occurred. Gentrification: The renewal of older, run-down housing in a city by people who move into such areas looking for bargains.
Changes in New Core, Near Core, Periphery Infrastructure: Facilities (e.g. transportation, power, and communication networks, sanitation systems) and institutions (e.g. education, business, banking, health) that allows a society to function. Overurbanization: Condition that results when a city’s population grows faster than the number of jobs or housing units available Squatter settlements: Areas of illegally built, makeshift housing, usually on the edge of cities in developing countries. Such areas spring up b/c the demand for cheap housing outstrips the supply
Urban problems in Old Core Countries Economic problems - the Fiscal Squeeze: The economic constraint that results when money raised through taxes is insufficient to pay for all the services that a city needs to function efficiently. Social problems - poverty How can this cycle of poverty be broken? Environmental problems - “heat island effect” p,138
Urban problems in NC, NC,FP Economic problems - many work in the informal sector of the economy ex:shoe shining, scavenging in garbage, running phone centers, gap b/w rich and poor is often huge. Brazil is a great example. p.138 Social problems - poverty, squatter settlements p.139 Environmental problems -heavily impacted by natural disasters. p.141
The Urban Future -Is there a better way Can we make our cities, in all parts of the world, better places in which to live? Looking at the situation of Bogota in Colombia (p.142), yes we can! Discuss... The way to solve Bogota’s problems was to focus on making people happier rather than making them richer.
How do you make people happier? 1. “Hot” transit -restrict the use of private automobiles and improve public transit (busways or transitways) 2. Happy spaces -when people have the chance to meet in pleasant open spaces like parks, wide sidewalks, bike paths and public squares -they feel less threatened and more trusting.
3. Equitable design -focusing on opening parks and building new parks, libraries, and community centres in poor neighbourhoods. The result was that people felt more equal. 4. Participatory government -Cities can make their citizens feel like they matter by paying more attention to them.
5. Safe streets -A happy and successful city values its people above its automobiles. Priority must be given to transit, bicycles, and pedestrians to make people feel valued 6. Encouraging crowds -Streets filled with people are safer than empty streets. The idea of planning to maximize collective personal happiness is called hedonics which is short for “happiness economics”.