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Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

2 Thinking (cognition) Thinking:  Mental activities associated with: processing understanding remembering communicating

3 Thinking Concepts:  mental groupings of similar objects or ideas examples:  truck  dog  sad

4 Concepts – formed by definition Example: shape with 3 sides

5 Concepts – formed by developing prototypes Prototype  mental image or best example

6 Thinking: Solving Problems Insight:  suddenly realize the solution to a problem  doesn’t require use of strategies  example: “getting” a joke

7 Thinking: Solving Problems We also use strategies  Algorithms: methodical step-by-step can take longer  Heuristics: simpler strategies quicker more error-prone

8 Problem Solving Obstacles Confirmation Bias  we tend to search for info that confirms our ideas  overlook contradictory info  example: communication with deceased Fixation  inability to see a problem from a new perspective

9 The Representativeness Heuristic judge likelihood of things by how well they match prototypes ignore other info

10 Representativeness Heuristic A person is short, slim, and likes to read poetry.  more likely to be a professor of classics at Ivy League university or truck driver?

11 Availability Heuristic judging likelihood of events based on how readily they come to mind (memory)  quickly comes to mind  we assume it is common sometimes true, but not always  results in errors

12 Availability Heuristic Does the letter k appear more often as the first or third letter in English usage?  examples of 1 st letter: knife, king, know think of examples quickly  examples of 3 rd letter: take, likelihood, ask harder to think of but actually more likely

13 Overconfidence tend to overestimate:  accuracy of our knowledge  our performance in tasks examples  school assignments (take longer than we expect) can also be positive  people who have more overconfidence: happier find it easier to make decisions seen as more credible

14 Framing same information, presented differently can lead us to feel differently  hearing that 10% die from a surgery vs. hearing that 90% survive risk is rated as greater when we hear 10% die  risks framed with numbers cause more fear than percentages 10 people out of 10 million will die versus.000001 will die  survey questions can be framed to support or reject viewpoints

15 Belief Perseverance stick with our beliefs even if they have been discredited example: opposing views of capital punishment  subjects were shown mixed evidence: more impressed by the study that supported their beliefs disputed the other study

16 Fear: Why do we fear the wrong things? Flying versus driving Ancestral history  (snakes, heights) Fear what we cannot control  driving we control (flying we don’t) Fear what is immediate  smokers may fear flying Fear what is most readily available in memory  dramatic tsunami (killed 300,000) vs. malaria killing similar # of children every few months

17 Language  spoken, written, signed words combined to communicate meaning 1 st birthday to high school graduation  we learn 60,000 words (10 per day)

18 Language Babbling Stage  beginning at 3 to 4 months  infant spontaneously utters various sounds  at first: unrelated to the household language can’t identify language (e.g., English, Korean)  at 10 months: household language can be identified

19 Language One-Word Stage  the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words  from about age 1 to age 2

20 Language Two-Word Stage  starts about age 2  two word statements Telegraphic Speech  early speech stage (age 2)  child speaks like a telegram “go car”; “want milk”  mostly nouns and verbs

21 Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals household language. One-word stage. Two-word, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences.

22 Language Influences  Biological brains are wired to use language  Environmental need exposure early on differences in environment influence language ability 49&page=1 49&page=1

23 Language Second language learning gets harder with age 100 90 80 70 60 50 Native3-78-1011-1517-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at arrival

24 Language Linguistic determinism (1950s)  Benjamin Lee Whorf  hypothesis that language determines the way we think Now:  “determines” is too strong…  but language influences thinking

25 Language Influences Thinking English –  more words for self-focused emotions (e.g., anger) Japanese –  more words for interpersonal emotions (e.g., sympathy)

26 Do Animals Think? Animals (especially great apes) display capacity for thinking Form concepts  monkeys learn to classify cats and dogs; different neurons respond Display Insight  fruit and long stick placed beyond reach  chimpanzee given short stick in cage  couldn’t reach fruit, gave up, suddenly used short stick to get long stick

27 Do animals exhibit language? They can comprehend and communicate  Monkeys: different alarm cries depending on predator  Whales: clicks and wails  Honeybees: dance to inform others of food source location  Dogs: interact with us; can fetch items by name

28 Do animals exhibit language? Depends on definition of language  ability to communicate through meaningful symbols? yes (apes)  expression of complex grammar? no Previously thought that animals could not:  plan, form concepts, count, use tools  show compassion  use language Animal research has found that animals CAN do all of these

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