Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 5 Customer Motivation: Needs, Emotions, and Psychographics.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 5 Customer Motivation: Needs, Emotions, and Psychographics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 5 Customer Motivation: Needs, Emotions, and Psychographics

2 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 2 Conceptual Framework Payer UserBuyer Motivation Needs Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Murray’s Psychogenic Needs Dichter’s Consumption Needs Motivation Psychographics Values Self-concept Lifestyles Motivation Emotions Types of Emotions Customer Moods Hedonic Consumption

3 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 3 The Motivation Process Drive/arousal Cognitive Autonomic (physiological) Emotive Outcome Experience of new state Satisfaction Behavior Approach or avoidance Identification of Goal-directed behavior

4 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 4 Approach/Avoidance Motives Approach motivation is the desire to attain a goal-object Avoidance motivation is the desire to protect oneself from an object

5 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 5 Facets of Motivation Needs Emotions Psychographics

6 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 6 Needs

7 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 7 Customer Needs Maslow’s need hierarchy Murray’s psychogenic needs Dichter’s consumption needs Needs identified by marketing scholars

8 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 8 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Physiological needs (hunger, thirst) Safety and security needs (security, protection) Belongingness and love needs (social needs) Esteem and ego needs (self-esteem, recognition, status) Need for self-actualization (self-development, realization)

9 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 9 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs NeedDefinitionExamples AutonomyTo be independent and free to act according to impulse; to be unattached, irresponsible; to defy convention. Impulse buying, wearing unconventional clothing DominanceTo direct the behavior of othersAggressively demanding attention in service establishments NurturanceTo give sympathy and to feed, help, and protect the needy Giving to humanitarian causes ExhibitionTo make an impression; to excite, amaze, fascinate, entertain, shock, intrigue, amuse, or entice others Wearing high-fashion clothing CognizanceTo explore, to ask questions, to seek knowledgeVisiting museums, learning about new technology and products ExpositionTo give information and explain, interpret, and lecture. Playing opinion leaders.

10 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 10 Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives MotiveExamples of Consumption Decisions Mastery over environmentKitchen appliances, power tools StatusScotch, owning a car in third-world economies RewardsCandies, gifts to oneself IndividualityGourmet foods, foreign cars, tattoos Social acceptanceCompanionship: sharing tea drinking Love and affectionGiving children toys SecurityFull drawer of neatly ironed shirts MaculinityToy guns, heavy shoes FemininityDecorating (products with heavy tactile component) EroticismSweets (to lick), gloves (to be removed by women as a form of undressing) DisalienationListening to and calling in talk shows (a desire to feel connected) Moral purity/cleanlinessWhite bread, bathing, cotton fabrics Magic-mysteryBelief in UFOs, religious rituals, crystals (having healing power), visiting Elvis Presley museum and buying related products.

11 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 11 Needs Identified by Marketing Scholars Use-situation (i.e., aversive or positive) Hedonic (i.e., pleasure seeking) consumption motive Utilitarian

12 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 12 Three Specific Needs Arousal Cognition Attribution

13 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 13 Arousal Seeking Humans have an innate need for stimulation.  Optimal level of stimulation  Level of adaptation

14 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 14 Curiosity Need for cognition  Need for knowing Tolerance for ambiguity Market mavens

15 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 15 Need for Attribution Attribution motivation  The motivation to assign causes  Internal attributions  External attributions

16 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 16 Internal vs. External Attributions Consistency Consensus Distinctiveness

17 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 17 Emotions

18 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 18 Customer Emotions Emotions have three components:  Physiological  Behavioral  Cognitive Schachter’s two-factor theory  Autonomic arousal  Cognitive interpretation Marketers can adapt or respond to customer emotions by:  Designing the stimulus  Aiding the meaning appraisal

19 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 19 Scales To Measure Plutchik’s Eight Emotions Plutchik’s emotions can be measured by rating the following triads of adjectives, each rated on, say, a five-point scale, ranging from Not at all to Very strongly. How do you feel at the moment? Fear:Threatened, frightened, intimidated Anger:Hostile, annoyed, irritated Joy:Happy, cheerful, delighted SadnessGloomy, sad, depressed Acceptance:Helped, accepted, trusting Disgust:Disgusted, offended, unpleasant Anticipation:Alert, attentive, curious Surprise:Puzzled, confused, startled

20 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. Emotions Typology: Plutchik’s Circle Remorse Disappointment Awe Submission Love Optimism Aggressiveness Contempt

21 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 21 Customer Moods Moods are simply short-lived emotions felt less intensely Marketing stimuli that can induce positive or negative moods are:  The ambiance of the store or service delivery facility  The demeanor of the salesperson  The sensory features of the product  The tone and manner of advertising  The content of the message itself from a salesperson or in the advertisement

22 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 22 Positive Moods Mood states have consequences in terms of favorable or unfavorable customer response to marketer efforts Customers have been found to:  Linger longer in positive mood environments  Recall those advertisements more that had created positive moods  Feel more positive toward brands based on advertising that created feelings of warmth

23 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 23 Brand Name Recall Brand name recall is a prerequisite for the choice of the brand Recall depends on the process by which the brand was first encoded in memory Researchers Lee and Sternthal state that two factors important in the encoding process  Brand rehearsal – how frequently and recently, the brand has been exposed in the memory as a member of a particular category  Relational elaboration - the process by which consumers link the brands to the specific categories they belong to

24 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 24 Hedonic Consumption: Seeking Emotional Value Hedonic consumption is the use of products and services that give pleasure through the senses, that help create fantasies, and that give emotional arousal  Sensory pleasure  Aesthetic pleasure  Emotional experience  Fun & enjoyment

25 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 25 Involvement  The degree of personal relevance of an object or product or service to a customer Situational involvement  the degree of interest in a specific situation or on a specific occasion Enduring involvement  The degree of interest a customer feels in a product or service on an ongoing basis Deep involvement  The relationship we develop as users with selected products and services

26 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 26 Deep Involvement Deeply involved consumers:  Are knowledgeable about the product or service and thus can act as opinion leaders  Consume a greater quantity of the product and also buy related products  Are less price sensitive for that product and are willing to spend well  Seek constant information about products and services  Want to spend more time in related activities

27 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 27 Psychographics

28 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 28 Psychographics Values Self-concept Lifestyles

29 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 29 Values Terminal values  the goals we seek in life (e.g., peace and happiness) Instrumental values  the means or behavioral standards by which we pursue these goals (e.g., honesty)

30 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 30 List of Values (LOV) Self-respect Self-fulfillment Security Sense of belonging Excitement Sense of accomplishment Fun and enjoyment Being well respected Warm relationships with others

31 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 31 Linking Product Attributes To Customer Values Customers don’t buy products or services; they buy benefits Means-end chains  Identifying the connections between product/service features and customers’ fundamental needs and values

32 Self-esteem 23 feel better about self self image self worth Family Lite 21 maintain respect of others better family ties Belonging 22 security camaraderie friendship Avoid Waste 15 doesn’t get warm Smaller Size (10 oz) 7 Filing 9 Less Alcohol 6 Bottle (shape) 5 Label (fancy) 4 Expensive (+)3 Carbonation (+)1 Accomplishment 20 get more from life Reward 16 satisfying compensation Refreshing 10 feel alert, alive Thirst-quenching 12 relieves thirst not too sour Crisp 2 Impress Others 18 successful image Sophisticated Image 17 personal status how others view me More Feminine 13 socially acceptable Quality 8 superior product product quality Socialize 19 (able to) easier to talk open to more sociable Consume Less 11 can’t drink more can sip Avoid Negatives of Alcohol 14 not too drunk not too tired Means-End Chain

33 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 33 Self-concept Actual self  What the person currently is Ideal self  What the person would like to become

34 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 34 A Scale to Measure Self-Image and Product Image 1.Rugged Delicate 2.Exciting Calm 3.Uncomfortable Comfortable 4.Dominating Submissive 5.Thrifty Indulgent 6.Pleasant Unpleasant 7.Contemporary Uncontemporary 8.Organized Unorganized 9.Rational Emotional 10.Youthful Mature 11.Formal Informal 12.Orthodox Liberal 13.Complex Simple 14.Colorless Colorful 15.Modest Vain

35 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 35 Lifestyle Lifestyles are determined by:  A customer’s personal characteristics  A customer’s personal context  A customer’s needs and emotions

36 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 36 Psychographics As AIO Profiles Psychographic profiles  Activities  Interests  Opinions Lifestyle retail brands

37 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 37 Values And Lifestyles (VALS) VALS 1 groups the entire U.S. population into nine groups, based on the identities they seek and implement via marketplace behaviors VALS 2 groups U.S. customers into eight groups based on two dimensions: self- orientation and resources

38 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 38 VALS 1: Nine Lifestyle Segments in the United States Integrated Societally Conscious Experiential I-am-me Achievers Emulators Belongers Sustainers Survivors Outer Directed Inner Directed Need Driven

39 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 39 ExperiencersFulfilleds MakersBelievers VALS 2: Eight American Lifestyles Actualizers Achievers Strivers Strugglers Principle Status Action High Resources High Innovation Low Resources Low Innovation

40 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 40 Applications of VALS The best use of VALS is in targeting marketing communications The iVALS model divides Internet users into 10 psychographic profiles  Wizards  Pioneers  Surfers  Upstreamers  Mainstreamers  Socialites  Sociables  Workers  Seekers Immigrants

41 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 41 Compulsive Buying Compulsive buying is motivated less by a desire to possess things, and more as a means of maintaining self-esteem Compulsive buyers:  Have a lower self-esteem  Are more depressed  Show a greater tendency to fantasize  Experience greater emotional lift at the time of purchase  Experience remorse in the post-purchase phase  Accumulate a much higher debt

42 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 42 Compulsive Consumption Compulsive consumers:  Experience a drive or urge to engage in a behavior  Deny harmful consequences  Face repeated failure in attempts to control that behavior

43 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 43 Materialism Three dimensions:  Acquisition centrality  Acquisition as the pursuit of happiness  Possession-defined success

44 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 44 A Scale to Measure Materialism SUCCESS SUBSCALE I admire people who own expensive homes, cares, and clothes. Some of the most important achievements in life include acquiring material possessions. I don’t place much emphasis on the amount of material objects that people own as a sign of success. The things I own say a lot about how well I’m doing in life. I like to own things that impress people. I don’t pay much attention to the material objects other people own. CENTRALITY SUBSCALE I usually buy only the things I need. I try to keep my life simple as far as possessions are concerned. The things I own aren’t all that important to to me. I enjoy spending money on things that aren’t practical. Buying things gives me a lot of pleasure. I like a lot of luxury in my life. I put less emphasis on material things than most people do. HAPPINESS SUBSCALE I have all the things I really need to enjoy life. My life would be better if I owned certain things I don’t have. I wouldn’t be any happier if I owned nicer things. I’d be happier if I could afford to buy more things. It sometimes bothers me quite a bit that I can’t afford to buy all the things I’d like.

45 CHAPTER 5 PART 2 Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective Copyright © 1999 by Thomas Southwestern. All rights reserved. 45 The Motivational Processes and the Three Customer Roles UserPayerBuyer Needs One or more needs constitute the primary purpose of product or service usage. Fear of being ripped off (security, esteem). Donors to worthy causes (esteem). Payers for gifts (esteem, social needs). Personal safety in shopping areas. Seek social interaction with salespersons and service providers. Need to protect and look to enhancing self esteem in marketplace experiences. Emotions Emotional value from products & services. Emergency expenses and involuntary expenses, cause negative emotions Debt causes grief to many payers. Spending on self and for loved ones causes positive emotions. Shopping activity is sometimes enjoyable, and, at other times, boring. Finding a deal gives a thrill. Psycho Users seek and use many products and services to live their lifestyles, to fit in with their psychographics. Being a spend thrift or a big spender, being a credit card user, accumulating debt or eager to stay debt-free are psychogrpahics. Comparison shoppers, “shop till you drop,” shoppers at late night, “shopper types.”


Download ppt "Copyright © 2002 All rights reserved. 1 CHAPTER 5 Customer Motivation: Needs, Emotions, and Psychographics."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google