2INTRODUCTIONFrom When You Can Live Twice as Long, What Will You Do? By Charles PlattWould you like never to be sad again?Will the ultimate lie detector be a bane or a blessing?Would you share another person’s total life experience?How would you act if you felt the pain of others?Do you want to measure your pleasure?
3Emotions are our body’s adaptive response. Where do emotions come from? Why do we have them? What are they made of?
4THE SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF AN EMOTION Transitory = set beginning and end; moods last longerValencePartly elicited by a cognitive appraisal of how a situation relates to your goalsAlters thought processesElicits an action tendencyPassion which happen to you
5ACTIVITYGroup A: hold a pencil or pen in your mouth just behind the front teeth; keep your lips apart, not touching the pen or penilGroup B: Hold a pencil or pen between the upper lip and nose.Fill in the evaluation sheet providedDetermine your mean rating
6Theories of EmotionEmotions are a mix of 1) physiological activation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.OBJECTIVE 1| Identify three components of emotions, and contrast James-Lange, Canon-Bard and two factor theories of emotion.
7ControversyDoes physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
8Commonsense ViewWhen you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First comes conscious awareness, then comes physiological activity.Bob Sacha
9James-Lange TheoryWilliam James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.
10Cannon-Bard TheoryWalter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory and proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously.1) Cannon suggested that body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions. 2) Physiological responses seemed too slow to trigger sudden emotions.
11Two-Factor TheoryStanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors– physical arousal and cognitive label.
12Schachter’s Two Factor Theory Transfer of excitation is explained by this theory.Physiological arousal can be attributed to emotion and can intensify emotional experience regardless of source of arousalBridge experiment/ rape (transfer between sexual and aggressive arousal/ epinephrine study
13ARE YOU SURE YOU’RE IN/OUT OF LOVE? Read the brief descriptions of behavior. How would you explain these two scenarios based on Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion?Can you think of other examples of behavior that illustrate Schachter’s theory?
14Example #1You gather your courage; you make your entrance; and, after some awkward introductions; you find a comfortable corner where you can sit and pretend to be enjoying yourself. You are making polite conversation with someone who doesn’t quite interest you when, from the other side of the room, a very attractive person of the opposite sex catches your eye.
15Example #1, contAcross the crowded room, your gazes lock; you offer each other a tentative smile. Suddenly, you find that you cannot keep your eyes off each other. Simultaneously, both of you ease yourselves free of the people you have been talking to and head toward each other. As you move toward the center of the room; you feel your heart pounding against your ribs, and you can hardly breathe. At this moment you realize you have fallen in love at first sight.
16EXAMPLE #2Kept late by a teacher, you hurry through the empty corridors for your next class. As you round a corner, you spot your beloved standing and talking with a very good-looking person of the opposite sex. The two of them are so interested in each other that they fail to notice you. You watch them laughing, talking animatedly,
17Example #2, contAnd touching each other gently as they make this point or that. You duck out of sight, but you take one quick peek just to be sure that what you suspect is right. As you see them together, you are convinced that your beloved is cheating on you with this attractive person. Your heart beats faster, you suck in air, your muscles tighten, and you feel overwhelming anger.
18EXAMPLE #2, CONT.You step out where they can see you. You shout at your beloved, “It’s all over! I couldn’t love somebody who would do this kind of thing to me!”
19Embodied EmotionWe know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).
20The Autonomic Nervous System Activity Pair off; one person is subject, the other experimenterExperimenter practice taking the pulse of the subjectExperimenter prepare data sheet; number 1 to 10 with two additional spaces marked 15 and 20Record pulse of subject on teacher’s instructions; label as base rateSubject write essay; experimenter take pulse as instructed; label as arousal rateStop writing essay, relax, exp take pulse as instructed; label as recoveryPrepare graph; X = beats per minute; Y = minutes
21Emotions and Autonomic Nervous System During an emotional experience, our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.
22Arousal and Performance Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.OBJECTIVE 3| Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.
23Physiological Similarities Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar.OBJECTIVE 4| Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.M. Grecco/ Stock BostonExcitement and fear involve a similarphysiological arousal.
24Physiological Differences Physical responses, like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some physiological and brain pattern indicators of specific emotions.The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.
25PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTIONS Differences would support the James-Lange theoryDiffering brain circuits usedPreponderance of left frontal lobe vs right frontal lobe activity: positive vs negative personalities (may be due to availability of dopamine)
26PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES Emotional intensity of those with severed spinal cordsTherefore, new support for James-Lange
27Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking? Cognition and EmotionWhat is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
28COGNITION AND EMOTIONThe involvement of cognition in the experience of emotion is support for the Cannon-Bard Theory of EmotionThe labeling of the emotion based on the cognitive appraisal is support for the Schachter Two Factor Theory
29Cognition Can Define Emotion An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event (transfer of excitation). Support: bridge experiment; rape; epinephrine/spillover experimentOBJECTIVE 6| Explain how spillover effect influences our experience of emotion.AP Photo/ Nati HarnikReuters/ CorbisArousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting.
30Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003).OBJECTIVE 7| Distinguish the two alternate pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a) or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
31COGNITION DOES NOT ALWAYS PRECEDE EMOTION Note pathway in previous slideSpeed of message enabled by directnessMay be so fast, we are unaware of what’s transpired
32Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, DartmouthCollege,
33Amygdala sends more neural projections TO the cortex than it receives back This makes it easier for our feelings to hijack our thinking than for our thinking to rule our feelingsSOME emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking
34Two Routes to EmotionZajonc (ZI-yence) and LeDoux (1984) emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer (1998) emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.
35According to Lazarus how else would we KNOW what we are reacting to APPRAISAL is the key esp for complex emotions; for example guilt
36Expressed EmotionEmotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this non-verbal language of emotion universal?
37NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Suppressing an emotion requires more mental energy and attention (may affect memory of event)We are especially good at detecting nonverbal threatsWe read fear and anger mostly from the eyes, happiness from the mouthSome people are better at thin slicing than othersExperience can sensitize us to particular emotions
38Nonverbal Communication Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through non-verbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face (Fox et al. 2000).OBJECTIVE 8| Describe some of the factors that affect our ability to decipher non-verbal cues.
39Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men.OBJECTIVE 9| Describe some gender differences in perceiving and communicating emotions.
40Gender and EmotionWomen are more likely to describe themselves as empathicGender differences in the emotions women and men express best (example: men convey anger better)
41FACIAL EXPRESSIONPyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial movementsExtrapryamidal motor system controls involuntary facial movements (Example: authentic or Duchenne smile)Dominant side of the brain for emotion: right therefore left side of face shows more emotion
42DETECTING AND COMPUTING EMOTIONS ACTIVITY Number your paper from 1 to 8Select the correct emotion for each picture from the following list. Do NOT share your responses with other group members.When finished, determine how much your group agreed on the emotions expressed in the pictures
43EMOTIONS: Deep hatred Controlled anger Sarcastic smile Fear Confusion ContemptDerisionObligatory smile
44Detecting and Computing Emotion Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the research on reading and misreading facial and behavioral indicators of emotion.Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San FranciscoWhich of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
46Hindu DanceIn classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to effectively convey 10 different emotions.Network Photographers/ Alamy
47Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the culture-specific and culturally universal aspects of emotional expression, and explain how emotional expressions can enhance survival.Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese andCaucasian Facial Expression of Emotion
48CULTURE AND EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION Children’s, even blind children’s, facial expressions are universalSmiles are a social phenomenaCultures do differ in how much emotion they express
49Emotions are AdaptiveDarwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.Charles Darwin ( )
50Analyzing EmotionAnalysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
51The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowingbrows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the facial feedback and behavior feedback phenomena, and give an example of each.Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/The New York Times PicturesAttaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
52EFFECTS OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS Facial feedback effect (more broadly: behavior feedback) – describeWhat emotion theory does this effect support?How does this effect relate to empathy?
53Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt,shame, and guilt.Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksTom McCarthy/ RainbowOBJECTIVE 13| Name the 10 basic emotions, and describe two dimensions psychologists use to differentiate emotions.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Nancy Brown/ The Image BankMarc Grimberg/ The Image BankMichael Newman/ PhotoEdit
54EXPERIENCED EMOTIONComplete Self-Rating Index based on Plutchik’s eight basic emotions. These differ from Izard’s and others’ listsConvert your score for each question based on the key at the bottom of the scoring sheet.Circle all appropriate categories.Add each category and compute percentages
56People generally divide emotions into Dimensions of EmotionPeople generally divide emotions intotwo dimensions.
57Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us frominjury and harm.
58Learning FearWe learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning (name researcher?)and/or through observation (name researcher?).OBJECTIVE 14| State two ways we learn our fears.Watson ( )By Monika Suteski
59The Biology of FearSome fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations.OBJECTIVE 15| Discuss some of the biological components of fear.Courtesy of National Geographic Magazine and Laboratory of Neuro Imaging(LONI) at UCLA. Art and brain modeling by Amanda Hammond, JacopoAnnese, and Authur Toga, LONI; spider art by Joon-Hyuck Kim
60AngerAnger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato B.C.).OBJECTIVE 16| Identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of openly expressing anger, and assess the catharsis hypothesis.
61Causes of AngerPeople generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
62Catharsis HypothesisVenting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” Freud developed idea of catharsisExpressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
63Cultural & Gender Differences Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends (tend and befriend) or listen to music.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior (individualist) than in cultures that do promote group behavior (collectivist).Wolfgang Kaehler
64HappinessPeople who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe how the feel-good do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance of research on subjective well-being.
65Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others = altruism.
66Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
67Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.OBJECTIVE 18| Discuss some of the daily and longer-term variations in the duration of emotions.
68Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt.Courtesy of Anna Putt
69EMOTIONAL UPS AND DOWNS EVEN TRAGEDY IS NOT PERMANENTLY DEPRESSINGWE OVERESTIMATE THE DURATION OF EMOTIONS AND UNDERESTIMATE OUR CAPACITY TO ADAPT.
70Wealth and Well-beingMany people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy temporarily.OBJECTIVE 19| Summarize the findings on the relationship between affluence and happiness.
71Wealth and Well-beingIn affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries.A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
72Does Money Buy Happiness? Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
74Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
75Values & Life Satisfaction Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.
76Happiness & Prior Experience Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has a short half-life” (Ryan, 1999).OBJECTIVE 20| Contrast the effects on happiness of the adaptation-level and the relative-deprivation principles.
77Happiness & Others’ Attainments Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.Can you give some specific examples of relative deprivation?
78Predictors of Happiness Why are some people generally more happy than others?OBJECTIVE 21| Summarize the ways that we can influence our own levels of happiness.
79iClicker Questions for Psychology, 8th Edition by David G. MyersKarla Gingerich, Colorado State UniversityChapter 13: Emotion
80Which theory would suggest that you experience the emotion of anger at the same time that your heart begins to beat rapidly?A. James-Lange theoryB. Cannon-Bard theoryC. two-factor theoryD. adaptation-level phenomenon
81If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the:A. relative deprivation principle.B. adaptation-level principle.C. catharsis hypothesis.D. two-factor theory.
82When Mr. Morgan began to misinterpret his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the:A. catharsis hypothesis.B. James-Lange theory.C. adaptation-level theory.D. two-factor theory.
83Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest Julie will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. Her performance is likely to be ________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is ________.A. best; very lowB. best; very highC. best; moderateD. worst; moderate
84In Chinese literature, laughing a great “Ho-Ho” sound indicates: A. anger.B. happiness.C. disgust.D. surprise.
85President Richard Nixon publicly made the “A-OK” sign in Brazil without knowing that in Brazilian culture his gesture meant:A. “Good luck!”B. “I’m hungry.”C. “I feel sick.”D. “Let’s have sex.”
86After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:A. two-factor theory.B. feel-good, do-good phenomenon.C. James-Lange theory.D. relative deprivation principle.
87After the excitement of her promotion wore off, Karen started to dream about her next promotion and raise. This illustrates:A. the Cannon-Bard principle.B. the adaptation-level phenomenon.C. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.D. Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer’s theory.
89We have all heard about a lie detector or polygraph We have all heard about a lie detector or polygraph. You have taken a lie detector test because your boss thinks someone is stealing from the office. You are innocent, but unfortunately, you are informed that you have “failed” the polygraph test. Which of the following is NOT true about these tests?A. A polygraph cannot really detect the difference between arousal caused by anxiety and that caused by lying.B. Polygraph tests can easily be fooled.C. People who pass lie detector tests are innocent, but those who fail are not necessarily guilty.D. While widely used by police and government agencies, polygraphs often fail to identify the guilty.
90Emotions are often reflected in our facial expressions Emotions are often reflected in our facial expressions. Which of the following has been demonstrated about the universality of facial expressions?A. In almost all cultures, people use similar facial expressions to indicate similar emotions.B. Emotional intensity is expressed in the same way in almost all cultures.C. Blind children do not have accurate facial expressions.D. Polygraphs are more accurate in some cultures than in others.
91Which of the following best illustrates the facial feedback effect? A. Josephine finds that people like her better when she smiles.B. Conner notices that whenever he gets angry, he gets a mild headache.C. When Gabriel holds a pencil in his mouth, he feels happier.D. After eating a satisfying meal, Danielle is in a better mood.
92Research has supported the notion that: A. younger people are happier than older people.B. highly educated people are happier than poorly educated people.C. physically attractive people are happier than physically unattractive people.D. people who have meaningful religious faith are happier than those who do not.
93You have an aching tooth You have an aching tooth. You know that you need to visit a dentist, but you keep putting it off. In fact, you’ve already cancelled one appointment that you made. A psychologist would say that you are experiencing:A. an approach-approach conflict.B. an approach-avoidance conflict.C. an avoidance-avoidance conflict.D. an avoidance-approach-avoidance conflict.
94You’ve been asked to design a wellness and stress reduction program for the employees of a fast-paced investment firm. This is particularly challenging because many employees work long hours and rarely take breaks. Which of the following might NOT be a good strategy for this group?A. Develop a 45-minute exercise class that employees attend during the day.B. Develop a system of relaxation exercises that can be done at their desks.C. Have short brown-bag lunch meetings to allow people to connect with fellow employees.D. Hand out relaxation and stress information in the form of brochures.
95Which of the following might be a predictable outcome of stress according to Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome?A. Your teacher gives a surprise quiz; your heart pounds and you feel a bit nauseated.B. You always seem to catch a cold during final exam week, when you need to study the most.C. You are able to remain alert and in control as you help a family member through weeks of serious illness.D. All of these could be predicted by the General Adaptation Syndrome.