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2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Ages and Stages 4. Intimacy 5. Generativity 6. Closing Thoughts.

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Presentation on theme: "2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Ages and Stages 4. Intimacy 5. Generativity 6. Closing Thoughts."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Ages and Stages 4. Intimacy 5. Generativity 6. Closing Thoughts

3 Introduction 3 Video: Topic 22

4 Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. Most middle-aged men experience a midlife crisis that provokes radical reexamination of their lives and leads to change. 2. The longer a couple have been married, the happier they are. 3. Divorce in middle adulthood is generally easier to cope with than divorce earlier or later in life. 4. As people near retirement, the extrinsic rewards associated with their jobs become more important than the intrinsic rewards. 4

5 The Social Clock How do adults transition from one stage to another in adulthood? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 5 Source: Maslow, Self-actualization Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential 1. Physiology Need to satisfy hunger and thirst 2. Safety Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable 3. Love and belonging Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation 4. Success and esteem Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others

6 6 The Social Clock Video: Life Stages/Life Review: Developmental Tasks: Middle Adulthood

7 Imaginative, curious, artistic, creative, open to new experiences Openness ConscientiousnessExtroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Personality through Adulthood What are the clusters of personality traits in the Big Five? Openness 7 Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood. The degree to which one is…

8 Organized, deliberate, conforming, self-disciplined Openness ConscientiousnessExtroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Personality through Adulthood What are the clusters of personality traits in the Big Five? Conscientiousness 8 Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood. The degree to which one is…

9 Openness ConscientiousnessExtroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Personality through Adulthood What are the clusters of personality traits in the Big Five? Extroversion Outgoing, assertive, active 9 The degree to which one is… Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood.

10 Kind, helpful, easygoing, generous Openness ConscientiousnessExtroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Personality through Adulthood What are the clusters of personality traits in the Big Five? Agreeableness 10 The degree to which one is… Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood.

11 Anxious, moody, self-punishing, critical Openness ConscientiousnessExtroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Personality through Adulthood What are the clusters of personality traits in the Big Five? Neuroticism 11 The degree to which one is… Big Five: The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout adulthood.

12 Marriage empty nest: The time in the lives of parents when their children have left the family home to pursue their own lives. What are typical stages in a marriage with children? Marital Happiness over the Years 12 Interval After WeddingCharacterization Honeymoon period—happiest of all Happiness dips; divorce is common; usual time for birth of first child Happiness holds steady Happiness dips as children reach puberty Happiness rises when children leave the nest Happiness is high and steady, barring serious health problems First 6 months 6 months to 5 years 5 to 10 years 10 to 20 years 20 to 30 years 30 to 50 years

13 13 Marriage Video: Parenthood in Middle Age

14 14 Marriage Video: Marriage in Middle Age

15 Before marriage Divorced parents Either partner under age 21 Family opposed Cohabitation before marriage Previous divorce of either partner Large discrepancy in age, background, interests, values (heterogamy) During marriage After marriage Divergent plans and practices regarding childbearing and child rearing Financial stress, unemployment Substance abuse Communication difficulties Lack of time together Emotional or physical abuse Relatives who do not support the relationship High divorce rate in cohort Weak religious values Laws that make divorce easier Approval of remarriage Acceptance of single parenthood Divorce What factors make divorce more likely? 15

16 Family Bonds What kinds of relationships did the subjects of a study report they had with their adult children? Amicable Close relationship with adult child Gets along well High communication Detached Distant relationship with adult child Low on communication Disharmonious Conflict in relationship with adult child Critical Arguing Ambivalent Both close and critical relationships with adult child High on communication familism: The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom and success, if necessary, in order to preserve family unity. 16

17 Caring for biological children Labor-intensive expression of generativity Transformative experience with more costs than benefits when children are young (Umberson et al., 2010) Caregiving nonbiological children About 1/3 of all North American adults become stepparents, adoptive parents, or foster parents Caregiving aged parents The “Sandwich Generation” is the generation of middle-aged people who are supposedly squeezed by the needs of the younger and older members of their families. kinkeeper: A caregiver who takes responsibility for maintaining communication among family members. 17 Caregiving

18 18 Caregiving Video: Caregivers Between Generations: What is the “Sandwich Generation”?

19 19 Caregiving Video: Caregivers Between Generations: Danielle, Personal Experiences of Caregiving

20 20 Caregiving Video: Caregivers Between Generations: Pandy, Personal Experiences of Caregiving

21 Employment As people get older, intrinsic rewards, rather than extrinsic rewards may take on greater value 21 intrinsic rewards of work: The intangible gratifications (e.g., job satisfaction, self- esteem, pride) that come from within oneself as a result of doing a job. extrinsic rewards of work: The tangible benefits, usually in the form of compensation (e.g., salary, health insurance, pension), that one receives for doing a job.

22 Closing Thoughts If you were in a debate about the effects of the social clock during middle adulthood—that is, the prescribed timetable for marriage, parenthood, and the like—how would you support an argument that there is not one clock that reflects the experience of the middle adult years? 22

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