4ControversyDoes physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
5Does your heart poundbecause you are afraid...or are you afraidbecause you feelyour heart pounding?
6Commonsense ViewWhen you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First comes conscious awareness, then comes physiological activity.Bob Sacha
7James-Lange TheoryWilliam James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.
8Cannon-Bard TheoryWalter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory and proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously.1) Cannon suggested that body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions. 2) Physiological responses seemed too slow to trigger sudden emotions.
9Two-Factor TheoryStanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label.
11Cognition and Emotion Must cognition precede emotion? Some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking.
12Embodied EmotionWe know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).
13Cognition and EmotionThe brain’s shortcut for emotions
15Two Dimensions of Emotion PositivevalenceNegativeHigharousalLowpleasantrelaxationjoysadnessfearanger
16Emotion and Physiology Autonomic Nervous System– controls our arousal.Epinephrine--a hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency.
17Emotions and Autonomic Nervous System During an emotional experience, our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us.OBJECTIVE 2| Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.
18Arousal and Performance Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.OBJECTIVE 3| Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.
19Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks
20Physiological Similarities Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar.OBJECTIVE 4| Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.M. Grecco/ Stock BostonExcitement and fear involve a similarphysiological arousal.
21Physiological Differences Physical responses, like finger temperature and movement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage, and joy.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some physiological and brain pattern indicators of specific emotions.The amygdala shows differences in activation during the emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the left hemisphere (happy) is different from the right (depressed) for emotions.
22Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking? Cognition and EmotionWhat is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
23Cognition Can Define Emotion An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event.OBJECTIVE 6| Explain how spillover effect influences our experience of emotion.Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting.
24Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003).OBJECTIVE 7| Distinguish the two alternate pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a) or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
25Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).
26Emotion-Lie Detectors Polygraphmachine commonly used in attempts to detect liesmeasures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotionperspirationcardiovascularbreathing changes
30Emotion--Lie Detectors PercentageInnocentpeopleGuilty8070605040302010Judged innocent by polygraphJudged guilty by polygraph50 Innocents50 Thieves1/3 of innocent declared guilty1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)
31Emotion--Lie Detectors Is 70% accuracy good?Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees285 will be wrongly accusedWhat about 95% accuracy?Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guiltytest all employees (including 999 innocents)50 wrongly declared guilty1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (~2%)
32Emotion--Lie Detectors Guilty knowledge test--typically used to assess a suspect’s responses to details of a crime.
33Expressed EmotionEmotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this non-verbal language of emotion universal?
34Nonverbal Communication Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through non-verbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face (Fox et al. 2000).OBJECTIVE 8| Describe some of the factors that affect our ability to decipher non-verbal cues.
35Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men.OBJECTIVE 9| Describe some gender differences in perceiving and communicating emotions.
36Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Females are better at reading people’s emotional cues.Women are also far more likely than men to describe themselves as empathic (identifying with others).Women also react more visibly to films displaying emotions.Women and men also differ in the emotions they express best.Women recalled being happy nearly 2/3's of the time, but they were able to spot it less than half the time when observing men.Men, however slightly surpassed women in conveying their anger.
37Detecting and Computing Emotion Psychologists are now linkingvarious emotions with specific facialmuscles (Paul Ekman)We don’t do well using our intuition to determine if someone is lying (50% of the time we guess right). When people aren’t seeking to deceive us, we do much better.Our brains are amazing emotion detectors.Computers outperformed human non-experts, with 91% accuracy in recognizing six facial expressions.communication. Problems??? :) :-(
38Detecting and Computing Emotion Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the research on reading and misreading facial and behavioral indicators of emotion.Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San FranciscoWhich of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
39Hindu DanceIn classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to effectively convey 10 different emotions.Network Photographers/ Alamy
40Culture and Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss the culture-specific and culturally universal aspects of emotional expression, and explain how emotional expressions can enhance survival.
41Emotions are AdaptiveDarwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.Charles Darwin ( )
42Analyzing EmotionAnalysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
43Culture and Emotional Expression Facial expression such as happiness and fear are common throughout the world. (Universal language)Americans are more likely than Asians to openly display their feelings by their facial expressions.Children’s facial expressions – even those of blind children who have never seen a face– are also universal.To effectively manage emotions, people would be best advised to control their facial expressions.
45The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowingbrows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the facial feedback and behavior feedback phenomena, and give an example of each.Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
46The Effects of Facial Expressions When peoplemimickedexpressions ofemotion,they experiencedthose emotions.
47Experienced Emotion Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt,Shame, and guilt.Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksTom McCarthy/ RainbowOBJECTIVE 13| Name the 10 basic emotions, and describe two dimensions psychologists use to differentiate emotions.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Nancy Brown/ The Image BankMarc Grimberg/ The Image BankMichael Newman/ PhotoEdit
49Emotion and Facial Expressions Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expressionFacial expressions are innate and “hard-wired”Innate facial expressions the same across many culturesDisplay rules—social and cultural rules that regulate emotional expression, especially facial expressions.
50Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from injury and harm.
51Learning FearWe learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning and/or through observation.OBJECTIVE 14| State two ways we learn our fears.
52The Biology of FearSome fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations.OBJECTIVE 15| Discuss some of the biological components of fear.
60AngerAnger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato B.C.).OBJECTIVE 16| Identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of openly expressing anger, and assess the catharsis hypothesis.
61Causes of AngerPeople generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
62Anger (Rage)Anger is most often evoked by events that not only are frustrating or insulting but also are interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable.Blowing off steam may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce anger.Expressing anger can actually cause more anger.
63Catharsis HypothesisVenting anger through action or fantasy ----achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”Catharsisemotional releasecatharsis hypothesis“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesOpposing Theory-- Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
65Cultural & Gender Differences Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior.Wolfgang Kaehler
66Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.
67Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.OBJECTIVE 18| Discuss some of the daily and longer-term variations in the duration of emotions.
68Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt.Courtesy of Anna Putt
69Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
70Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
71Wealth and Well-beingMany people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy temporarily.OBJECTIVE 19| Summarize the findings on the relationship between affluence and happiness.
72Wealth and Well-beingIn affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries.A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
73Does Money Buy Happiness? Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
74Experienced Emotion The Adaptation-Level Principle: Happiness is Relative to Our Prior ExperienceIf our current condition– income, grade point average, or social prestige, for example– increases, we feel an initial surge of pleasure. We then adapt to this new level of achievement, come to consider it as normal, and require something even better to give us another surge of happiness.
75Experienced Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” levelbrightness of lightsvolume of soundlevel of incomedefined by our prior experience
76Relative Deprivation Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
77HappinessPeople who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe how the feel-good do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance of research on subjective well-being.
78Happiness is... However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractivenessMoney
79How to be Happier1. Realize that enduring happiness doesn’t come from financial success.2. Take control of your time3. Act happy4. Seek work and leisure that engages your skills.5. Join the “movement” movement6. Give your body the sleep it wants7. Give priority to close relationships8. Focus beyond self9. Be grateful10.Nurture your spiritual self
80Close Up: Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion Opponent process theory--every initial emotional reaction triggers an opposing emotion that diminishes the intensity of the initial emotional reaction.