Presentation on theme: "Sport, Health, Religion, Social and Faithful Capital and the Big Society Mike Collins Centre for Sport, Spirituality & Religion, University of Gloucestershire,"— Presentation transcript:
Sport, Health, Religion, Social and Faithful Capital and the Big Society Mike Collins Centre for Sport, Spirituality & Religion, University of Gloucestershire, UK Marjons 11 July 2013
Sport & Muscular Christianity – then and now Health of mind & body, manliness, leadership, fairness/high moral code (Mangan, 1981) spread to Empire & armed forces (Watson, Weir & Friend, 2005)
Sport Doubled 1885-2003, nearly 2% of Value added & consumer spend But still an age gap and especially an income/class one New Labour ‘sport for good’, ConDems ‘sport for sport’s sake’ Gove’s Edwardian model of competition, ignoring those who don’t want team games and contests, and many girls (Collins, forthcoming)
Sport Clinging on to small Olympic surge in participation among youth( Sport England, Active People 6-7) Physical and mental health benefits/wellbeing indisputable, valued at £19-23,000pa (Downward & Rasciute, 2011) Sport not a religion, but strongly linked (Watson & Parker, 2013) small growth in UK (Collins & Parker 2009) ; in USA in thrall to professional sport –‘sportianity’ (Hoffman, 2010)
Religion belief /attendance (Brierley,2011) ( 1) a church members who rarely attends, maybe at Christmas (2) those calling themselves Christian but never attending church and making no effort to follow the Christian ethic YearBelief in Christian GodNon-belief in Christian God Total % Regular attendersNon-regular attendersTotal % Other religions % Non- Religious % Not church members % Active church members % Nominal (1) church members % Notional (2) Christians % colABCDEFGH 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020est 77 75 72 70 68 3322233222 8754387543 9887698876 57 23 25 28 30 32 4567845678 19 20 22 23 24 2008 BSA belief 48----52646
Religion & wellbeing Nominal/fuzzy Christians (Voas,2009) wellbeing- healthier lifestyles, happier (George et al, 2000; Francis, 2011) More involved as volunteers Decline slowed,34% of churches grew 1998- 2005, ‘fresh expressions’ (Brierley,2006, 2011) No decent surveys of sport & church regionally or nationally
Social capital Bonding (superglue), bridging (WD40), linking associational decline in US (Putnam 2000), but stable in Britain (Hall,1998, Warde et al, 2003, Li, et al, 2003) except for lower SE?, still growing Nordic (Rothstein, 2001) Sport good at bonding varies by area, works through organisations (NSOs, clubs),integrates youth (Crabbe, 2008) develops new nations (Coalter, 2011), takes time to build and easily destroyed (Collins, 2007) Religious/Faithful Capital (Furbey et al 2006; Baker & Miles Watson, 2010) to cities ( eg CULF, 2006)- volunteers & buildings (incl. mosques), but not money, & suspected by politicians
Wellbeing/sport/leisure ‘ the most important reasons why leisure is important for psychology is that it is a major source of joy, happiness and other aspects of well-being.’ ( Argyle et al,1996:6) – ‘flow’ in performance (Csikszmentmihalyi, 1975) Health & inequality closely linked - Spirit level (Wilkinson & Prickett, 2009 ) globally & UK Happiness=personal resilience +external locus of control, including state (Haworth & Hart, 2007) Not riches- well-being levels off at $20,000 household income (Layard, 2005)
National Well being (ONS, 2012) Measures now include 4x30 mins moderate intensity sport in last month (Sp Eng, Active people); and cultural activity at least 3 times in last year (DCMS,Taking Part) (Self & Randall, 2013)
Cameron’s Big Society Social action by Burke’s ‘small platoons’; localism; support civil sector via BS Bank Criticised as: vague; inseparable from ConDem ideology; difficult when cuts require more volunteers just to keep things going; no-for profit sector not offered resources; lead to ‘differently served’ areas (Lampard, 2011); ignores local difference (Ransome,2011), especially skewed against, N rural areas in S (Mohan, 2012) ‘churches are the obvious place for revived localism, yet their potential remains locked behind regulatory clutter [like the Disability Discrimination Act] and spiraling costs’ that are not recognized or helped by government (Simon Jenkins, Guardian Comment 22 April 2011:37)
Sport & the Big Society Not able to help much (Such 2013), because: already stretched (Nichols, Taylor & Jeanes, 2011) one-third of clubs uninterested in helping as government agents (May, Harris & Collins, 2013) participation & volunteering are falling, amongst the vulnerable - women, ethnic groups, poorer households, disabled people (Active People/Taking Part) Already evidence of rich-poor gap & differently served communities (Rowan Williams Guardian 1 February 2011:19)
References 1 Argyle, M., M. Martin, & J. Crossland. (1989) Happiness as a function of personality & social encounters 189-203 in eds J. P. Forgas & J.M. Innes Recent advances in social psychology, North Holland: Elsevier. Baker, C. & Miles-Watson, J. (2010) Faithful & traditional capitals: defining the scope of spiritual and religious capitals: a literature review Implicit Religion 13.1 17-69 Brierley, P. (2006) Pulling out of the nosedive: What the 2005 English Church Census reveals London: Christian Research Brierley, P. (2011) Nominal Christians, a note attached to Future First newsletter 18, Dec Collins, M.F. (2007) Leisure studies and the social capital discourse pp155-66 in Collins, M, Holmes, K. and Slater (eds) Sport Leisure culture and social capital: discourse and practice Leisure Studies Association publication 100 Eastbourne: University of Brighton Collins, M.F. and A. Parker, A. (2009) Faith and sport revival in Britain: Muscular Christianity and beyond. Special issue Sport & Religion, Stadion 36: 195-212 Coalter, F. (2011) Sport, conflict & youth development, Report for Comic Relief. Stirling, University Department of Sports Studies Commission on Urban Life & Faith (2006) Faithful Cities: A call for celebration, vision and justice, London: Church House Publishing/Methodist Publishing House Csikszmentmihalyi, M. (1975) Flow: The psychology of happiness, London: Rider.
References 2 Crabbe, T. (2008) Avoiding the numbers game: Social theory, policy & sport’s role in the art of relationship building 21-37 in Sport & social capital, eds. M. Nicholson &R. Hoye, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Downward, P. and Rasciute, S. (2011) Does sport make you happy? An analysis of wellbeing derived from sports participation, International Review of Applied Economics 25,3 331-48 Francis, L.J. (2011) Religion & happiness: Perspectives from the psychology of religion, positive psychology & empirical theology, 113-24 in Practices of happiness: Political economy, religion & wellbeing eds. J. Atherton, E. Graham & I. Steedman London: Routledge Furbey, R. et al. (2006) Faith as social capital: Connecting or dividing? Bristol: Policy Press George, L. K., Larson, D. B, Koenig, H. G. & McCullough, M. E. (2000) Spirituality & health: What we know, what we need to know, Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology,19.1,103-15 Hall, P. A. (1999) Social capital in Britain, British Journal of Politics 29:417-61 Haworth, J. T. and G. Hart (eds. 2007) Wellbeing: Individual, community & social perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan Hoffman, S.J. (2010) Good Game: Christianity &the culture of sports Waco,TX: Baylor UP Layard, R. (2005) Happiness: Lessons from a new science, London: Allen Lane Lampard, R. (2011) What is the Big society, & how should churches respond? report to Methodist Conference, Liverpool, Agenda 137-53 oresonline.org.uk/7/3/li.html
References 3 Li, Y., Savage, M. Tampbulon, G. Warde, A. & Tomlinson, M. (2003) Dynamics of social capital: Trends & turnover in associational membership in England & Wales 1972-99, Sociological Research Online at www.soresonline.org.uk/7/3/li.htmlwww.soresonline.org.uk/7/3/li.html May, T., Harris S. & Collins, M. (2013) Implementing community sports policy; Understanding the variety of voluntary club types, International Journal of Sports Policy & Politics Mangan, J. A. (1998) The Games Ethic & Imperialism: Aspects of the Diffusion of an Ideal, London: Frank Cass Mohan, J. (2012) Commentary: Geographical foundations of the Big Society Environment and Planning A 44, 1121-9 Nichols, G., Taylor P. & Jeanes, R. (2011) Youth sport volunteers: The potential and challenges of the Big Society, Paper to Leisure Studies Association conference Southampton Office of National Statistics (2012) Measuring national wellbeing: Measuring what matters, London: ONS Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling alone: the collapse &revival of American community, New York: Simon & Schuster Ransome, P. (2011) The Big Society: Fact or fiction? Sociological Research Online 16(2)18 http://socresonline.org.uk16/2/18.html>10.5153/sro.2383 downloaded 12.9.2011
References 4 Rothstein, B. (2001) Social capital in the Social Democratic welfare state, Politics & Society 29,2: 207-41 Self, A. & Randall, C. (2013) Measuring national wellbeing- Review of domains & measures 2013 London: ONS Such, E. (2013) Little leisure in the Big Society Leisure Studies 32,1 89-107 Voas, D. (2009) The rise and fall of fuzzy fidelity in Europe, European Sociological Review 25,2: 155-68 Warde, A., et al (2003) Trends in social capital: Memberships of associations in Great Britain 1991-98, British Journal of Social Policy 33:525-34 Watson, N., Weir, S. and Friend, S. (2005) Development of muscular Christianity in Victorian Britain & beyond Jnl of Religion & Society 8, 35-50 Watson, N. & Parker, A.(eds,2013) Sports & Christianity: Historical & Contemporary issues London Routledge Wilkinson, R. G. & K. Prickett (2009) The spirit level: Why more equal societies nearly always do better? London: Allan Lane/Penguin Thank You!