Messinger4 Questions How might positive emotion and its expression affect life outcomes? Describe how expressed emotion relates to –Adolescent behavior problems –The course of grieving in widows –Life outcome in college women What is a functionalist emotion theory? What is emotion regulation?
Messinger5 Positive Emotion The Broaden and Build Hypothesis –Positive emotion perceptual and cognitive expansion Frederickson (1998) “ positive emotions build personal resources by fostering creative thinking, the readiness to take advantage of opportunities, the strengthening of social bonds, and the undoing of negative emotions.” Harker et al., 2001
Cohn, Fredrickson, Brown, Mikels & Conway (2009) Happiness Unpacked: Positive Emotions Increase Life Satisfaction by Building Resilience Kolnik
Positive emotion → ego resilience → positive emotion Kolnik “People who are happier achieve better life outcomes” –Broaden-and-Build Theory of positive emotion Broaden range of thoughts and actions Build resources for resilience Ego resilience: “an individual’s ability to adapt to changing environments” 120 students (mean =19 years) followed for 1 month –Daily emotions: daily online diary submission 18 emotions; 5-point Likert scale Negative (NE) and positive (PE) subscales –Ego resilience: 14 self-reported Likert-scale items –Life satisfaction: 5 self-reported Likert-scale items –Positive emotion (PE) more implicate d in theory than life satisfacti on
Findings Kolnik Positive (but not negative) emotions predict increases in ego resilience and life satisfaction Positive emotions (but not life satisfaction) partially mediate the relation between initial and final ego resilience scores Indirect effect is significant for positive emotion; not sig for life satisfaction (p >.15) T 1 Resilience T 2 Resilience Positive Emotion β =.74, p <.001 β =.22, p =.001 β =.09, p <.01
Findings Kolnik Increases in ego resilience are responsible for the relation between PE and increased life satisfaction NE does not reduce the effects of PE –When PE is greater, NE is worse predictor of resilience –When NE is greater, PE is better predictor of resilience Are rising levels of PE necessary? –No! Absolute levels matter more PE Increase in Satisfaction Δ Resilience β =.15, p =.03 β 1 =.08, p =.22 Negative: β 1 =.03, p >.15; no significant indirect effect Positive: β 1 =.09, p <.01; significant indirect effect T 1 Resilience T 2 Resilience PE β =.27*** NE β =.-.17** Δ PE Increase in Satisfaction Increase in Resilience Aggregate PE
Importance Kolnik Support for broaden-and-build theory –PE → resilience growth → life satisfaction –PE better predictor than life satisfaction –More resource building associated with PE Positive emotion different from lack of negative emotion –PE predict growth in resilience and satisfaction –PE at high levels buffer against effects of NE –NE only predict growth in resilience Aggregate levels of PE more important for prediction than change in PE –B-and-b theory suggests people respond to common experiences, not exceptional changes in emotion –BUT day-to-day diaries better than global “satisfaction” rating
Messinger14 Facial expressions and outcomes Facial expressions –Convey emotion and orientation –Elicit emotion and behavior in others Social referencing and the visual cliff Smiling is contagious –But so is scowling
Messinger15 Data Kindergarten Adolescent behavior Bereavement Year book photos Discussion of intervention strategies
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch Differences in emotional expression are observable and predictive. Previous research shows personality trait relationships between parents and children. Bustamante16
“Thin-slice” of nonverbal behavior reveals valid info about personality, IQ, sexual orientation, etc. –Family expressivity in photos 91 kindergarteners –Parent rating of temperament Extraversion, negative affect, effortful control –“Say cheese” photo at school Positive affect (smile intensity = mouth corners + lid compression) Negative affect –Family photo at home Amount of tactile contact Warmth of tactile contact Kindergartener Photo “Thin-slice” Study (Oveis et al., 2009) Fuccillo
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch What is the relationship between smiling and warm touch? Do parents and children resemble each other in facial displays of emotion posed pictures? Does extraversion/surgency covary with the intensity of positive emotional displays? Bustamante18
Kindergarteners’ Family & School Photos Cross-modality emotional communication Smile intensity in classroom & home Warm family touch & smile intensity in classroom & home Total family touch & smile intensity, parent’s affect Child-parent expressive similarity Father and child smile intensity Facial emotion display as “thin slice” of temperament? Smile intensity in classroom (not home) & extraversion ~ Girls’ warm family touch & extraversion - No significant r’s for effortful control or negative affect MotherFather Child Girl Boy Fuccillo
Smile Intensity and Warm Touch Warmth of touch more important than quantity. Mixed results for the relationship between smile intensity and parents’ report of extraversion/surgency. Bustamante20
Supports validity of “thin-slice” approach –Magnitude of correlation similar to self-report studies Importance of warm touch –Correlation with increased smiling and decreased negativity of child –Observed across contexts –Underlying positive emotion for both D-smiles & touch –Quality more important than quantity Differences in expressivity with family and at school? –Extraversion only related to school smiling More direct link with extraversion than effortful control? Limitations –Correlational –Effect of posing (but D-smiles still seen in school photos) Conclusions Fuccillo
Something about photos… Crystallized self-representation to imagined/real other –Role of ‘mock’ negative emotions Messinger22
Messinger26 Adolescents Take an interactive IQ test –Show embarrassment, anger, fear with examiner –Related to teacher ratings of Externalizing (aggression) Internalizing (anxiety, withdrawal, somaticizing)
Messinger27 Expressions by behavior rating Expression Ratio Internalize (n=9) Externalize (n=9) Well- adjusted (n=40) Anger0.10 0.23 0.07 Fear 0.15 0.050.17 Sadness0.100.040.15 Embarras sment 0.140.16 0.22
Messinger28 Expressions by behavior rating Keltner et al., 1999 Why?
Messinger29 Recently bereaved Talk about their loss at 6, 14, & 25 months Angry facial expressions Later grief Duchenne (cheek-raise) laughers Later –Higher emotional dissociation –Report better association with significant other –Viewed more positively by naïve observers Why?
Messinger30 Duchenne laughter and recovering from bereavement Keltner et al., 1999
Messinger35 Smile intensity and Life Outcomes Life OutcomePositive expression Controlling for Attract./Social Desirability Married by age 27.19.18/.16 Single into adulthood-.20-.18/.20 Ever divorced.15~.15/~.15 Personal Well-being Age 21 (n=112).20.20/.11 Age 27 (n=86).25.26./.23 Age 43 (n=105).18.19/12 Age 52 (n=101).27.28/.24
Intervening with children’s emotions Izard: Structural model and intervention
Messinger37 Overview Emotion centrality –Noncognitive and nonconscious processes Socio-Emotional milestones –Face-to-face interaction and attachment formation
Messinger38 Social emotion tasks Infancy: FTF interaction, nurturing Toddlers: Embedding language description Early childhood: Awareness of others Late childhood: Anger modulation
Messinger39 Pre-school tasks Awareness of others’ emotions –What do you think Sally is feeling now? Distinguish and regulate negative emotions –Shame vs. guilt vs. sad
Messinger40 Intervention issues Cognitive versus Emotion based Are socio-emotional competencies a form of emotion or a form of intelligence –Modulated expression Emotion modulation as a mediator or emotion expression Specific emotion versus General theme –Happiness vs. Caring community –Integration?
Messinger42 In children Emotion knowledge Social skills –Unidirectional,.12, –Effect on social preference of others is through social skills (Mostow et al) What is emotional intelligence
Messinger43 Patterns Of emotions: Shame & anger Of qualities: Anger and high impulsivity Different ‘interventions’ for different kids
Emotion communication and understanding in childhood: A real-life problem Saarni
Messinger45 Alternative views Functional –Insight: Recognition of function of emotions and their flexibility in functioning Regulating emotion to achieve goals –Difficulty: Use goals to interpret behavior but use behavior to infer goals Dynamic –Insight: Recognition of interfacing role of multiple components in emotional process –Difficulty: Specifying process
Messinger46 Functionalist theory Emotion is the person’s attempt or readiness to establish, maintain, or change the relation between the person and the environment on matters of significance to that person (Saarni et al., 1998). –Emotion is associated with goal-attainment, social relationships, situational appraisals, action tendencies, self-understanding, self regulation, etc.
Messinger48 Critique of functionalism Definition is overly broad Circular reasoning –How do you measure goals? What is a functionalist analysis of emotion in face-to-face play? Measurement of impact of emotional signal –Similar to ethology
Messinger49 Functionalist views Emotions come in families defined by these goals –not by facial expression, or brain activity –Messinger’s research is based on families of expressions and emotions Functional research focus socialization of emotional experience acquisition of emotional competence (Saarni), secondary emotions such as pride.
Messinger50 Emotion regulation Modifying emotions to attain goals Sees emotions as –flexible not stereotypical –functional not disruptive –responsive not rigid E.g., Impulse control, anger modulation, embarrassment, gift receipt. –Flows from functional perspective See Thompson
Messinger51 Critique of emotion regulation Inhibition or maintenance/intensification? Self or other regulation? What’s emotion and what’s its regulation? –Does functionalism wish to unite concepts? –Is a regulated emotion the same emotion? –Avoid premature judgements of good emotion regulation before we know its normative development and how to measure its adequacy
Messinger52 Emotion regulation Understanding emotions Gender socialization Cultural emotion scripts Regulation and coping Empathy vs. sympathy Dissembling
Messinger53 Themes Understanding emotions: –Developing complex accounts –Symbolizing internal experience –Self-awareness in guilt and shame –Multiple emotions: sequential and simultaneous
Messinger54 Socialization and scripts Family rules –High frequency emotion talk –Dysregulation caused by others’ anger and abuse Boys’ anger; girls’ distress Empathy vs. sympathy Dissembling