Presentation on theme: "Jake, Maria, Stuart & Tommy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jake, Maria, Stuart & Tommy John Stuart MillJake, Maria, Stuart & Tommy
2 Life History Born May 20th, 1806 in London Father, James, was a economist, philosopher, and historianJohn was home schooled by his father -Very intense schooling -Father's goal was to make a geniusAt age 13 he started studying Smith and Ricardo -Completed some of their work
3 History continued... Around age twenty he started having mental issues Refused to study at Oxford and CambridgeFollowed his father's footsteps into work at East Indian CompanyMarried Harriet Taylor in 1851He was Lord Rector at University of St. Andrews and served on Parliament in WestminsterDied in France on May 8th, 1873 at age 66.
4 Influences on Work His Father, James Mill -Biggest influence His Father, James Mill -Biggest influence -Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham -UtilitarianismAristotle & Socrates -Early years of schooling
5 Influences continued... David Ricardo -Family friend -Political economyHarriet Taylor, Wife -The Subjection of Women -On Liberty -Human RightsSamuel Bentham (Jeremy's Brother) -Lived with for a year in France -Math and Sciences
6 Early WorksJohn Stuart Mill had many early works prior to his paper on Utilitarianism.They include among others:Views On Liberty Freedom of Speech Human Rights and Slavery Feminism
7 On LibertyIndividual should be able to do as he pleases unless he harms others. Government should only interfere when it is for the protection of the society"The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."
8 without allowing them to hear what can be said on the contrary side Freedom of Speechwithout allowing them to hear what can be said on the contrary sideArgued for Freedom of Speech based on political grounds saying that it is a critical component for a representative government to have in order to empower debate over public policy Personal growth and self realization Without being able to speak freely, how are we to know what a person can accomplish?
9 Human Rights/Feminism Responded to Thomas Carlyle's paper about genetic inferiority, in which he stated that there was in fact no genetic inferiority and that all men we capable of doing great things. In "The Subjection of Women," Mill argues for perfect equality. Mill believed that female roles were misconstrued in the days society. 3 Major Reasons for the Subjection of WomenSociety and gender constructionEducation Marriage
11 UTILITARIANISM (1863) Chapter One: General Remarks Ongoing conflict of determining right and wrongMorals vs LegislationProblems with science: do not prove the "good" & leave out moralsScience of Morals Principle Law at Root of all Morality: decides for various conflicting principlesGreat Happiness PrincipleUniversal Principle & the origin and ground of moral obligation: "So act, that the rule on which thou actest would admit of being adopted as a law by all rational beings"
12 Chapter Two: What Utilitarianism Is FOUNDATION "Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, and wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness"pain vs pleasurelife has no higher end than pleasure, different kinds of pleasure being more desirable than others based on quantity and qualityDignity Factor: "Better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied"Expectations vs AccessibilityDirective Rule of Human Conduct: "greatest amount of happiness all together"one may be happier than another but acceptable as long as rest of world gains
13 Great Happiness Principle "The ultimate end"; "is an existence exempt as far as possible from pain, and as rich as possible in enjoyments, both in point of quantity and quality; the test of quality, and the rule for measuring it against quantity, being the preference felt by those who in their opportunities of experience, to which must be added their habits of self-consciousness and self-observation, are best furnished with the means of comparison." the end of human actionstandard of moralitythe rules and precepts for human conductNeed to:Balance Sacrifice own happiness for someone elses: "highest virtue which can be found in a man"Object of Virtue: multiplication of happiness
14 Chapter Three: Of the Ultimate Sanction of the Principle of Utility How do we get people to behave in a proper way and to honor utilitarianism?SanctionsInternal vs. ExternalDutyUltimate Sanction: in the conscience and feeling in mindNature & Equality among populationOpposition to Government, Politics, and Religion"
15 Chapter Four: Of What Sort of Proof the Principle of Utility is Susceptible "Sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable...that people actually desire it." Happiness is a good: that each person's happiness is a good to that person, and the general happiness, therefore, a good to the aggregate of all persons. People vary in other desires, but happiness is universal
16 Parts of Happiness Habits Money "Moving forces of human life, desire to possess it is stronger than desire to use it"Principle ingredient of individual's consumption of happinessVirtueWant people to desire virtueHabitsIn feeling and in conduct, habit gets in the way of doing goodwe rely on ourselves and each other, "habitual independence"
17 Chapter Five: On the Connection between Justice and Utility Right and WrongUnjust: Depriving someone of the things they are allowed to by legal rightReceive good for doing good In all languages, the word justice deals with the law, or conforming to the law, or a legal constraint, yet the "notion of justice varies in all different persons, and always conforms in its variations to their notion of utility"
18 Law "Valid claim on society to protect him in the possession of it" Do not restrict ones legal rights, but moral rights, thus no piece of justice can be carried out without trampling another 9\Government contradicts equality
19 Unjust Actions A wrong done An assignable person performing a wrong doneAn individual being harmedWhen are we legally constrained? When are we punished? What is the proper punishment? How is that determined?Law, our conscience & duty, or by othersPunishment:Should be proportional to the offense
20 Adaptations of Utilitarianism Prioritarianism Not to Maximize happiness, but to Minimize PainNot simply overall well-beingCompassion – Help out worse off individualsMany people with average lives is better than a large deviation of well-being amongst peopleSituation A: Jim: 110 Jane: -70Situation B: Jim: 20 Jane: 15
21 Repugnant Conclusion AKA Mere Addition Paradox As a population grows, the Wellbeing will decrease.. But there are more happy peoplePopulation EthicsBasically we need to acknowledge the fact that simply maximizing the utility is not the only important factor. Morality of growth of the population and a sense of duty to have children must be taken into account. Challenge of Modern ethics
23 What have we learned John Stuart Mill British born Son to Economist/PhilosopherUnique upbringingMany influences growing up such as:Jeremy Bentham, David Ricardo, Aristotle, His family (Wife, brother and father)Had mental issues in his 20’s, died at the age of 66
24 Impacts on the world Early Works: Liberty Freedom of speech Human RightsFeminismAlso: Limiting power of government, social liberty
25 Utilitarianism Conflict of Determining right and wrong The foundation Great Happiness PrincipleHow to regulate and guide this ideaExplain why happiness is so crucialDecisions about punishment and praise
27 The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. "John Stuart Mill." Utilitarianism : Past, Present and Future. BLTC Research. Web. 11 Feb <http://www.utilitarianism.com/jsmill.htm>.Econlib. "John Stuart Mill: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics." Library of Economics and Liberty. Liberty Fund, Inc., Web. 11 Feb <http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Mill.html>.Mill, John Stuart. "Utilitarianism." Utilitarianism : Past, Present and Future. BLTC. Web. 24 Feb <http://www.utilitarianism.com/mill1.htm>. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/repugnant-conclusion/