Human Motivation Chapter 11 Goal-Congruent (Positive) Emotions
Goal-Congruent Emotions zFacilitate and sustain the attainment of personal goals zPositive emotions zExample: Happiness yDefined in two ways: rate how good/positive person feels at given moment; series of questions of how people evaluate their lives both affectively/cognitively (subjective well-being) yMyths of happiness: life is difficult and few people are happy, money makes people happy, we cannot become happier. o
Happiness The Biological Component: zAbout half the variance of subjective well-being is the result of heritability zPositively related to the personality trait of extraversion and negatively related to neuroticism. zPositively related to good social relationships. zPositive emotions linked to an active left prefrontal cortex, and negative emotions linked to the right prefrontal cortex. zPursuit of happiness in universal quality of humans.
Happiness The Learned/Cognitive Components: zA result of learning to conquer fear and make plans, our ancestors were less under the direction of fight-flight response; they came to experience positive emotions more of the time. zLikely provided the incentive/motivation to think and plan. zResults in avoiding pain and helping achieve goals. zComes from doing things that are satisfying in themselves (intrinsic motivation); occurs most strongly when person has finished a flow activity.
Happiness and Coping zCoping: sometimes the best we can do is make reasonable progress toward dealing with external demands as well as goals. zEven in state of ambiguity, people can and do experience happiness. zFour main qualities linked to happiness: extraversion, optimism, self-esteem, and personal control.
Happiness and Coping The Biological Component: zMany of our daily interactions can be characterized as moving between fear and happiness (coping) zOnce learning occurs, decrease in epinephrine and drop in arousal; norepinephrine remains high. zPositive affect is often triggered as result of successful coping, leads to increase in dopamine levels.
Happiness and Coping The Learned/Cognitive Component: zWe learn faster in subsequent situations; develop generalized belief or expectation such that if we were able to cope in one situation, we can cope in other situations -> self-efficacy. zPositive affect/emotions facilitate approach or continued behavior. zPositive affect is highly adaptive; motivates and rewards behaviors that lead individual to explore; gives more accurate/better knowledge about environment. zPeople who are resilient in the face of adversity are good at triggering positive emotions.
The Question of Uncertainty and Coping zUncertainty- lack of certainty how we should deal with new situation; unable to fully understand something of to fully know the outcome of an act. zOne of the major reasons we experience stress is that we don’t have a coping response available. zFrom evolutionary perspective, when there is no certainty, survival is threatened; people need to know about their environment and how to effectively interact with it (coping) zOften we refrain from doing what will lead to happiness because of the fear/uncertainty.
The Question of Uncertainty and Coping zFear alerts us to threats to our survival. zUncertainty leads to high arousal zUncertainty alerts us that we are not fully prepared to deal with our environment and typically elicits anxiety. zThe most common regret is that of inaction. zCommons reasons that people fail to take action is that they are anxious of afraid.
The Question of Uncertainty and Coping The Biological Component: zBehavioral coping: To deal with unpredictability, humans typically engage in behaviors that will make things more predictable. zNorepinephrine is released in large amounts, and our mood improves; occurs especially when animals learn about a situation. zEpinephrine levels remain high, indicating the stress of uncertainty in dealing with new situations.
The Question of Uncertainty and Coping The Learned/Cognitive Component: zPeople get significantly more satisfaction from exercising a coping response when the task is difficult than when it is easy; reward value higher. zPersonal control appears to be a powerful source of motivation for humans; inability to control is often source of stress. zPeople can reframe/reinterpret a negative situation by adopting a positive perspective; leads individuals to experience positive emotions and cope better. zMistakes may produce momentary pain, but regrets tend to outweigh any memory of failure.
Self-Efficacy Theory and the Dual Route to Anxiety Control zSelf-efficacy: people’s beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action needed to exercise control over given events. yDetermines what challenges people undertake, how much effort they will expend, how long they will persevere, and how much stress and despondency they will endure. zPeople avoid threatening situations; they fear that they will be unable to cope (behaviorally/cognitively) zCognitive coping: people operate under the belief that they can manage their thinking or cognitions.
Optimism and Hope zOptimism: generalized expectancy that good, as opposed to bad, outcomes will generally occur when one is confronted with problems across important life domains. zWhen people see desired outcomes as attainable, they are inclined to continue to exert efforts to attain those outcomes. zOptimists and hopeful people tend to view all desired outcomes as attainable; tend to persist; tend to put forth more effort.
Optimism and Hope The Biological Component: zEvolutionary perspective: it was biologically adaptive for our ancestors to develop a sense of optimism; carry them through adverse circumstances, including injury. zLeads to release of endorphins- pain reducing and euphoric benefits. zOptimism is a positive/active emotion- makes us turn to our environment for resources we need.
Optimism and Hope The Learned/Cognitive Component: zOptimism and hope may merely be ways that people have learned to think about the world. zPessimism is a risk factor for poor achievement and a predictor of depression. zOptimistic people are healthier than pessimistic people: improved immune response, reduction in negative mood, better health promoting behaviors. zOptimists are more inclined to consider their coping alternatives.
The Concept of Hope zHope in conceptualize in terms of two major elements: yPathway thinking: conceptualizing one or more routes to a desired goal. yAgentic thinking: thoughts that have to do with initiating movement along one’s chosen path. zHopeful people believe they can attain goals (agency) and generate alternatives (pathways). zHigher hope is related to better outcomes in academics, athletics, physical health, psychological adjustment, and psychotherapy; hopeful people tend to set more goals, more difficult goals, and are more likely to attain high goals.
The Role of Early Experience: The Question of Attachment zParent-child interaction influences wide range of adaptive emotions such as happiness, optimism, and self-worth; also influences adaptive behaviors such as coping with stress and self-regulation of motivation. zA secure parent-child bond encourages the child to explore, develop feelings of confidence, and learn how to interact socially.
Three Parent-Child Attachment Styles 1.Secure attachment: sensitivity and responsiveness to child’s need for contact. yChildren characterized by self-confidence and emerging independence. 2.Anxious/ambivalent attachment: inconsistency in meeting the child’s need for contact. yChildren tend to be inhibited, dependent, and have low self-confidence. 3.Avoidant attachment: avoidance or rejection of child’s need for contact. xChildren tend to explore, but behavior motivated more by desire to avoid mother.
The Role of Early Experience: The Question of Attachment The Biological Component: zInfants evolved a number of mechanisms to securely bond with parents/caretakers: crying, smiling, and hugging. zTwo fundamental social motives: the need to follow or exceed expectations and the need to be loved. yResponsible for flexibility we observe in behavior. zSecurely attached children explore more and are better able to cope with a variety of life distresses.
The Role of Early Experience: The Question of Attachment The Learned/Cognitive Component: zHumans learn to reduce fears/anxieties be becoming securely attached. zNeed for attachment in children is a prototype for need for attachment in adults. zSecurely attached adults have highest interest in jobs, experience greater job satisfaction, lowest in terms of being fearful of evaluation; appear to be intrinsically motivated; more inclined to seek social support (which tends to lead to quicker recovery).