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Www.kostic.niu.edu Energy Future: Coal “Clean” Energy ? Enhancing Thermodynamic Reversibility and Capturing and Recycling of Carbon-dioxide Prof. M. Kostic.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.kostic.niu.edu Energy Future: Coal “Clean” Energy ? Enhancing Thermodynamic Reversibility and Capturing and Recycling of Carbon-dioxide Prof. M. Kostic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Future: Coal “Clean” Energy ? Enhancing Thermodynamic Reversibility and Capturing and Recycling of Carbon-dioxide Prof. M. Kostic Mechanical Engineering NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY NIU-SIU-ANL Meeting September 24, 2007

2 Humanity’s Top Ten Problems for next 50 years 1.ENERGY (critical for the rest nine) 2.Water 3.Food 4.Environment 5.Poverty 6.Terrorism & War 7.Disease 8.Education 9.Democracy 10. Population 2006: 6.5 Billion People : 8-10 Billion ( ) People

3 What Are We Waiting For? (1) An Energy Crisis ?(1) An Energy Crisis ? (2) A Global Environmental Problem?(2) A Global Environmental Problem? (3) An Asian Technology Boom?(3) An Asian Technology Boom? or Leadershipor Leadership

4 The two things are certain (1) the world population and their living-standard expectations will substantially increase (over 6 billion people now, in 50 years billion - energy may double)(1) the world population and their living-standard expectations will substantially increase (over 6 billion people now, in 50 years billion - energy may double) (2) fossil fuels’ economical reserves, particularly oil and natural gas, will substantially decrease (oil may run out in years)(2) fossil fuels’ economical reserves, particularly oil and natural gas, will substantially decrease (oil may run out in years)

5 YES! Thermodynamics an almost forgotten science … a science of ENERGY … the Mother of all sciences … check-and-balance ENERGY accounting … Energy efficiency enhancement and optimization … provides VISION and future ENERGY solutions Kostic’s primary research activities and interest are in FUNDAMENTALS & APPLICATIONS of ENERGY

6 Nanotechnology potentials … Enabling Nanotech Revolution(s) Nanotech to the rescue …Enabling Nanotech Revolution(s) Nanotech to the rescue … (1) Nano multifunctional materials (2) Nano electronics & super-computers (3) Nano sensors & actuators (4) Nano devices & robotics (5) Nano photovoltaics & photocatalitics (6) Nano super-conductors (adv. transmission and el. motors) (7) Nano energy-storage (adv. batteries & hydrogen) (8) Nano bio-materials (synthetic fuels, pharmaceuticals, …) Some examples: Etc Some examples: Armchair Wire Project: electrical conductivity of copper at 1/6 the weight with negligible eddy currents Single Crystal Fullerene Nanotube Arrays … (Etc.) Wet-Nanotechnology: nanofluids at NIU In collaboration with ANL nanofluids

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8 EEE-Global & Physics articles More Encyclopedia ArticlesMore Encyclopedia Articles

9 Energy Everywhere … “From the sovereign Sun to the deluge of photons out of the astounding compaction and increase of power-density in computer chips …

10 Coal is very important … energy and … carbon resource … thus CO 2 should be captured, stored and recycled as valuable resource

11 Coal Energy Must Be Efficient to be competitive … from 35% Classical … to 60% Combined Cycle Gas/Steam Turbine Power Plant or even 85% Combined Power-Heat Plant

12 Vehicle Energy Efficiencies … from MPG Classical … to 50 MPG Hybrid It is possible !!!

13 About 20% About 0.2 % … also first steam engine

14 Efficient: do MORE with LESS Improve true (2 nd Law) efficiency by conserving energy potentials: REGENERATE before “diluting” and loosing it! Power “Waste” Heat & CO 2 Low efficiency Indirectly Regenerated Heat & CO 2 Directly Regenerated Heat & CO 2 High Efficiency

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18 about 20% efficiency about 75% efficiency about 50% efficiency about 33% efficiency

19 2.8 % 46% of 6% =2.8 %

20 World now: 13 TWyr /yr  410 EJ/yr About 90 years: coal, oil, and gas. Distinguish between “Proven” (above) and “Estimated” reserves

21 The energy “difficulties” … (1) will be more challenging than what we anticipate now(1) will be more challenging than what we anticipate now (2) NO traditional solutions(2) NO traditional solutions (3) New knowledge, new technology, and new living habits and expectations will be needed(3) New knowledge, new technology, and new living habits and expectations will be needed

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25 The unique role of CO 2 for biomass and synthetic fuel production In future there may be CO 2 shortage!?

26 The renewable biomass energy and development of synthetic hydro-carbons … The renewable biomass energy (BM) and development of will be very important if not critical for substitution of fossil fuels…The renewable biomass energy (BM) and development of synthetic hydro-carbons (SynHC) will be very important if not critical for substitution of fossil fuels… … since they are of fossil fuels, the existing energy infrastructure could be easily adapted… since they are natural extensions of fossil fuels, the existing energy infrastructure could be easily adapted global during renewable biomass production.global CO 2 emission will be balanced during renewable biomass production. BM&SynHC particularly for energy storage and use in transportation to replace fossil fuels,BM&SynHC particularly promising for energy storage and use in transportation to replace fossil fuels,

27 Hydrogen versus Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons (2) Instead of going ‘against’ the nature with hydrogen … H H-H H-C-… H … we should go ‘’ with nature with biomass energy and development of synthetic hydro-carbons. … we should go ‘along’ with nature with biomass energy and development of synthetic hydro-carbons.

28 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

29 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

30 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

31 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

32 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

33 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

34 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

35 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

36 Energy Future Outlook: …a probable scenario … in the wake of a short history of fossil fuels’ abundance and use (a bleep on a human history radar screen), the following energy future outlook is possible… 1.Creative adaptation and innovations, with change of societal and human habits and expectations (life could be happier after fossil fuels’ era) 2.Intelligent hi-tech, local and global energy management in wide sense (to reduce waste, improve efficiency and quality of environment and life) 3.Energy conservation and regeneration have unforeseen (higher order of magnitude) and large potentials, particularly in industry (also in transportation, commercial and residential sectors) 4.Nuclear energy and re-electrification for most of stationary energy needs 5.Cogeneration and integration of power generation and new industry at global scale (to close the cycles at sources thus protecting environment and increasing efficiency) 6.Renewable biomass and synthetic hydro-carbons for fossil fuel replacement (mobile energy, transportation, and chemicals) 7.Advanced energy storage (synthetic fuels, advanced batteries, hydrogen,…) 8.Redistributed solar-related and other renewable energies (to fill in the gap…)

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38 More information at: kcal/day  100 Watt World Prod. 2,200 Watt/p 275 W elec /p USA Prod. 12,000 Watt/p 1500 W elec /p


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