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State of Happiness in Hong Kong 2006 An IHSS Study Lok Sang Ho Centre for Public Policy Studies Lingnan University.

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Presentation on theme: "State of Happiness in Hong Kong 2006 An IHSS Study Lok Sang Ho Centre for Public Policy Studies Lingnan University."— Presentation transcript:

1 State of Happiness in Hong Kong 2006 An IHSS Study Lok Sang Ho Centre for Public Policy Studies Lingnan University

2 How happy are HK people? Question: Overall, How happy are you? 0 indicates very unhappy 10 indicates very happy The score is then multiplied by100

3 Are you happier over the last 10 years? Question: Question: Are you happier over the last 10 years? Are you happier over the last 10 years?   10 (Happiness Decreased (Happiness Decreased a lot) (No change) (Increased a lot) a lot) (No change) (Increased a lot) The score is then multiplied by 100 The score is then multiplied by 100

4 Happiness Index & Are HK people happier over the last 10years, 2005 & 06

5 Happiness Index by Age Groups 2006

6 Main Findings in 2006 Survey Overall reading is 70.58, still a very good result by international standards. Working population happier than last year; non-working population less happy than last year. Overall reading is 70.58, still a very good result by international standards. Working population happier than last year; non-working population less happy than last year. Young people in their 20s clearly happier than last year, at 69.86, as compared to Young people in their 20s clearly happier than last year, at 69.86, as compared to

7 Happiness Index by Age Groups (Working Population only) 2005 and 06

8 Inequality-adjusted happiness index Adjusted with reference to the dispersion of happiness indices across groups Adjusted with reference to the dispersion of happiness indices across groups We have not done the adjustment; but disparity has narrowed across age groups in 2006 We have not done the adjustment; but disparity has narrowed across age groups in 2006

9

10 Personal Income by Age Groups 2005

11 Personal Income by Age Groups 2006

12 Happiness Index by Occupation 2005 & 06

13 Occupation MeanSampleMeanSample Clerks Managers & Administrator Retired Professionals Housewife Elementary Occupation Services & Shop Sales Workers Unemployed Happiness Index by Occupation 2005 & 06

14 Sources of Changes? Improving job market for young people (Compared with last year, more young people move to higher income category) Improving job market for young people (Compared with last year, more young people move to higher income category) Happiness index for clerical staff and elementary occupation also increased significantly this year. This reflects the labour market in 2006 is much better. Happiness index for clerical staff and elementary occupation also increased significantly this year. This reflects the labour market in 2006 is much better. Possible factors that trouble the elderly people and housewife : Possible factors that trouble the elderly people and housewife : less company with family members busy with their work?

15 Happiness by Sex

16 Happiness Index by Marital Status

17 Happiness Index by Spiritual Practice vs No Spiritual Practice

18 Happiness Index by Education 2006

19 Happiness Index by Education and Income Low Personal Income High Personal Income Primary or below Secondary Post-secondary Low personal income = <$6999 High personal income = >$7000

20 Happiness by Industry in 2006

21 Life Goals

22 Major Concerns of HK People: Health Quite A Concern : Major Concerns of HK People: Health Quite A Concern : 10 denotes Most Worried (22.3%) Mean=6.78 n=820

23 Health Care Expenses: Quite a Concern: 10 denotes Most Worried (16.3%)

24 Income Not Meeting Needs : Some 7.9% are most worried

25 Worries over Post Retirement Expenses: 13.3% Most Worried

26 Education Cost: A Major Concern for 8.5% of Families with Children

27 Relations with Family Members: 7.6% Most Worried

28 Relations with Colleagues: Usually not a concern

29 Relations with Superiors at Work: Generally Not a Concern

30 Worried about inadequate democracy: a significant minority- some 6.6 % most worried

31 Judicial Independence and Lawfulness: 11.2 % Most Worried

32 Regression Analysis Independent Variables Coefficient Significance level Constant *** Harmonious Family Relations *** Financial Success * Career Achievement Spiritual Satisfaction * Satisfied with current economic state (Yes) *** Dependent variable: Happiness Index * = 10% Sig. and *** = 1% Sig.

33 Importance of Open Election of HKSAR Chief Executive vs. Civic Liberties on Happiness

34 Conclusions Hong Kong people are generally happy Hong Kong people are generally happy Young people much happier over last year Young people much happier over last year Loving, caring people are the happiest; Loving, caring people are the happiest; Love starts from the family; Love starts from the family; Spiritually inclined people happier than those after material gains; Spiritually inclined people happier than those after material gains; Unemployment, medical spending, retirement concerns, relations with family members are key sources of unhappiness in HK: Policy relieving these worries will promote happiness Unemployment, medical spending, retirement concerns, relations with family members are key sources of unhappiness in HK: Policy relieving these worries will promote happiness Educated people usually happier, but effect is mainly through the effects of education attainment on income Educated people usually happier, but effect is mainly through the effects of education attainment on income

35 Conclusions Public policy should make a serious attempt to alleviate these worries; Public policy should make a serious attempt to alleviate these worries; Schools should teach students how to cope with life’s challenges; they do not seem to have done a good job in this regard; Schools should teach students how to cope with life’s challenges; they do not seem to have done a good job in this regard; Young people are much happier in 2006, benefiting from the brighter economic prospects; Young people are much happier in 2006, benefiting from the brighter economic prospects; Long work-hours probably are making non- working members of the family unhappy; Long work-hours probably are making non- working members of the family unhappy; Hong Kong still a very attractive place to live in. Hong Kong still a very attractive place to live in.


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