Presentation on theme: "Intellectual Development from 7 to 12"— Presentation transcript:
1 Intellectual Development from 7 to 12 Chapter 18Intellectual Development from 7 to 12
2 Chapter ObjectivesIdentify 4 signs of intellectual development in children ages 7 to 12Explain 4 thinking skills that build a foundation for mastering schoolworkDescribe 3 learning methods that are effective for children ages 7 to 12Identify characteristics of the middle school experience that make it well suited to preteen learningCompare and contrast 3 types of standardized tests
3 The Developing Brain from 7 to 12 Chapter 18.1The Developing Brain from 7 to 12
4 Signs of Increased Intellectual Growth Intellectual development improves steadily as children become capable of new ways of thinkingEmotional and intellectual needs of preteens differ from those of younger and older childrenEducators created middle or junior high schools in an effort to address these special needs4 signs of intellectual development for this age occur in memory, awareness, idealism, and attention span
5 Memory People use both short-term and long-term memory Improvements in the way the brain functions allows older children and preteens to learn more and to use their knowledge more efficientlyEXAMPLE:We don’t count on our fingers. We are able to recall and apply basic mathematical functions
6 Awareness and Curiosity More intense awareness of themselves and those around themBetter at understanding their abilities and those of others8 years or older, children can begin to see another persons point-of-viewMore concern about what people think of themWe begin to think of ourselves in terms of qualities we have versus our appearanceStrive to achieve goalsAt school:Increasingly independent in their learningDevelop their own learning stylesDevelop interest that can last a lifetime
7 Idealism and Abstract Thinking Young children judge whether something is right or wrong by how much pleasure or pain it involvesOlder children and teens adopt moral standards that authority figures will approve ofPreteens can recognize complex social problems such as prejudice and crimeDo not understand why the problem is difficult to solveCannot analyze their ideas to see if they are realisticParents can encourage preteens to be involved in the community through volunteer work
8 Attention SpanFor reasons that are not yet understood, children around age 12 loose their longer attention spansThey learn less, because they cannot concentrate as longTest scores and grades may drop at school
9 Theories About How Children Learn- Piaget’s Theory Concrete Operations Stage: (7 to 11)Thinking works effectively on concrete, or actual, objects and tasksGeneralize from their own experiencesCannot understand abstract ideasDuring this stage children develop several important thinking skillsClassifying objectsPlacing objects in seriesExtending relationshipsConservationPlacing Objects in a Series:Arrange objects in ascending or descending orderRequires the ability to compare objects mentally and to make logical connections between what they know and what they are learningExtending RelationshipsTransitivity is the concept that a relative relationship between two objects can extend to a third objectEX: If 3 is greater than 2 and 2 is greater than 1, than 3 is greater than 1ConservationAn object has the same characteristics even if there is a change in the way it looks
10 Theories About How Children Learn- Piaget’s Theory Formal Operations Stage:Starts at about age 11Develop the ability to think abstractly and to see different sides of an issueA preteen will use these abstract ways of thinking selectively at firstAs they gain more experience they will begin to use abstract thinking moreAbstract Thinking:Imagining hypothetical situationsSolving problems by anticipating and preparing for different situationsDebating issuesUsing “if….then” formulasRecognizing societal problems and understand the complex reasons for them
11 Theories About How Children Learn- Vygotsky’s Theory Biological development and cultural experiences both influence the child’s ability to learnChildren learn best from one anotherChildren ages 7 to 11 are learning to evaluate themselves and othersPeer and small group activities are vital in the classroomSocial activities like clubs, sports teams, and other events are essential
12 Theories About How Children Learn- Montessori’s Theory Montessori’s theory stresses the importance of self-directed learningTeachers should:Provide the needed toolsIntrude on learning as little as possibleIn a Montessori classroom, 7 to 12 year olds, might offer a combination of language, history geography, the sciences, and the artsGroup lessons are kept at a minimum as teachers allow children to explore learning in their own wayReal-life experiences are stressed
13 Theories About How Children Learn: Gardner’s Theory Believes learning is multifaceted or many-sidedEducators who have supported Gardner’s way of thinking see their students learning and thinking in different ways every dayThe more students develop their own intelligences, the greater their skills and knowledge will becomeWhat are some ways you could help students learn from each intelligence?Verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
14 Theories About How Children Learn- Sternberg’s Theory Sternberg’s research suggests an answer to why some students who did well in school do not excel in the working world or vise versaThe theory proposes that people have varying degrees of analytical, creative, and practical intelligenceWhen parents or caregivers encourage all three kinds of intelligences, then all children can show their talents
15 Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Sternberg’s TheoryAnalytical IntelligenceCreative IntelligenceAbilities to recall, recognize, analyze, compare and contrast, evaluate, and explain problem-solving strategiesHigh analytical children are often considered to be smart because they are good at those types of activities and testsSchools that are too focused on improving student knowledge can hinder creativityIs required when children imagine, pretend, invent, and designMay not follow directions well and score lower on testsAllow children plenty of free play timeEncourage children to be creative
16 Practical Intelligence Sternberg’s TheoryPractical Intelligence“Street Smarts”Quickly assess a problem and the available resourcesThey can figure out the fastest and most practical way to solve a problemMight not be top performers at school but they have the potential to become tomorrows leaders, businesspeople, and politiciansEncourage those to volunteer in the community, lead a group project, etc.
18 Learning Methods A learning method is a way to learn In order to meet different needs of children, teachers use a variety of learning methodsThe 3 most common learning methods areDirectPeerIndependent
19 Direct LearningLanguage-based, or direct learning, is a common learning method for older childrenChildren capable of direct learning can get facts and ideas from listening and readingMust learn to take notes and read their textbooks on their ownProgress in mastering these skills are gradualCan be measured through tests, quizzes, and essays
20 Peer LearningPeer learning is a learning method in which students interact with one anotherWork together in pairs, small groups, or as a classOne advantage to peer learning is that it provides an environment in which students may feel less awkward about asking questions or expressing confusionWorking on group projects helps students learn to work together cooperatively, to communicate, and to build time- and resource-management skills
21 Independent LearningIndependent learning allows students to work on their ownLets them use information they gather in a variety of waysPrepares them for long-term assignments common in high school, college, or the working world
22 Middle School- A Time of Transition A 4th and 9th grader are not at all alikeA 4th grader works best in small classroom settings with one teacher who is almost like a parentLeads them through most of their class work and gives them personal, individual care, and guidanceKnow all their classmates and are familiar with their surroundingsHigh school students rotate from class to class all day, changing teachers and classmatesLearning environment is more impersonal and more independent work
23 Middle School- New Independence and Social Skills Summarize the paragraph into once sentence. Write below.
24 Middle School- Effective Middle Schools Read the paragraph and summarize in one sentence. Write below.
25 The Importance of Parent Involvement Meet the StaffTalk to the teachers personallyRead messages sent by the schoolReview the child’s homeworkHelp out with school activitiesJoin the parent’s groupTalk to the child
26 Intellectual Development Schools often rely on tests to evaluate how well students are developing intellectually and how much knowledge they are gaining. Schools periodically may give standardized tests, which is a test that lets educators see how students are performing compared to thousands of other students who have taken the same tests. What is your feeling or belief of standardized tests? Why?
27 Creating Standardized Tests Teams of scientists and educators design standardized tests for schoolsInstructions for giving and scoring tests tooBefore they are used with the masses, they are tested on students and revised.ValidityIt measures what it is supposed to measureReliabilityTests must be consistent, given to the same age group, again and again with similar resultsPracticalityCannot be difficult to give, easy to score, affordable
28 Types of Standardized School Tests There are 3 types given to 7 – 12 year olds to measure how well they can learn, how much they have already learned, and what they might have a special ability or interest in learningThese types include:Learning Ability TestAchievement TestsAptitude Interest Tests
29 Learning Ability Tests Designed to help educators predict how well as student might do in a particular learning situationAll students take the same tests, tests are scored, then results comparedGo by several namesIntelligence tests, mental ability tests, scholastic aptitude tests (SAT), academic aptitude testMore tests require students to read and write
30 Achievement TestsUsed to help measure what students have actually learned about a particular topic or subjectSAT are the most common prevalent standardized tests in schoolsGiven once per school yearHelps lessen anxiety when taking the test for realA certain score on these types of tests may be required for graduation
31 Aptitude and Interest Tests Offer important measures of people’s talents and preferencesA student who scores high in mathematical aptitude might want to become an engineer or a scientistAnother tests is an interest test which take an interest inventoryStudents select what they like best from different groups or ideasPatterns in their answers are analyzed to see where their interests are strongestMay give a student an idea of what to go into professionally