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Chapter 18 Intellectual Development from 7 to 12.

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1 Chapter 18 Intellectual Development from 7 to 12

2 Chapter Objectives Identify 4 signs of intellectual development in children ages 7 to 12 Identify 4 signs of intellectual development in children ages 7 to 12 Explain 4 thinking skills that build a foundation for mastering schoolwork Explain 4 thinking skills that build a foundation for mastering schoolwork Describe 3 learning methods that are effective for children ages 7 to 12 Describe 3 learning methods that are effective for children ages 7 to 12 Identify characteristics of the middle school experience that make it well suited to preteen learning Identify characteristics of the middle school experience that make it well suited to preteen learning Compare and contrast 3 types of standardized tests Compare and contrast 3 types of standardized tests

3 Chapter 18.1 The Developing Brain from 7 to 12

4 Signs of Increased Intellectual Growth Intellectual development improves steadily as children become capable of new ways of thinking Intellectual development improves steadily as children become capable of new ways of thinking Emotional and intellectual needs of preteens differ from those of younger and older children Emotional and intellectual needs of preteens differ from those of younger and older children Educators created middle or junior high schools in an effort to address these special needs Educators created middle or junior high schools in an effort to address these special needs 4 signs of intellectual development for this age occur in memory, awareness, idealism, and attention span 4 signs of intellectual development for this age occur in memory, awareness, idealism, and attention span

5 Memory People use both short-term and long-term memory People use both short-term and long-term memory Improvements in the way the brain functions allows older children and preteens to learn more and to use their knowledge more efficiently Improvements in the way the brain functions allows older children and preteens to learn more and to use their knowledge more efficiently EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE: We don’t count on our fingers. We are able to recall and apply basic mathematical functions

6 Awareness and Curiosity More intense awareness of themselves and those around them More intense awareness of themselves and those around them Better at understanding their abilities and those of others 8 years or older, children can begin to see another persons point-of-view More concern about what people think of them We begin to think of ourselves in terms of qualities we have versus our appearance Strive to achieve goals At school: Increasingly independent in their learning Develop their own learning styles Develop interest that can last a lifetime

7 Idealism and Abstract Thinking Young children judge whether something is right or wrong by how much pleasure or pain it involves Young children judge whether something is right or wrong by how much pleasure or pain it involves Older children and teens adopt moral standards that authority figures will approve of Older children and teens adopt moral standards that authority figures will approve of Preteens can recognize complex social problems such as prejudice and crime Preteens can recognize complex social problems such as prejudice and crime Do not understand why the problem is difficult to solve Do not understand why the problem is difficult to solve Cannot analyze their ideas to see if they are realistic Parents can encourage preteens to be involved in the community through volunteer work

8 Attention Span For reasons that are not yet understood, children around age 12 loose their longer attention spans For reasons that are not yet understood, children around age 12 loose their longer attention spans They learn less, because they cannot concentrate as long They learn less, because they cannot concentrate as long Test scores and grades may drop at school Test scores and grades may drop at school

9 Theories About How Children Learn- Piaget’s Theory Concrete Operations Stage: (7 to 11) Concrete Operations Stage: (7 to 11) Thinking works effectively on concrete, or actual, objects and tasks Thinking works effectively on concrete, or actual, objects and tasks Generalize from their own experiences Generalize from their own experiences Cannot understand abstract ideas Cannot understand abstract ideas During this stage children develop several important thinking skills During this stage children develop several important thinking skills Classifying objects Classifying objects Placing objects in series Placing objects in series Extending relationships Extending relationships Conservation Conservation Placing Objects in a Series: Arrange objects in ascending or descending order Requires the ability to compare objects mentally and to make logical connections between what they know and what they are learning Extending Relationships Transitivity is the concept that a relative relationship between two objects can extend to a third object EX: If 3 is greater than 2 and 2 is greater than 1, than 3 is greater than 1 Conservation An object has the same characteristics even if there is a change in the way it looks

10 Theories About How Children Learn- Piaget’s Theory Formal Operations Stage: Formal Operations Stage: Starts at about age 11 Starts at about age 11 Develop the ability to think abstractly and to see different sides of an issue Develop the ability to think abstractly and to see different sides of an issue A preteen will use these abstract ways of thinking selectively at first A preteen will use these abstract ways of thinking selectively at first As they gain more experience they will begin to use abstract thinking more As they gain more experience they will begin to use abstract thinking more Abstract Thinking: Imagining hypothetical situations Solving problems by anticipating and preparing for different situations Debating issues Using “if….then” formulas Recognizing societal problems and understand the complex reasons for them

11 Theories About How Children Learn- Vygotsky’s Theory Biological development and cultural experiences both influence the child’s ability to learn Biological development and cultural experiences both influence the child’s ability to learn Children learn best from one another Children learn best from one another Children ages 7 to 11 are learning to evaluate themselves and others Children ages 7 to 11 are learning to evaluate themselves and others Peer and small group activities are vital in the classroom Social activities like clubs, sports teams, and other events are essential

12 Theories About How Children Learn- Montessori’s Theory Montessori’s theory stresses the importance of self-directed learning Montessori’s theory stresses the importance of self-directed learning Teachers should: Teachers should: Provide the needed tools Provide the needed tools Intrude on learning as little as possible Intrude on learning as little as possible In a Montessori classroom, 7 to 12 year olds, might offer a combination of language, history geography, the sciences, and the arts In a Montessori classroom, 7 to 12 year olds, might offer a combination of language, history geography, the sciences, and the arts Group lessons are kept at a minimum as teachers allow children to explore learning in their own way Group lessons are kept at a minimum as teachers allow children to explore learning in their own way Real-life experiences are stressed Real-life experiences are stressed

13 Theories About How Children Learn: Gardner’s Theory Believes learning is multifaceted or many-sided Believes learning is multifaceted or many-sided Educators who have supported Gardner’s way of thinking see their students learning and thinking in different ways every day Educators who have supported Gardner’s way of thinking see their students learning and thinking in different ways every day The more students develop their own intelligences, the greater their skills and knowledge will become The more students develop their own intelligences, the greater their skills and knowledge will become What are some ways you could help students learn from each intelligence? What are some ways you could help students learn from each intelligence? Verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist Verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist

14 Theories About How Children Learn- Sternberg’s Theory Sternberg’s research suggests an answer to why some students who did well in school do not excel in the working world or vise versa Sternberg’s research suggests an answer to why some students who did well in school do not excel in the working world or vise versa The theory proposes that people have varying degrees of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence The theory proposes that people have varying degrees of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence When parents or caregivers encourage all three kinds of intelligences, then all children can show their talents When parents or caregivers encourage all three kinds of intelligences, then all children can show their talents

15 Sternberg’s Theory Analytical Intelligence Abilities to recall, recognize, analyze, compare and contrast, evaluate, and explain problem-solving strategies High analytical children are often considered to be smart because they are good at those types of activities and tests Creative Intelligence Schools that are too focused on improving student knowledge can hinder creativity Is required when children imagine, pretend, invent, and design May not follow directions well and score lower on tests Allow children plenty of free play time Encourage children to be creative

16 Sternberg’s Theory Practical Intelligence “Street Smarts” Quickly assess a problem and the available resources They can figure out the fastest and most practical way to solve a problem Might not be top performers at school but they have the potential to become tomorrows leaders, businesspeople, and politicians Encourage those to volunteer in the community, lead a group project, etc.

17 Chapter 18.2 Learning from 7 to 12

18 Learning Methods A learning method is a way to learn A learning method is a way to learn In order to meet different needs of children, teachers use a variety of learning methods In order to meet different needs of children, teachers use a variety of learning methods The 3 most common learning methods are The 3 most common learning methods are Direct Direct Peer Peer Independent Independent

19 Direct Learning Language-based, or direct learning, is a common learning method for older children Language-based, or direct learning, is a common learning method for older children Children capable of direct learning can get facts and ideas from listening and reading Children capable of direct learning can get facts and ideas from listening and reading Must learn to take notes and read their textbooks on their own Must learn to take notes and read their textbooks on their own Progress in mastering these skills are gradual Progress in mastering these skills are gradual Can be measured through tests, quizzes, and essays Can be measured through tests, quizzes, and essays

20 Peer Learning Peer learning is a learning method in which students interact with one another Peer learning is a learning method in which students interact with one another Work together in pairs, small groups, or as a class Work together in pairs, small groups, or as a class One advantage to peer learning is that it provides an environment in which students may feel less awkward about asking questions or expressing confusion One advantage to peer learning is that it provides an environment in which students may feel less awkward about asking questions or expressing confusion Working on group projects helps students learn to work together cooperatively, to communicate, and to build time- and resource-management skills Working on group projects helps students learn to work together cooperatively, to communicate, and to build time- and resource-management skills

21 Independent Learning Independent learning allows students to work on their own Independent learning allows students to work on their own Lets them use information they gather in a variety of ways Lets them use information they gather in a variety of ways Prepares them for long-term assignments common in high school, college, or the working world Prepares them for long-term assignments common in high school, college, or the working world

22 Middle School- A Time of Transition A 4 th and 9 th grader are not at all alike A 4 th and 9 th grader are not at all alike A 4 th grader works best in small classroom settings with one teacher who is almost like a parent A 4 th grader works best in small classroom settings with one teacher who is almost like a parent Leads them through most of their class work and gives them personal, individual care, and guidance Leads them through most of their class work and gives them personal, individual care, and guidance Know all their classmates and are familiar with their surroundings Know all their classmates and are familiar with their surroundings High school students rotate from class to class all day, changing teachers and classmates High school students rotate from class to class all day, changing teachers and classmates Learning environment is more impersonal and more independent work Learning environment is more impersonal and more independent work

23 Middle School- New Independence and Social Skills Summarize the paragraph into once sentence. Write below.

24 Middle School- Effective Middle Schools Read the paragraph and summarize in one sentence. Write below. Read the paragraph and summarize in one sentence. Write below.

25 The Importance of Parent Involvement Meet the Staff Meet the Staff Talk to the teachers personally Talk to the teachers personally Read messages sent by the school Read messages sent by the school Review the child’s homework Review the child’s homework Help out with school activities Help out with school activities Join the parent’s group Join the parent’s group Talk to the child Talk to the child

26 Intellectual Development Schools often rely on tests to evaluate how well students are developing intellectually and how much knowledge they are gaining. Schools periodically may give standardized tests, which is a test that lets educators see how students are performing compared to thousands of other students who have taken the same tests. What is your feeling or belief of standardized tests? Why?

27 Creating Standardized Tests Teams of scientists and educators design standardized tests for schools Teams of scientists and educators design standardized tests for schools Instructions for giving and scoring tests too Instructions for giving and scoring tests too Before they are used with the masses, they are tested on students and revised. Before they are used with the masses, they are tested on students and revised. Validity Validity It measures what it is supposed to measure It measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability Reliability Tests must be consistent, given to the same age group, again and again with similar results Tests must be consistent, given to the same age group, again and again with similar results Practicality Practicality Cannot be difficult to give, easy to score, affordable Cannot be difficult to give, easy to score, affordable

28 Types of Standardized School Tests There are 3 types given to 7 – 12 year olds to measure how well they can learn, how much they have already learned, and what they might have a special ability or interest in learning There are 3 types given to 7 – 12 year olds to measure how well they can learn, how much they have already learned, and what they might have a special ability or interest in learning These types include: These types include: Learning Ability Test Learning Ability Test Achievement Tests Achievement Tests Aptitude Interest Tests Aptitude Interest Tests

29 Learning Ability Tests Designed to help educators predict how well as student might do in a particular learning situation Designed to help educators predict how well as student might do in a particular learning situation All students take the same tests, tests are scored, then results compared All students take the same tests, tests are scored, then results compared Go by several names Go by several names Intelligence tests, mental ability tests, scholastic aptitude tests (SAT), academic aptitude test Intelligence tests, mental ability tests, scholastic aptitude tests (SAT), academic aptitude test More tests require students to read and write More tests require students to read and write

30 Achievement Tests Used to help measure what students have actually learned about a particular topic or subject Used to help measure what students have actually learned about a particular topic or subject SAT are the most common prevalent standardized tests in schools SAT are the most common prevalent standardized tests in schools Given once per school year Given once per school year Helps lessen anxiety when taking the test for real Helps lessen anxiety when taking the test for real A certain score on these types of tests may be required for graduation A certain score on these types of tests may be required for graduation

31 Aptitude and Interest Tests Offer important measures of people’s talents and preferences Offer important measures of people’s talents and preferences A student who scores high in mathematical aptitude might want to become an engineer or a scientist A student who scores high in mathematical aptitude might want to become an engineer or a scientist Another tests is an interest test which take an interest inventory Another tests is an interest test which take an interest inventory Students select what they like best from different groups or ideas Students select what they like best from different groups or ideas Patterns in their answers are analyzed to see where their interests are strongest Patterns in their answers are analyzed to see where their interests are strongest May give a student an idea of what to go into professionally May give a student an idea of what to go into professionally


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