Presentation on theme: "Establishing and Maintaining a Framework for Student Success West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs."— Presentation transcript:
Establishing and Maintaining a Framework for Student Success West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs
RTI is a framework for delivering instruction that accommodates struggling learners RTI embraces a problem solving mindset Progress monitoring and effective, differentiated instruction are the hallmarks of RTI RTI is both an instructional delivery system and part of the evaluation/eligibility process for identifying students with specific learning disabilities (SLD)
How can the RTI framework support and benefit students who receive their education services through OIEP?
The rationale behind the 3-tier instruction and intervention model The characteristics of progress monitoring and research-based intervention strategies The policy requirements for using the RTI process as a component of a SLD eligibility determination
The relationship between assessment and instruction/intervention The importance of grouping students for specific skills instruction based on assessment data The integral relationship between progress monitoring and intervention planning
Begin with the idea that the purpose of the system is student achievement Acknowledge that student needs exist on a continuum rather than in typological groupings Organize resources to make educational resources available in direct proportion and matched to specific student need David Tilly 2004
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Tier 3: Comprehensive and Intensive Interventions Individual Students or Small Group (2-3) Reading: Scholastic Program, Reading,Mastery, ALL, Soar to Success, Leap Track, Fundations, Read180 1-5% Tier 3: Intensive Interventions Individual Counseling FBA/BIP Teach, Reinforce, and Prevent (TRP) Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 2: Strategic Interventions Students not responding to core curriculum Reading: Soar to Success, Leap Frog, Math Lab, Extended Day Writing: Small Group, CRISS strategies, and “ Just Write Narrative ” by K. Robinson 5-10% Tier 2: Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Small Group Counseling Parent Training (Behavior & Academic) Bullying Prevention Program FBA/BIP Classroom Management Techniques, Professional Development Small Group Parent Training,Data Tier 1: Core Curriculum All students Reading: Core Reading Program Math: Standards-based Math Program Writing: Six Traits Of Writing Project-based Learning 80-90% Tier 1: Universal Interventions All settings, all students Proactive strategies Schoolwide PBS Schoolwide Rules/ Expectations Positive Social Skills Program, Data (Discipline, Surveys, etc.) Professional Development (behavior) Classroom Management Techniques Three Tiered Model of School Supports: Example of an Infrastructure Resource Inventory Students
Improved Student Achievement Identify the Problem Analyze the Problem Select and Provide the Intervention Monitor Progress
PS occurs continually during all tiers of the RTI model
To identify a problem, you need to start with three pieces of data: Expected level of performance (WV CSOs) Student level of performance (assessment results) Peer level of performance
Review the data Work collaboratively to formulate an hypothesis Consider the school setting, student’s educational history, and any other factors that might contribute to low achievement
Accommodations and modifications are NOT interventions. Effective teaching strategies consider both what to teach and how to teach it. Only good instructional decisions will increase student progress. Instruction MUST be matched to the problem skill.
Collect and analyze the data (again) Determine whether or not the student’s progress was sufficient If yes, move to the next skill area within the hierarchy for instruction If no, change the intervention method, intensity, materials, or instructor
Don’t first conclude there is something wrong with the student, suspect there is something that needs to change within or about the instruction.
ScreeningData Analysis Grouping for Instruction/Intervention Design and Implement Interventions Monitor Progress
Screen all students (reading, mathematics, writing, behavior) Analyze the data Group the students for instruction Design interventions that address specific skills Monitor progress and adjust instruction
Where is each student in relation to grade-level curriculum? DIBELS or STAR Reading for elementary reading Basic Reading Inventory, K-12 (Jerry Johns) Acuity for grades 3-8 reading and mathematics AIMSweb for K-8 reading, spelling, mathematics Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) procedures Program-specific assessments (pre-test/post-test measures)
Examine assessment results to determine: ◦ Who’s at benchmark? ◦ Who’s below benchmark? ◦ Who’s significantly below benchmark?
Reading intervention groups are small, 3-5 students for the purposes of: More opportunities to respond More opportunities for corrective feedback More opportunities for explicit, direct, scaffolded instruction Math intervention groups may be larger to facilitate peer interaction and collaboration (8-12 students)
Use the data to match instruction to specific skill needs A particular phonics skill (e.g., r-controlled vowels) A particular comprehension skill (e.g., summarizing) A particular computation skill (e.g. 2-digit subtraction with regrouping across a zero) A particular math problem solving skill (e.g., using inductive reasoning to find missing elements)
The International Reading Association (IRA) says that research-based means “that a particular program or collection of instructional practices has a record of success…there is reliable, trustworthy, and valid evidence to suggest that when the program is used with a particular group of children, the children can be expected to make adequate gains in reading achievement”.
Additional and multiple practice opportunities Explicit, scaffolded instruction Error correction Identification of misconceptions (mathematics) Peer interaction and collaboration
Model I DO Meaningful Practice We Do Independent Performance You Do
Advanced Decoding/Fluency: Rewards and Rewards Plus Read Naturally Quick Reads Vocabulary Isabel Beck strategies (Bringing Words to Life) Vocabulary through Morphemes Comprehension Teaching Reading Sourcebook (CORE) Reading Teacher’s Sourcebook (Vaughn Center) The Master Teacher: Reading Comprehension
Is done every 2-3 weeks (or more often if necessary) to determine intervention effectiveness and student achievement Uses goal-setting Includes graphing of assessment results Guides intervention planning
Goal Intervention I Intervention 2 What does the graph indicate about the intervention? What should happen next? Scores Weeks
Fall (wcpm) Winter (wcpm) Winter 2 (wcpm) Spring (wcpm) Interpretation 52596679High Risk Seriously below grade level 53-7760-8467-9280-110Moderate Risk Moderately below grade level and in need of additional intervention 788593111Low Risk At grade level (Source: The Florida Center for Reading Research, 2003) wpm = words per minute read aloud
GradeFall (wcpm ) Winter (wcpm) Spring (wcpm) 494112123 5110127139 6127140150 Source: J. Hasbrouck & G.A. Tindal, The Reading Teacher, April 2006
1. Multiply the number of weeks available for instruction by the improvement rate chosen (modest, reasonable or ambitious number of words correct/week) 2. Add the total number of words to be gained and the current number of words correct per minute
Susan is a 6 th grader who read 50 words/min correct on November 1. There are 26 weeks left in the school year. 26 weeks x 1.5 words/wk gain = 39 total words gained by end of year 39 words gained + 50 words correct at start = 89 words read correct per minute goal
James is a 5 th grader who read 98 words/min correct on September 5 th. There are 35 weeks left in the school year. 35 weeks x 1.0 words/wk gain = 35 total words gained by end of year 35 words gained + 98 words at start= 133 words read correct per minute goal
Andrew is a 6 th grader who read 62 words per minute on October 1 st. There are 32 weeks left in the school year. Use the formula to calculate a modest, a reasonable and an ambitious goal for Andrew.
Use the assessment data to determine which skill areas must be addressed first Word identification skills must be addressed through explicit instruction Vocabulary instruction includes: ◦ Wide reading to expand word knowledge ◦ Instruction in specific words ◦ Instruction in independent word-learning strategies ◦ Word consciousness Comprehension instruction and strategies use must occur in all content areas
http://wvde.state.wv.us/in struction/aim_literacy.html AIM for Literacy Framework Adolescent Reading Program Components Literacy Leadership Team Creating a Culture of Literacy Assessments Instruction & Intervention Professional Development
Graphic organizers Comprehension monitoring Question generation Expository text structure Cooperative learning Guided, repeated oral reading Modeling fluent reading Repeated, multiple exposures to new vocabulary Direct, explicit instruction Pre-teaching of vocabulary words
There are proven reading comprehension strategies that increase student achievement. These comprehension strategies have not found their way into classrooms… (Schacter, 2006)
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Who? Content area literacy strategies (Globe Fearson) Skills for School Success www.curriculumassociates.com www.curriculumassociates.com Project CRISS (Content literacy strategies from West Ed)
REWARDS (Sopris West) advanced decoding and fluency REWARDS Plus. (Sopris West) applications in social studies, science Read Naturally. Fluency grades 1-8 www.readnaturally.com www.readnaturally.com Soar to Success. Comprehension (Houghton Mifflin) Read About (Scholastic) for upper elementary - comprehension, vocabulary content-area knowledge
Language (Sopris West) www.sopriswest.com/rlink6.aspwww.sopriswest.com/rlink6.asp The REACH System, Corrective Reading (SRA/McGraw-Hill) Fast Track Reading (Wright Group) READ 180 (Scholastic) http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/read180/ http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/read180/ Wilson Reading My Reading Coach http://www.myreadingcoach.co.uk/http://www.myreadingcoach.co.uk/
Instructional explicitness Instructional design that eases the learning challenge A strong conceptual basis for procedures that are taught Sufficient, engaging, and meaningful practice Cumulative review Motivators to help students regulate their attention and behavior (Fuchs, 2008)
3-Tier Instruction Model for Elementary Mathematics
SLD eligibility criteria no longer includes use of the IQ-achievement discrepancy The data collected through the tiered instruction model is a component of a multidisciplinary evaluation for SLD SLD is characterized by: ◦ Achievement that is substantially below grade-level, and ◦ Documented low response to research-based intervention
RTI incorporates instruction into the definition of a learning disability Assessment of learning and progress over time vs. IQ/achievement discrepancy
Level of Learning Rate of Learning Exclusion Factors Validating Underachievement (Policy 2419, Chapter 4, pp. 32-40)
Most information is gathered through the course of the student’s instruction and intervention. ◦ A chronology of the student’s educational history ◦ Benchmark and progress monitoring data ◦ Specific documentation of the nature and intensity of general classroom instruction ◦ Comprehensive documentation of the nature, frequency, and duration of intervention ◦ Additional achievement/performance data ◦ Formal evaluation reports
Purpose: To determine a student’s educational needs and continued eligibility for special education and related services and whether any additions or modifications to the student’s special education are needed to enable the student to meet their IEP goals and participate in the general curriculum
Process: Review existing evaluation data Current IEP and progress toward meeting annual goals Evaluations and information provided by parent/student Current classroom-based, local or state assessments and classroom-based observations Observations by teachers and related service providers Conduct additional evaluations if needed